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The Jew 

and human sacrifice 


The Jew ' 


Human Sacrifice 

[Human Blood and Jewish Rituai] 

An Historical and Sociological Inquiry 



HERMANN L. STRACK, d.d., n.u. 

(Rsgius Profeiior of Theology at Berlin University) 

[Translatfd from thf %th edition With (orrfctiom, new Pre/act 
and additions b'f the author\ 


Loadon : Cope and Fciiwick 

The English iramka'mi by Henry 'Blatuhamp, B.^., tx-icholar of Qhr'ut's 
College, Cambridge 

Entered at Stationers' Hall by Cope and Tenwic\ 
Qopyright in ^imerica by the Block 'Publishing Qo. 



From the Preface to the first Three editions 7 

From the Preface to the Fourth edition 9 

Preface to the Re-written Re-modelled work (5th-8th 

editions) 12 

Preface to the English Translation 17 

I. Introduction — Bibliography 18 

II. Human Sacrifice — "Blood Ritual" 30 

III. Human Blood Serves to Ratify the given word . . 43 

IV. The Blood of other Persons used for Healing 

Purposes 60 

V. Human Blood Cures Leprosy 62 

VI. Utilisation of One's own blood 66 

VII. Blood of Executed Persons : Hangman's Rope . . 70 

VIII. Corpses and Parts of Corpses 77 

IX. Animal Blood 85 

X. Waste and Evacuations of Human and Animal 

Bodies 88 

XT. The Blood Superstition as a Cause of Crime . . 89 

XII. Blood Superstition Among Criminals and its 

Consequences 105 

XIII. Superstition among Dements : Crimes Owing to 

Religious Mania 118 

XIV. What does the Jewish Religious Law say about 
the partaking of Blood and the utilisation of 

portions of Corpses 123 

vi Contents 


XV. Popular Therapeutics of Blood Superstition 

within the Jewish people 132 

XVI. Is the use of Christian Blood required or allowed 

for any rite whatever of the Jewish I'eligion ? . . 147 

XVII. The Austrian Professor and Canon Aug. Rohling . 155 

XVIII. The Pretended Evidence of History for Jewish 

Ritual Murder 169 

XIX. Contradiction of the "Blood Accusation" by 

pious Jews as well as Christians 236 

XX. About the Origin of the "Blood Accusation" . . 275 

INDEX 287 

Be = Berlin Iv = Leipsic 



Every year, especially about Easter- time, there is 
a revival of the accusation that the Jews, or, if not all 
the Jews, certain Jews, make use of the blood of 
Christians for purposes of ritual. The charge is bound 
to be often repeated, so long as the replies to it are 
limited to the contradiction and exposure of the 

falsity of the reasons brought forward That 

is why I discuss the accusation in connection with the 
significance of blood as regards religious belief, and par- 
ticularly as regards the superstitions of humanity at 

I expressed my opinion on the question, whether 
the Jews use Christian blood for ritual purposes, as far 
back as 1882, the year of the Tisza-Eszlar trial, in the 
Evangelische Kirchen-Zeitung (12th August, No. 32). 

Further investigations (apropos of the 

Bernstein case, v.p. 144 sq.) convinced me more than 
two years ago, that, whilst I was correct in my nega- 
tive "answer to the charge, it was possible, and even 
necessary, to base it upon a deeper foundation. I am 
now compelled to publish the results of my fresh 
researches by the renewal of the controversy about 
ritual murder in consequence of the assassination of 
an eight year old girl in Corfu during the night of the 
12th to 13th April this year (v.p. S13 sq.) ... I have 
made it my special business to let the facts speak for 
themselves, and have almost confined 

viii Preface 

myself to quoting, without alteration, the actual state- 
ments in the sources of information I have utilised : 
so anybody who wishes can arrive at an unbiassed 
judgment for himself. 

The facts I have had to bring forward are, for the 
greater part, of a very loathsome kind. But, in order 
to cure the terrible disease of superstition, we must 
first of all know the disease. . . . My exhortation to 
our Christian priesthood, to our whole Christian 
people is: Up and gird yourself for battle, not only 
against unbelief, but also against superstition ! When 
German Christendom, free from superstition, stands 
firm in true belief in the crucified Saviour, risen from 
the dead, the question, so far as concerns Germany, 
whether Christian blood is ritually employed by 
Jews, will be exploded and futile, for more reasons 
than one. 
2 July, 1891. H. L. Strack. 



I have occasion to be thankful for the success of 
this volume. Most of the journals which used 
formerly to talk about "Jewish blood-ritual" and 
"Jewish ritual murder," have been for several 
months gradually exchanging those phrases for 
"Jewish blood-murder," "Jewish blood-supersti- 
tion," avoiding direct reference to ritual. However, 
they still try to prove to their readers, that blood- 
murder and cases of blood-superstition are peculiar to 
Judaism, and so they keep alive the idea that there 
must be something ritual behind it all. 

Still, the charge against the Jews of using human 
blood is considerably less effective than it was up till 
now. Accordingly, those persons who formerly em- 
ployed it with great success as a means of getting up 
an agitation, have abundantly emptied the vials of 
their wrath over me, who, if I have not yet killed it, 
have yet deadened its effect a great deal. In particu- 
lar, O. Bachler (of the Staatsburger-Zeitung) , Balla (of 
Das Volk), and E. Bauer (of the Neue Deutsche 
Zeitung), have dared shamelessly to calumniate me as 
a scholar, as a man and as a Christian, although they 
knew the truth, or could have ascertained it without 
any trouble. Nor did it suffice them to utter the 
falsehood that Prof. Strack was hardly acquainted 
with the elements of Hebrew grammar, and only 
knew about the Talmud what the Rabbis had stuffed 
him with; they had actually the effrontery to pre- 

X Preface 

sume that I was receiving monej^ from Jewish 
quarters for my writings. Attempts are even made 
to alienate from me the trust of my students, to 
influence whom, for the benefit of our Evangelical 
Church and our German fatherland, is both a heart- 
felt need and a consolation to me in a life full of cares. 
Were I descended from Abraham on my father's or 
my mother's side, I should not have to blush. How- 
ever, as it has been tried to fasten suspicion on me in 
that respect also, I here affirm that all my ancestors 
were of pure "Christian-German" descent, the men 
mostly clergymen or teachers 

In order to render the calumniations of myself 
and the continuance of the blood-accusation extremely 
impressive, the three persons named (together with 
Carl Paasch and Normann-Schumann), after exalting 
the Osservatore Cattolico, a paper which appears in 
Milan, to the dignity of a " universal organ of the 
Vatican," sent the stuff that suited their purposes to 
Milan, and transferred it thence into their papers! 
As the statements had been published in such a 
"highly esteemed foreign journal," readers must be 
at once convinced of their truth ! . . . . 

If, on the discovery of a crime, distinct external 
indications do not point to the perpetrator, inquiries 
must be made into the possible motive for the deed. 
Avarice, lust, revenge, jealousy, are motives known 
to every coroner, and about which, in any given case, 
he inquires in due course. But he ought likewise not 
to omit to ask whether the motive might not have 
been a superstitious one. On pp. 89 sq. I have given 
numerous examples proving that blood-superstition 
has often been a cause of crime. An accurate know- 
ledge of superstitions will not seldom lead to the 
discovery of the criminal, and in other cases prevent 
following up a false scent. I may therefore recom- 
mend this work to the attention of lawyers. 

Preface xi 

It is yet more requisite for clergymen and teachers 
to pay heed to the truths propounded in this book. 
He who has had the good fortune to grow up in a 
God-fearing family, very often learns nothing about 
either the ])arbarity and vices or the superstitions of 
other social strata, and therefore readily believes it 

to be all harmless or even denies its existence I 

have now therefore pointed out, even more emphati- 
cally than in the original edition, that superstition, 
especially the '' blood- superstition,'' is even nowadays 
very wide- spread, and that it has had in the past, as it 
has in the present, deplorable, yes and horrible, con- 

18th Oct., 1892. H. L. Strack. 

WORK (5th— 8th EDITIONS) 

Untruth does not become truth by frequent 
repetition. But as long as it is repeated, it is a duty 
incumbent on him who claims to be a champion of 
truth, knowledge, and justice, to be continually ex- 
posing the falsehood of his opponents' assertions, and 
to state the real truth of the matter. Silence cannot 
be refuted, and the endeavour to kill the defender 
of truth by its adoption is only too general. If then 
the protagonist of truth were actually silent and did 
not show his power at all, how much more would not 
conclusions be drawn therefrom against the cause 
championed by him ! For my part I shall not keep 
silent, so long as I can still wield the sword of mind, 
and I am also taking measures that my words may be 
known to those whom they are intended to influence. 

I had indeed hoped, after my exposure of the 
" blood-falsehood " in 1892, to be able to devote myself 
entirely to different duties: what an enormous task 
the last decades have imposed upon those investiga- 
tors of the Old Testament who, rightly, consider the 
essence of the old faith reconcilable with serious 
scientific work 1 and how important it is to show that a 
knowledge of Jewish literature can be acquired not 
only by Jewish scholars, but also by at least a few 
Christians ! And my hope seemed to be well-founded, 
since Aug. Rohling thought it best to answer by 
silence my crushing attack on him (ch. 17) ! Whilst 
those who had till then calumniated me, viz., Bach- 

PREij'ACE xiii 

ler, Balla, and 13auer, made, so far as I was aware, no 
further attempt to besmirch my good name. 
Albertario's Ossermtore Cattolico {y. pp. 170 seq.) had 
whimperingly appealed for help in the Neue Deutsche 
Zeitung,^ and got none, because the few German 
scholars, who had till then assumed the possibility of 
ritual murders, recognised that they would put their 
honour in the pillory if they attempted to give such 
assistance. Bauer's Neue Deutsche Zeitung collapsed 
in Leipsic, and the Volk, unfit for the struggle of life 
in Berlin, fled into a corner. Abbe David Albertario 
was condemned in 1898 to three years' loss of liberty 
on account of revolutionary disturbances. Carl 
Paasch, the author of " Eine jiidisch-deutsche Ges- 
andtschaft und ihre Heifer," L. 1891 (965 pp.) was 
recognised, also by a Court of Law, as being no longer 
responsible for his actions. Robert Normann-Schu- 
mann, who tried to press himself upon me in 1885, 
and who, later on, taking pay simultaneously both 
from Anti-semites and Jews, deceived both of them, 
thought it advisable, when he was prosecuted for 
lese-majeste, and feared the discovery of other inci- 

* 15 Oct. 1892, No. 241 : " The following appeal from tbe editor of 
the Osservatore Cattolico in Milan reaches us, with the request to 
publish it:— 'As soon as Prof. H. Strack shall have published the 
brochure announced by him, we intend to reply to it by a compre- 
hensive refutation. Thanks to the kindness of some readers and 
the ardour which our co-workers have displayed in this campaign, 
we already possess considerable material for proving the existence 
of Jewish ritual murder — in cases, which can be attested by wit- 
nesses who are still Jiving (Alb. refers, e.g., to the Eisleben case! 
y.p. 218). Nevertheless it would be very useful if readers 
in foreign parts, by contributing fresh evidence, were to prove their 
interest in these highly-important polemics. In all cases they may 
certainly rely upon the strictest discretion ( !). We know that there 
are still in private libraries and other collections important MSS. 
on the subject, which should no longer be withheld from publicity. 
Any contribution, any suggestion, any explanation is welcome. . . . 
We also beg all Christian editors to make this appeal known.' " 

The Neue Deutsche Zeitung, the Staatshurger-Zeitung, Berlin, 16 
Oct., No. 485, the Neue Preussische Zeitung (at that time still the 
organ of the ill-reputed Freiherr v. Haminerstein), 18 Oct., No. 
487, and other papers did their best to circulate the appeal. 

xiv Preface 

dents in his career, to go and live quietly in hiding 
in free Switzerland. Paulus Meyer {v.'p. 1^8 and yjp. 
224 sq.) who was hired to traduce me, had to undergo 
severe terms of imprisonment owing to libels and 
insults he had uttered. 0. Bachler alone was in a 
position publicly to continue to deviate consciously 
from the truth {v. p. 218). 

My hope, however, proved to be mistaken. The 
"blood-accusation" appeared such an effective 
means of exciting the populace that the anti-semites 
were constantly tempted to make misuse of the word. 
At the end of March, 1899, a favourable opportunity 
was afforded by the murder of Agnes Hruza, at Polna 
{v-jj]). 228 sq.). It did not matter to the un-Christian 
people, who called themselves Christians, whether 
the murderer were discovered or the suspicion 
resting on Hilsner were seriously probed ; but 
Dr. Baxa, who was nominally counsel for the 
murdered girl's mother, was to assume and prove 
ritual murder. But he only proved his disgraceful 
ignorance. For example, according to an abstract of 
the shorthand report, which reached me a few days 
ago, he made, besides other falsehoods, the following 
statement : " And I ask whether Dr. Auredni6ek 
(Hilsner's counsel) knows the declaration of the 
Rabbi Vital, that the coming of the Messiah will be 
hastened by the blood of sacrificed Gentile virgins, or 
whether he knows it is stated in the first book of the 
Sohar, that the fourth, the best palace shall be in- 
habited by those who have killed Akums, i.e., 
Christians; whether he knows the assertion of the 
Rabbi Eliken (read: 'Elieser'), that all Gentile 
nations are mere brute beasts."* 

* Baxa got this rubbish out of Rohliug's " Polemik u. Menschenop- 
fer," Paderborn, 1883, 58, 72, 75; Cf. in my book p. 157, pp. 161 
sq. As to the description of Gentiles as beasts v. J. Kopp, " Zur 
Judenfrage," 107-118; Bloch, " Acten " I., 253-263. That the 
expression " Akum " is entirely an invention of the critics is shown 
in my " Einleitung in den Talmud," 4th Edition, Leipsic 1908, p. 

Preface xv 

The unrest caused by this trial, especially in 
Austria and South Germany, has compelled me to 
postpone the revised edition of my " Einleitung in den 
Talmud," which has been out of print for a long 
time, and to expose anew the "blood-falsehood." My 
book in its present form will be convincing to all who 
have not, out of racial hatred, made up their minds 
to maintain the truth of the "blood-accusation" 
against the Jews, despite all refutation. It is in great 
part a new book. Most of the contents of chapters 
18—20 have been re-w^ritten ; it was important to show 
that history affords us no evidence of " Jewish ritual- 
murder," and that the most eminent Popes and tem- 
poral rulers have emphatically declared against the 
"blood-charge," that no single Pope has counten- 
anced it. The first part, too, has been considerably 
augmented. I am certain that now, besides ecclesi- 
astics, teachers, and state attorneys, even professional 
Folklorists W'ill be able to learn and get stimulus from 

I have had to include in my purview very varied 
domains of human knowledge, and the procuring of 
the material has cost much time and labour; e.g., in 
order to be in a position to make a trustworthy state- 
ment with regard to J. E. Veith's oath {py. 245 sq.), I 
had to write some fifteen letters. I am the more 
heartily grateful to Professors Dr. Ludwig Freytag, 
Dr. Otto Hirschfeld, Dr. med. J. L. Pagel, who are all 
in Berlin, and others, in that they have answered 
several questions of mine, and have suggested many 
improvements in this work. To this expression of 
thanks I add the request that those who are in a 
position to complete, to corroborate, or to confirm by 
their own experience the statements here made 
public, may not shrink from the trou])le of sending 
me in that connection as precisely accurate a com- 
munication as may be possible. Even a paragraph 

xvi Preface 

that appears unimportant in itself may acquire value 
by its context. 

My publicly entering the lists on behalf of my 
conviction, and particularly my refutation of the 
calumnies against the Jewish religion,^ has procured 
me not only abuse in the daily Press, but also serious 
material damage. But I am none the less assured 
that it is my duty to go on as before. During the last 
months, I had to contend against the feelings of pain 
and disgust occasioned by all the horrors and deeds 
of horror, about which I had to write even more in the 
fifth edition than in the preceding. But I then 
reflected that the esteem in which both the Christian 
religion and our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ are 
held among the Jews, had suffered severely, owing 
to the aforesaid calumnies, and especially owing to 
the "blood-accusation " against them. I knew it to 
be my sacred duty as a Christian theologian to do 
everything in my power to compass the conviction in 
Israel that Jesus does not desire falsehood but truth, 
not hatred but love : He makes them just who truly 
believe in Him, and He is worthy that mankind 
should bend their knees in His name. 

May my fight against untruthfulness and super- 
stition at any rate help towards the furthering of 
peace and a purer knowledge of God upon earth ! 

Gross-Lichterfelde, nr. Berlin, 18 Feb., 1900. 

* 1 emphasise the word "religion," and refer to my brochure, "Die 
Juden dtirfen sie 'Verbrecher von Religionswegen' genannt 
werden?" L. 1893 (30 pp.) J. C. Hiurichs. I add with satisfaction 
that several German courts of justice later on gave decisions in 
accord with my demand in the pamphlet, and above all, the spread- 
ing of the "Talmud-campaign" in Bavaria has been made 
punishable at law. 


This translation, which is the worlv of Mr. H. F. E. 
Blanchamp, is in many respects superior to the 
German original. I have not only cancelled many 
paragraphs of only temporary or local importance, 
but carefully revised the whole, and added a good 
deal of new material — vide especially chapters xviii 
and XX. So I hope my book will make its way in 
English-speaking lands, and help to discredit the pro- 
pagation of the abominable blood-accusation. The 
work of remodelling went greatly against the grain, 
but "to him that knoweth to do good, and doeth it 
not, to him it is sin " (James iv, 17). 

I am not a " Philo-semite " in the now generally 
accepted sense of the word. I have even been 
slandered as an " Anti-semite." As a Christian 
theologian, I wish simply to serve the truth, for the 
sake of my Lord, who is "the way, the truth, and the 

Hermann L. Strack. 

Grosslichterfelde West, near Berlin, 
March 7th, 1909. 



The exceeding importance of blood in life has 
doubtless been evident to mankind from remotest 
times, seeing that it was inculcated by frequently 
recurring experiences, e.g., in butchering and in hunt- 
ing. Man himself has a feeling of weakness after 
losing much blood, and if he loses more than a certain 
quantity of blood, life itself ceases. 

The knowledge of this high value of blood gave 
rise, firstly, to bloody sacrifices (a living being is the 
greatest sacrifice), especially human sacrifices (Ch. 
2) ; secondly, to symbolical* acts (Ch. 3) ; thirdly, to 
the conviction that extraordinary effects are procured 
by blood, particularly the human, but also animal 
blood (Chas. 4-7, 9). Closely connected with this con- 
viction is the other, that wonderful powers belong to 
the human body, also to the corpse, and its parts 
(Ch. 8) ; especially to the body of one who has died a 
violent death, e.g. of an executed person and a suicide 
(Ch. 7) ; and, further, to that of an innocent human 
being, e.g., a little child, especially an unborn, and a 
virgin (Chas. 11-12). Therewith is connected the use 
of the bodies, bodily parts and evacuations of animals 
for healing and other purposes (Ch. 10). Another first 
element, especially when there is blood adhering, is 
the fatal knife or sword. 

To what results, often hideously outrageous to 

* Cf. J. B. Friedreich, "Die Symbolik und Mythologie der Natur," 
Wiirzburg, 1859, 676-684; P. Cassel, "Die Symbolik des Blutes 
und Der arme Heinrich von Hartmann von Aue," Be. 1882 (265). 

Bibliography 19 

present-day reasoning and feelings of decorum, such 
ideas have led, is shown in the " Curieuse, Neue . . . 
iTauss-Apothec, Wie man durch seine eigne bey sich 
habende Mittel, als dem Blut, dem Urin, Hinter-und 
Ohren-Dreck, Speichel und andren natiirlichen 
geringen Mitteln, seine Gesundheit erhalten, fast alle 
selbst vor incurabel gehaltene Kranckheiten .... 
heilen, und sein Leben, vermittelst Gottes Gnade . . . 
conserviren moge und konne .... Von einem Lieb- 
haber der Medicin. Frankfurth am Mayn, 1699" 
(316), p. 33:— 

" Der Mensch, das Ehenbild, ist Gott selbst angenehm, 
Hat vierundzwanzig Stilck zu7' Arzenei hequem, 
Bein,^ Mark,^ die HirnschaV' samt derselhen Moos'^ ist gut, 
Das Fleisch^ und Fett,^ die Haut,'^ Haar,^ Harn,^ Hirn,'^^ 

Herz^^ und Blut,^^ 
Die Gall,^^ die Milch,^'^ der Kot,^^ der Schweiss^^ und auch 

der Stein,^'' 
Das gelhe Schmalz,^^ so in den Ohren 'pflegt zu sein, 
Die 'Ndgel,^'^ Syeichel,'^^ audi die Nachgehurt^^ ist gut, 
Der Uelm,^'^ der Samen^^ und menstruo si sokes'^ Blut."* 

Much of the contents of the book forms even now 
matter for popular belief in most parts of Germany, 
Cf. especially: 
A. WuTTKE, " Der Deutsche Volksaherglaule der Gegen- 

wart'' Third Edition, by E. H. Meyer. Be. 1900 

E. L. RocHHOLz, " Deutscher Glaube und Branch im 

Spiegel der heidnischen Vorzeit, I. (Deutscher Un- 

sterblichkeit s glaube. y Be., 1867 (335). 

* Roughly translated as follows : 

" Now man, God's likeness, pleasing to His sight. 
Hath four and twenty items for med'cine suited quite. 
Bone, marrow, skull, and eke its pulp are good, 
The flesh and fat, the skin, hair, urine, brain, heart, blood, 
The gall, the milk, the dung, the sweat, and eke the stone, 
The yellow wax, which in the ears doth find a home, 
The nails, the spittle, and the after-birth are good, 
The caul, the semen, and the menstrual blood." 

20 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

U. Jahn, " Zauber mit Menschenblut und anderen Teilen 

des menschlichen Korpers ' ' (in " V erhandlungen der 

Berliner anthropologischen Gesellschaft," 1888, 130- 

M. R. Buck, " Medicinischer Volksglauben und Volksa- 

hei'glauhen aus Schwaben." Ravensberg, 1865 (72). 
Flugel, " Volksmedizin und Aberglaube im Franken- 

walde." Munich, 1863 (81). 
G. Lammert, " Volksmedizin und medizinischer A ber- 

glaube in Bay em und den angrenzenden Bezirken." 

Wilrzburg, 1869 (274). 
M. HoFLER, " Volksmedizin und Aberglaube in Oberbay- 

erns Gegenwart und Vergangenlieit." Munich, 1888. 

A new edition in 18V 3 (244). " I^cls Jahr im ober- 

bayerischen Volksleben mit besonderer Berucksichti- 

gung der Volksmedicin." Munich, 1899 (48), 4°. 
V. FossEL, " Volksmedicin und 7nedicinischer Aberglaube 

in SteiermarkV Graz, 1886 (172). 
J. GoLDSCHMiDT, '' Skizzcn aus der Mappe eines Arztes. 

Volksmedicin im Nordwestlichen Deutschland" 

(Oldenburg). Bremen, 1854 (157). 
L. Strackerjan, "Aberglaube und Sagen aus dem Her- 

zogthum Oldenburg.'' Two vols. Oldenburg, 1867 

(422 and 366). 
'{]. Jahn, " Hexenwesen und Zauberei in Pommern." 

Breslau, 1886 (196). 
W. J. A. V. Tettau and J. D. H. Temme, " Die Volkssagen 

Ostpreussens, Litthauens und Westpreussens." Be., 

1837 (255-286: " Meinungen und Gebrduche.'' ) 
M. ToppEN, " Aberglauben aus Masuren.^'' Dantzig, 1867 

H. Frischbier, " Hexenspruch und Zauberbann. Ein 

Beitrag zur Geschichte des A berglaubens in der Pro- 

vinzP reus sen.'' Be., 1870(167). 
E. Lemke, " Volksthilmliches in Ostpreussen." Three 

volumes. Mohrungen, 1884, 1887 (190 and 203). 

Allenstein, 1899 (184). 

Bibliography 21 

W. Mannhardt, " Die "praktischen Folgen des Aherglau- 
bens, mit hesonderer' Beriicksichtigung der Provinz 
Preussenr Be., 1878 (88). 

The following should not remain without men- 
tion in this connection : — 

Albertus Magnus [ !], " Bewdhrte und ayyrobirte sym'pa- 
thetische und natiirliche Geheimnisse filr Menschen 
und Vieh." Reutlingen, 1874. (Cf. Am Urds- 
Brunnen //., 88-90, 96-8, 175-7, 222; III., 134-5, 
141-3; Ur-Quell, 1893, 279). 
" Das 6 und 7. Buck Mo sis, d. i. Mosis magische Gei- 
sterkunst. . . . nacli einer alien Handschrift" [!]. 
Often, e.g. Philadelfhia [f], 1888 (79). 
*'Geheim- und Symimthiemittel des alien Schdfe^' 
Thomas,'' 14 jmris, Aliona, 1858-76.— '' Des alien 
Schdfer Thomas enihilllie Geheim- und Sympaihiemii- 
tel,''^ Reutlingen, 1875 (64).— ' 91 Geheim- und 
Sympathiemittel des alien Schdfe?' Thomas,'' new, re- 
vised edition. Magdeburg, 1867. 
See for the period of the middle ages, H. B. 
Schindler, "Der Aberglaube des Mittelalters. Ein 
Beitrag zur Culturgeschichte." Breslau, 1858 (379). 
Espcly. 163-193, 129, 130, 225; pp. xi. to xxii. contain 
a detailed bibliography. 

An abundance of relevant material taken from 
different nations and periods is contained in Am 
Ur-Quell. Monatschrift fur Volkkunde, Hamburg, 
1890-5; later Der Urquell, Leiden, 1897-8, published 
by F. S. Krauss (during 1881-9 the title was Am Urds- 

The more im.portant articles in Votume III. (1892) : H. F. 
Feilberg, " Toienfeiische im Glauben nordgerma- 
nischer Volker " (blood-magic, blood of executed 
persons as cure for eijilepsy, love-magic, blood as a 
remedy. Spittle, sweat, skulls, the thieves' candle. 
Bones ; hearts, esj^ecially of unborn children ; human 
skin. Human flesh, after-birth, etc.). — B. W. 

22 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

ScHiFFER, " Totenfetische hei den Polen " (healing 
and magic "power of corpses, of their parts, of blood 
as well as of animal bones; blood of living people, 
blood of the Saviour and consecrated ivafers, thieves' 
superstitions, coffin and other things pertaining to 
corpses; cloth connected with corpse, rope of a hanged 
person, straw connected with corpse ; snakes and other 
animals). — H. v. Wlislocki, " Menschenblut im 
Glauben der Zigeuner'' (love-magic, thieves' super- 
stitions, healing of diseases, Jews. There are also 
described well-attested occurrences in the most recent 
times). P. 93 : " The South-Hungarian gypsies believe 
that Jews and Greek-Oriental priests smear their 
beards ivith human blood, to make them long and 
thick.'" — Th. Achelis, " IJeber den Zaubermit Blut u. 
Korperteilen von Menschen und Tier en." — J. Sem- 
BRZYCKi, '' Ostpreussische Haus- und Zaubermittel." 
(Cf. I., 136-8, and Altpreussische Monatsschrift, 
1889, 491-501).— 'K. Ed. Haase, '' Volksmedizin" 
(Mark of Brandenburg c. 1598). — 0. Screll, "Ueber 
den Zauber mit dem menschlichen Kmyer u. dessen 
einzelnen Teilen im Bergischen." — A. F. Dorfler, 
"Das Blutim magyarischen Volksglauben." — Vol.iv. 
(1893): A. F. Chamberlain, ''Zauber mit mensch- 
lichem Blut u. dessen Ceremonialgebrauch bei den 
Jndianern Amerikas" ; v. also V., 90-2. — 0. Schell, 
" Volksmedizin im Bergischen." — H. Volksmann, 
" Schleswig-Holsteinische Haus- u. Zaubermittel. — 
Vols. V. and VI. : A. Haas, " Das Kind im Glauben 
u. Branch der Pommern." — Urquell /. (1897): 
VuKASOVic u. Dragicevic, " Siidslavische Volks- 
medizin." — J. Bock, " Volksmedizin aus Niederos- 
"Melusine, Recueil de mythologie, litterature 
populaire, traditions et usages, publie par H. Gaidoz 
and E. Rolland," Paris 4°. I. (1878); II. (1884-5); III. 
(1886-7), etc. Here may be mentioned the very long 

Bibliography 23 

essay, "La fascination," by J. Tuchmann, vol. 

F. S. Krauss, " Sitte unci Branch der Sudslaven," 
Vienna, 1885 (681); " Volksglaube und religioser 
Branch der Siklslaven," Miinster, 1890 (176). 

H. V. Wlislocki, " Aus dem inneren Leben der 
Zigeuner," Be. 1892, 75-98 ; " Blutzauber." (It would 
be'lvorth the trouble closely to compare what has been 
testified in regard to the gypsies with what has been 
deposed about the Jews. ^ There have presumably 
been plagiarisms on the part of both classes of " globe- 
trotters"); "Volksglaube u. religioser Branch der 
Zigeuner," Miinster, 1892 (184). "Aus dem Volks- 
leben der Magyaren," Munich, 1893 (183); "Volks- 
glaube u. relig. Branch der Magyaren," Munich, 1893 
(171) ; " Volksglaube u. Volksbrauch der Siebenbtirger 
Sachsen," Weimar-Be., 1893 (212) (Cf. Urqiiell, 1893, 69 
sq.; 98-100). 

/. Haltrich, " Zur Volkskunde der Siebenbiirger 
Sachsen." A new edition revised by J. Wolff, Vienna, 
1885 (535). 

Nicholas Leinery, " Traite universel des drogues," 
Paris, 17U.~L. F. Sauye, "Remedes populaires et 
superstitieux des montagnards vosgiens," in "Melu- 
sine," III., 278 sq. 

.4. de Cock, " Volksgeneeskunde in Vlaanderen," 

Ghent, 1891. 

M. Bartels, "Die Medizin der Naturvolker," L., 

1893 (361). 

A. Loicenstvmm, " Aberglaube und Strafrecht. Ein 
Beitrag zur Erforschung des Einflusses der Volksan- 
schauungen auf die Veriibung von Verbrechen," Be., 
1897 (232). 136-147: " Die Volksmedizin." (From the 
Russian. The author brings forward a large amount 
of material, especially for Chapters 11, 12 of the pre- 
sent book, but does not quite sufficiently examine 
into the causes of the phenomena.) 

24 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

According to the reports of recent travellers, there 
would be no difficulty in collecting, particularly from 
Africa, parallels and complements of the contents of 
the first part of this work. 

C, V. Hovorka and A. Kronfeld, " Vergleichende 
Yolksmedizin. Eine Darstellung volksmedizinischer 
Sitten und Gebrauche, Anschauungen und Heilfak- 
toren, des Aberglaubens und der Zaubermedizin," 
Stuttgart, 1908. 2 vols. 

The "popular medicine" notions enumerated in 
these books and essays, and similar ones elsewhere, 
go back to very ancient times. Cf. in the first place 
the Ebers papyrus, which was written in the sixteenth 
century b.c, but is far older in its contents. " Papyrus 
Ebers. Das hermetische Buch iiber die Arzneimittel. 
Published by G. Ebers " (L., 1875; done into German 
by H. Joachim, Be., 1890). It names as ingredients 
of Egyptian medicaments: (a) blood; dried blood; 
the blood of the ox, the ass, the dog, the pig, and of 
other animals, but not of man. (b) Flesh; living 
flesh ; fresh flesh ; putrid flesh ; flesh of a living ox. 
(c) Milk; human milk; women's milk; milk of a 
woman who has borne a boy. (d) Semen ; semen of 
the 'm'm: and of the 'm'mt (?), 88, 7. (e) Ordure; 
ordure of man, crocodile, cat, dog, ass, gazelle, etc. 
Menstrual blood was not used ; the same is probably 
true of the urine (but Cf. Ermans "Aegypten und 
agypt. Leben im Altertum," Tubingen, 1887, 486).— 
Cf. as well A. Wiedemann, " Das Blut im Glauben der 
alten Aegypter " (Ur-Quell, 1892, 113-6). 

Cf. especially the commencement of Book 28 of 
the important Natural History of C. Plinius Secundus, 
who perished in 79 a.d. at the eruption of Vesuvius. 
A contemporary of his was the physician Xenocrates 
of Aphrodisias, about whom the renowned Claudius 
Galenus of Pergamos (131-200 a.d.) gives the follow- 

Bibliography 25 

ing account* :—" He described, as from personal 
experience, with much bokiness, what ills could be 
cured by the use of human brain, flesh and liver; or, 
again, the bones of the human skull, fibula, and 
fingers, some burnt, some unburnt; or, lastly, by the 
use of blood. ... He writes also what effect dung 
may have, if it is smeared on wounds and into the 
oesophagus, and is swallowed. He speaks also of the 
internal use of ear-wax. . . . The most nauseous, 
however, is the dung and the drinking of the menses. 
. . . Less abominable is the outward application 
of excrement or of sperma. Xenocrates distinguishes 
with great nicety the potential effects of sperma by 
itself, or of the sperma which flows out of the vagina 
after coitus." Galen goes on to relate that doctors 
employ the blood of pigeons, owls, cocks, lambs, and 
goats, but declares that these and many other 
remedies taken from the animal kingdom are partly 
directly rejectable, partly superflous, since there are 
numerous well-tested remedies. 

I was at first of the opinion that the anonymous 
" Hauss-Apothec " was merely the expression of the 
beliefs which at that time obtained in popular medi- 
cine; but in 1892 I convinced myself that its contents 
were believed in among wide circles of PHYSICIANS 
even after the middle of the eighteenth century. 

Take such a book as the " Neu-Vermehrte, Heil- 
same Dreck-Apotheke, wie nemlich mit Koth und Urin 
Fast alle, ja auch die schwerste gifftigste Kranck- 
heiten, und bezauberte Schaden,vom Haupt bis zun 
Ftissen, inn- und ausserlich, gliicklich curiret wor- 
den; Durch und durch mit allerhand curieusen, so 
ntitz- als ergetzlichen Historien und Anmerckungen, 

* "Ilcpt rwv aTrXwv (fiapfxaKOiv (cpao-cw? koi Svi/a/iew?," xi, 1. Opera ed. 
C. G. Kilhn XII. (L. 1826), 249 sq. ; done into German in L. 
I xraelso??, " Die 'materia medica ' des Klaudios Galenos," Juryew 
(Dorpat), 1894, 176. 

26 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

auch andern Feinen Denckwiirdigkeiten, Abermals 
bewahrt, und iim ein merckliches vermehrt, 
und verbessert. Von Kristian Frantz Paullini. 
Franckfurt ain Mayn, 1697 " (420 and 207 pp.).* This 
work is now regarded almost exclusively as a 
characteristic example of a dirty and ridiculous 
superstition which died out two centuries ago. But 
the assumption is wrong. For the author, who was 
born 25th February, 1643, received, after prolonged 
medical studies and much travelling, an honourable 
invitation to a professorship at Pisa, which only 
illness obliged him to decline. Later, after he had 
practised in Hamburg and in Holstein, he became 
body physician and historiographer to Bishop 
Christoph Bernhard in Miinster, and remained in that 
position till the death of his patron in 1678. He then 
stayed in Wolfenbiittel and Hameln, till in 1689 he 
was appointed physician to his native town, Eisen- 
ach ; he died as such on 10th June, 1712. As regards 
his busy literary activity in the domains of poetic 
art, natural science and medicine, and also historical 
research, I refer to /. Moller, " Cimbria literata II.," 
(Copenhagen, 1744), 622-633, and K. F. H. Marx, "Zur 
Beurtheilung cles Arztes Christian Franz Paullini," 
Gottingen, 1872 (39). (" Abhandlungen der Got- 
tinger Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, vol. 18.") 
Among other things, the latter says : " Medicine takes 
a different shape with almost ever^T- century; so the 
remains of the past, however fantastic, should not 
be regarded as contemptible," and P.'s name deserved 
to be mentioned " as that of a thinking, learned, well- 
meaning doctor, and one of the most industrious men 
of his time." 

Joh. Chr. Schroder (1600-1664, Cf. Poggendorf, 

* The first edition: " Heilsame Dreck-Apotheke " (Frankfort a. M. 
1696) is not within my reach. A third edition appeared in 1713. 

Bibliography 27 

" Biographisch-litter. Worterbuch zur Geschichte der 
exakten Wissenschaften," II., 843), a physician of 
"Westphalian origin, who practised in Frankfort a. 
Main, compiled a thesaurus of drugs, which was 
commented on by Friedr. Hoffmann, the elder, a 
physician in Halle (d. 1675) : " Clavis pharmaceutica 
Joh. Schroederi cum thesauro pharmaceutico (Halle, 
1681)." A German translation first appeared in 
Nuremberg, 1685. Its second edition consists of a folio 
covering more than 1,500 pages: " Vollstandige und 
Nutzreiche iVpotheke. Das ist: D. Johannis Schroederi 
treflich-versehener Medicin-Chymischer hochstkost- 
bahrer Artzney-Schatz Nebst D. Friderici Hoffmanni 
darliber verfassete herrliche Anmerckungen als eine 
Grund-Feste beybehalten: So nun aber . . . aus 
denen itziger Zeit Fiirtrefilichen und Berlihmtesten 
Medicorum und anderer Gelahrtesten . . . Schriff- 
ten .... Zusammengetragen und vermehret. 
. . . Auf vieles und unablassiges Verlangen Teut- 
scher Nation zu sonderem Nutzen eroffnet von G. D. 
Koschivitz, M.D.S.P.," Nuremberg, 1693 (Koschwitz is 
presumably the Georg Daniel Koschwitz who died in 
Halle, 1729, Professor of Medicine).— Ch. 33 of Book 
II. (pp. 82 sq.), which treats of the chemist's shops, 
is headed: "On the blood." The text observes: "In 
the chemist's shops one certainly finds no blood; 3-et 
it is customary at times to use them (bloods), especi- 
ally when they are still fresh," and there follows an 
enumeration of various bloods : of ducks, geese, asses, 
dogs, pigeons, horses, goats, men, menstruating 
women, hares, partridges, oxen and turtle-doves. — 
In Book v., the " iVnimal science," is a 20-page section 
devoted to man. It begins p. 31: "The natural 
apothecary articles. These are taken either from the 
still living body, and are : ^The hairs, Hhe nails, Hhe 
spittle, Hhe ear-wax, Hhe sweat, Hhe milk, ^the 
menstrual blood, Hhe after-birth, 'the urine, ^°the 

28 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

excrement, ^^the semen, ^^the blood, ^Hesticles, 
iHvorms, Hhe lice, Hhe skin that surrounds the head 
of the foetus. Or from parts of the dead body, such 
are : ^The whole corpse, Hhe skin, Hhe fat, Hhe bones, 
^skulls, Hhe pulp of skulls, ^the brain, ^the gall, Hhe 
lieart."— P. 33: "If you then ask, whether one can 
safely use inwardly the menstrual blood ? This we can 
answer with a Yes. Take a cloth, steep it well in the 
menstrual blood, let it dry; when you wish to use it, 
draw the same with squill vinegar out of the cloth 
which one can fitly employ to promote the woman's 
monthly flux. The linen cloth soaked in such blood 
and dried is laid externally on erysipelas or also on 
other swellings and pains ; pre-eminently it quiets the 
pains of Podagra. It has cured tertian fever when 
such a cloth has been merely hung on the neck. The 
maidens prepare their love-potions from it, after 
which commonly ensues delirium or madness." 

Even in D. W. Triller's "Thesaurus medicamen- 
torum," which appeared in 1764 at Frankfort a. M., 
the following drugs are still mentioned: Stercus 
caninum album (album graecum), pavonum stercus, 
vaccae stercus et urina, bufones exsiccati, cervi 
priapus, equi testes, etc.— In respect of the prescrip- 
tion book of the Ettenheim municipal surgeon, J oh. 
Conr. Machleid, which embraces the period from 1730 
to 1790, Cf. "Anzeiger des Germanichen National- 
museums" (Nuremberg), 1895, 89 seq., and Ur-Quell, 
1897, 167-9. "To cure colic: Take three living lice 
from the patient; should he have none, from another 
person. Give it him to eat in a bit of bread. A sure 
and approved medicine ; but you must not tell that 
patient, else he won't take it." 

Much that is relevant here can be found in a work 
of the Leipsic zoologist, William Marshall, which was 
first known to me in November, 1899 : " Neu eroff netes, 
wundersames Arznei-Kastlein, darin allerei griind- 

Bibliography 29 

liche Nachrichten, wie es unsere Voreltern mit den 
Heilkraften der Thiere gehalten haben, zu finden 
sind." L., 1894 (127; 11 pages of bibliography 
at the end). I quote from it the follow- 
ing details, p. 84: "The Dresden taxation of 
apothecaries in 1652 contains 51 animal fats, 
amongst them human and monkey fat. Human fat 
was said to strengthen, disperse, alleviate pains, 
soften hardened scars, and dispel small-pox scars. 
Monkey fat works similarly, chiefly as dissolvent; 
lion fat strengthened and dispersed hardened glan- 
dular swellings, and for dry scabs they would rub 
in leopard fat with laurel oil." 89: "In the royal 
Prussian taxation of 1749 . . . occurs a spirit of 
human brains." 94 : " Even human after-birth and the 
umbilical cord did not escape our ancestors' pharma- 
cological art. The former was applied externally, and 
given internally for epilepsy and for the endurance of 
labour-pains. Secundinae occurred in German drug- 
stores right up to the middle of last century." 80: 
" Even the great Friedrich Hoffmann recommended in 
the previous century the following prescription for 
epilepsy : The whole ashes of a young crow still in the 
nest, and of a turtle dove, 2 lot (a lot is ^oz.) of burnt 
human skull, 2 lot lime-tree buds, 1 lot lion's excre- 
ment; all these substances were separately digested 
with brandy, after which the fluids were poured 
together." Cf. also ibid. 74 sq. 



A. The high significance which human sacri- 
fices have possessed in many heathen religions, or 
still possess, is so well known that it need only be 
named, not proved (Assyrians, Phoenicians, Aztecs, 
etc.).— It is equally well known that such sacrifices 
were from the beginning most strictly forbidden to 
the Israelites, the possessors of the revealed religion 
of the Old Testament: Leviticus 18, 21; 20, 2 sq.; 
Deuteronomy 12, 31; 18, 10. As, however, even 
nowadays there are highly educated persons who 
believe such sacrifices were quite alien to the Greeks 
and Romans, as well as to the ancient Germans, I give 
here a list, at any rate, of the more important books. 

Human sacrifices among the Greeks: F. G. 
Welcker, " Kleine Schriften," III. (Bonn, 1850), 160-4, 
and "Griechische Gotterlehre " (Gottingen, 1858, sq.), 
II., 769, sq. ; K. F. Hermann, "Die gottesdienstl. Alter- 
thLimer2(der Griechen)," Heidelberg, 1857, §27; G. F. 
Schomann, " Griechische Alterthiimer,"^!!. (Be., 1873), 
250 sq. ; J. Beckers, " De hostiis humanis apud 
Graecos," Miinster, 1867 (69); P. Stengel,'' Biq grie- 
chischen Kultusaltertumer,"^ Munich, 1898, 114-8. 
History, legends and first elements—" Rudimente "— 
(vicarious sacrifices) afford proof that before sea- 
voyages, at the beginning of a war, before battles, 
and altogether, when the lives of many people were 
in peril, human beings were sacrificed by the Greeks. 

" Blood Kitual " 31 

The Emperor Tiberius's severe ordinances certainly 
almost put a stop to such sacrifices ; notwithstanding, 
human sacrifices in honour of Zeus Lykaios occurred 
in Arcadia even in the second centurj^ a.d. — Among 
the Greeks and Romans : E. v. Lasaulx, "Siihnopfer der 
Griechen und Romer " (in " Studien des klassischen 
Alterthums." Regensburg, 1854, 233 sq.); 0. Keller, 
"Lateinische Volksetymologie und Verwandtes," L., 
1891, 331-349 (" Einiges iiber romische und griechische 
Menschenopfer "), especially 340 sq.— Among the 
Romans : M. Landau, " Menschenopfer bei den 
Romern," in Ur-Quell, 1892, 283-6; H. Diels, " Sibyl- 
linische Blatter," Be., 1890, 86 sq*— Further, Of. 
V. Helm, " Kulturpflanzen und Hausthiere," 5th 
edition, Berlin, 1887, 438-44; U. Jahn, " Die deutschen 
Opfergebrauche bei Ackerbau und Viehzucht," 
Breslau, 1884, 61-9; /. Lippert, " Kulturgeschichte," 
II. (L., 1885), 34. About human sacrifices (especially 
pure virgins) in German fairy-tale and stories, v. 
L. Freytag, Ur-Quell, 1890, 197-9. 

B. The so-called " Bauopfer," building sacrifices 
(the immuring of a human being, later also of an 
animal or other " rudiments "), in order to assure the 
foundation of a house, a dam, etc., are really only a 
special kind of human sacrifice. Bibliography: F. 
Liehrecht, "Zur Volkskunde," Heilbronn, 1879, 284-96 
("Die vergrabenen Menschen"); 0. Keller, 331-4; K. 
Miillenhoff, "Sagen, Marchen und Lieder der Herzog- 
thiimer Schleswig, Holstein u. Lauenburg," Kiel, 
1845, 242, 299, 601, 602; G. Fr. Daumer, " Geheim- 
nisse," I., 137-147; Grimm, "Deutsche Mythologie," 
1095, sq. ; Ad. Kuhn, " Sagen aus Westfalen," I. (L., 

* The Roman Emperor Heliogabalus (218—222 A.D.) still offered up 
human sacrifices, v. Lampridius "Heliog."8. His contemporary, 
the renowned jurist, Julius Paulus, prescribes in the "Sententiae 
receptae" V. 23, 16: "Qui hominem immolaverint exve ejus 
sanguine litaverint, fanum templumve polluerint, bestiis obiciuntur 
vel, si honestiores sint, capite puniuntur." 

32 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

1859), 115; Wuttke, §440; Strackerjan, I., 107-9; P. 
Cassel, 154-6; F. S. Krauss, "Das Bauopfer bei den 
Siidslaven," Vienna, 1886; Ur-Quell, II., 25, 189 sq., 
110 ("rudiments," ibid. III., 164 sq.); P. Sartori, 
"Ueber das Bauopfer," Zeitsclirift filr Ethnologie, 1898, 
1-54.— The use of blood instead of chalk occurs 
already in the legendary cjcIq of the Round Table, v. 
" La Tavola ritonda, I'istoria di Tristano, per cura di 
F. L. Polidori," Bologna, 1864, 12Q.— Pater Hieronymus 
Saucken relates that in 1685 the inhabitants of Bruns- 
biittel, when a dam burst, wanted to bury a child 
alive, as he heard from its mother herself; it was, 
however, rescued. At Delve, in Dithmarschen, as is 
reported in the chronicles of the Pastor Neocorus, after 
a dam burst in 1597, as the elders declared, " animam 
quaeri " ("a soul was required "), a dog was drowned 
in the breach of the dam, v. Urds-Brunnen V. (1887-8), 
165 sq.* In the Poschechon district of the Govern- 
ment of Jaroslaw runs the saying that in former times 
the millers in order to protect the mill-dam against 
the rushing spring flood, used to drown any belated 
pedestrian in the mill pond in propitiation of the 
water-sprite (Lowenstimm 16).— Immuring of a hen in 
order to make a quarry secure, Salzburg, middle of 
the nineteenth century, Ur-Quell, 1898, 230. In the 
foundation of old houses in Schleswig-Holstein may 
at times be found horse skulls, horse bones, or even 
the leg of a wild fowl. Ur-Quell, 1894, 157 sq.— In 
order to lend stability to a building, a corpse-bone or 
an animal skull is buried in the ground (Transyl- 
vania, V. Ur-Quell, 1898, 98). 

Among the Szeklers in Transylvania the ballad of 
the wife of the builder Kelemen is widely known. 
(Contents : The master builders are alarmed to observe 
that their buildings are continually falling to ruins. 

* Cf. the legends according to which the soul, which first enters an 
edifice, falls a victim to the devil, v. UrQuell, 1893, 206-8. 

"Blood Ritual" 33 

So they have taken an oath to sacrifice the wife of the 
builder among them who should be the first to see his 
wife, and they act accordingly.— In the '' Miirkisches 
Museum" in Berlin are remains of building struc- 
tures, in which the bones of human beings or animals 
and birds' eggs are to be seen immured. 

C. G. F. Daumer, in a book, which though extra- 
vagant in its conclusions, displays wide reading and 
keen perception, " Geheimnisse des christlichen 
Alterthums," Hamburg, 1847, 2 volumes, tried to 
prove that the characteristics of the Christian religion 
from its inception to the end of the middle ages con- 
sisted in human sacrifices and cannibalism and the 
use of human blood. I give here some of Daumer's 
examples in attempted proof of his position. One 
may gather from them what persons with vividly 
excited imaginations thought they saw, and how 
strongly realistic impressions were held admissible 
as facts, especially in more remote times. 

/., 83. Amphilochius in the "Life of Basilius" (Herib. 
Rosweidi Vitae patrum [Antwerp, 1615], I., 
156; " Leben der Vdter," Augsburg, 1704, 739): 
When the holy office was celebrated, a Jew mingled 
among the crowd, as if he ivere a Christian, because 
he wanted to learn about the order of the Officimn and 
the gift of the Communion. He there beholds how a 
little child is cut to pieces, limb by limb, in the hands 
of Basilius. He approached with the other communi- 
cants, and flesh was actually given him. Then he 
was also present at the handing of the cup, which was 
fidl of blood, and took part in drinking from it. 
Keeping some remains of both, he goes home and 
shows them to his wife. — /., 85 (Life of the Martyr S. 
George, ''Acta Sanctorum," S3 April). A Saracen 
saw a priest kill and cut up a child, place the jneces 
in the paten, pour the blood into the cup, and eat one 

34 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

of the ^pieces and drink from the cwp. — /., 118 sq.y, 
tells of the dissensions between the Dominicans and 
Franciscans in Bern 1507, after the Bernese Chron- 
icle of Calonius Grdnnei?'ics, 1585, 615 sq., and Hot- 
tinger, '' Helvetische Kirchengeschichte," Zurich, 
1708 sq.. Vol. II., 553 sq., 556 sq. : The Dominicans 
were alleged to have offered a consecrated wafer 
coloured with Chi'isfs blood to Jezer, a tailor who 
had been received into their Order, whom they wanted 
to make their Saint. They are also said to " have 
handed him a drink composed of ointment, Easter- 
baytismal-water , Easter-taper wax, consecrated salt 
.... and the hair and blood of a child.'' — In the 
confession cited by Gronneirus 622 it is asserted the 
Dominicans had made use of Jew blood, and the eye- 
brows of a Jewish child. — There is more in Daumer- 
I., 36 sq., 73, 85 sq. 

In the middle ages, appearances of Christ at 
Holy Communion in the form of a child or a lamb are 
not infrequently mentioned, vide e.g., Paschasius. 
Radbertus, " De corpore et sanguine Christi," 14; 
Germanus in Edm. Martene, " Thesaurus novus Anec- 
dotorum," V. (Paris, 1717), 96, 95. In fa'ct, the 
fantasy required a small body, which should find a 
place at the table or altar. Berthold von Regensburg, 
the great popular preacher of the 13th century, says. 
in reply to the question. Why Christ, as he is present 
at Holy Communion, does not let Himself be seen in it : 
" Wer mochte einem kindelin sin houbetlin oder sinin 
hendelin oder sinin fiiezelin abegebizen?" ("Who 
would like a little child to have his little head, or his 
little hands, or his little feet bitten off ? ") (" Predig- 
ten," published by F. Pfeiffer, II., Vienna, 1880, 270.) 

D. Within the Church there has never been a blood-rite^ 
but there has been among several of the Gnostics. 

"Blood Ritual" 35 

Even Clemens Alexandrinus (d.c. 220 a.d.) found 
in the Epistle of Judas a prediction concerning the 
Karpocratians and related sects (" Stromata," III., 2). 
He relates, among other things, that among the Kar- 
pocratians, men and women, after the common meal, 
after the lights are extinguished, have sexual com- 
merce with each other. Irenaeus (d. 202 a.d.) 
expressly testifies that the heathens were excited by 
such actions to repugnance against Christianity (I., 
25, 3 = Epiphanius, "Haer.," xxvii., 3). Epiphanius, 
ch. 5, describes the conduct of these people as that of 
dogs and pigs. That the Karpocratians utilised blood 
in their rites has indeed not been expressly handed 
down, but is very probable on comparison with the 
related Gnostics. — Of the Cainites (they called them- 
selves after Cain) Irenaeus says, I., 31, 2, that their 
doctrine was: The perfect knowledge was to proceed 
without repugnance to actions which it is not decent 
even to name. — Epiphanius xxvi., 5, describes as 
folloAvs the conduct of the so-called Gnostics: After 
the common meal they turn to free concubitus. Next, 
men and women take semen virile in their hands and 
speak to the All-Father : " We bring Thee this gift as 
the body of Christ." They eat thereof, and say, 
" This is the body of Christ and the Passover meal." 
Likewise they take sanguinem menstruum : " This is 
the blood of Christ." If a woman has become preg- 
nant they triturate the embryo, mix the mass with 
honey, pepper and herbs, and taste the dish at their 
gathering with the finger, which dish is esteemed the 
perfect Passover meal. 

The contents of these documents are so revolting 
that one would be glad to agree with //. Usener, " Das 
Weihnachtsfest," Bonn, 1889, 110, and others, who 
contest their credibility. Epiphanius, the chief wit- 
ness, they say, lived too long after the occurrences 
(he died, at the age of about 100, in 403 a.d.). But he 

36 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

appeals, xxvi. 17, 18, to the oral information of 
credible men, to original writings of the Gnostics, and 
to personal intercourse which, as a quite young man, 
he had with these " Gnostics." 

Nevertheless, I hold with R. Seeberg it is very pro- 
bable that the account of the use of the embryo, w^hich 
is found only in Epiphanius, should be considered 
unhistorical. After all, Epiphanius was credulous 
enough to say about even the Montanists, that they 
employed in their sacrifices the blood of a child, 
whose body they had pierced with needles, xlviii. 
14. The first part, however, of Epiphanius's last 
description is not merely confirmed by the remarks of 
Clement of Alexandria and Irenaeus, but also by two 
Gnostic writings which have only recently become 
known. Firstly, the Gnostic writing which was 
written in Egypt in Greek at the end of the third 
century a.d., but preserved only in Coptic, ''Pistis 
Sophia . . . Latine vertit M. G. Schwartze, edidit 
J. H. Petermann " (Be., 1851, 53). The author, in the 
course of it, makes Jesus show the infernal regions 
to His disciples, and depict the punishments of wilful 
sinners. On this occasion Thomas puts the question, 
p. 386 sq. : " We have heard that there are men who 
put semen virile and sanguinem menstruum in a dish 
of lentils, and declare, ' We believe in Esau* and 
Jacob.' Is that proper or not? " Jesus answers that 
this sin is greater than all sins and misdeeds, and that 
such men shall be plunged into the outermost dark- 
ness. The onery is only intelligible if the author, 
who was himself a Gnostic, knew other Gnostics, and 
wanted those to be condemned who acted in the 
manner indicated by Thomas's question. Secondly, 

* The words " and Jacob " are beyond doubt an interpolation. The 
mention of Esau calls to mind the Cainites who, from hostility to 
the Jewish Deity, ascribed a higher power of light to Cain, Esau, 
Korah, the Sodomites, Judas Iscariot, in fine, all the bad men who 
occur in the Bible, and reverenced them as servants of the good God. 

"Blood Ritual" 37 

the second book of Jeu, also a Gnostic work, which, 
however is much older than the " Pistis Sophia," v. 
C. Schmidt, " Gnostische Schriften in koptischer 
Sprache, aus dem Codex Brucianus herausgegeben, 
iibersetzt u. bearbeitet," L. 1892, 194. We read in 
it that Jesns is supposed to have told his disciples: 
" Keep these mysteries which I shall give you ; reveal 

them to no man, unless he be w^orthy of them 

Reveal them not to any man who believes in these 72 
Archons or serves them ; reveal them not to those who 
serve the eighth Dynamis of the great Archon, that 
is to say, those who consume sanguinem menstruum 
and semen virile, whilst saying: * We possess the true 
knowledge and pray to the true God.' But their God 
is bad." 

The partaking of semen virile and sanguis men- 
struus is ascribed also to the religious party of the 
Manichaeans, which was allied to the Gnostics, v. 
Cyrillus of Jerusalem's 6th Catechet. Discourse 
(348 A.D.), § 33, and Augustine, " De Moribus Mani- 
chaeorum," 18, 66, and "De haeresibus," 46. 

The explanation of this action of many Gnostics 
is probably only partially to be sought in their 
dualistic conception of the world. The sparks of the 
higher power of light, which exist in the bodies of 
human beings, are gathered together by means of 
semen virile and sanguis menstruus, and brought to 
the Treasury of Light. In this way men earn reward 
from the highest good God (from whom the Creator- 
God has fallen away, with His angels and archons). 
First steps of the libertine conduct, without which 
rites like those described could hardly have arisen, 
are already adverted to in the New Testament : Rev. 
ii., 6, 15. (the Nikolaites), and the Epistle of Judas, 
especially vv. 7, 8, 10, 12. 

E. Remarkal)le parallels are reported in Russian 
sects. Sectarianism in Russia, the Raskol, falls into 

38 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

two big groups: the Popowzy and the Bespopowzy 
(" the priestless "). The latter think the end of the 
world is near, and the dominion of Antichrist has 
already begun. Many of them made it their duty to 
dispatch the innocent souls of the newly born to 
heaven ; others believed they were doing their friends 
and relations a service of love, if they kept them from 
dying a natural death. It not infrequently happened 
that whole families, even villages, united to offer 
themselves to God as a living sacrifice. The peasant 
Chodkin (under Alexander II.) persuaded some 
twenty persons to die with him of hunger in the 
forests of Perm. Others, especially in the 18th 
century, chose the baptism of fire by burning them- 
selves. " Even in the 19th century such horrible 

scenes were not unusual in 1883 a peasant 

called Jukow burnt himself to death, while singing 

psalms. Baptism with blood is perhaps even 

less rare ; in most cases there are parents who wish 
thereby to preserve their children from the allure- 
ments of the Prince of Darkness. For instance, in 
1847 a moujik from the government of Perm had in- 
tended to unlock the gates of heaven to his whole 
family with one blow; but as the axe failed him 
before he had finished his fearful work, he gave him- 
self up to the law. Another peasant, from the 
government of Wladimir, who was called to account 
for the murder of his two sons, affirmed he wished in 
that way to preserve them from sin, and, in order to 
follow his victims, when in prison refused all nourish- 
ment In 1870 a moujik tried to imitate the 

sacrifice of Isaac. He bound his seven-year-old son 
to a bench, and ripped his belly open, after which he 
began to pray before the pictures of saints. ' Do you 
forgive me ? ' he asked the dying child. ' I forgive 
you, and God likewise,' answered the victim, whose 
part in the scene had been rehearsed." In a single 

"Blood Ritual" 39 

year, 1879, the Odessa justices had to decide finally 
in one or more cases of self-sacrifice, crucifixion, 
self-cremation, and mutilation "from motives of 
piety." .1 . Leroy-Beaulieu, " Das Reich der Zaren und 
die Russen," German edition, III. (Sondershausen, 
1890), 351-4. There are further instances of fire- 
baptism in A . V. Haxthausen, " Studien fiber die 
inneren Zustande . . . Russlands," I. (Hanover, 
1847), 339.— Cf. inf., ch. 13. 

The mystic sects of the Chlysty ("scourgers ") and 
the Skopzy ("castrates "), which stand in close rela- 
tions to one another, do not belong to the real Raskol. 
The gatherings of the Chlysty, or, as they are called, 
Ljudi Boshii ("God-men"), are outwardly compar- 
able to those of the well-known " dancing dervishes " 
in Cairo and Stamboul. Whilst most Chlysty use 
only water and black bread for the celebration of the 
Holy Communion, some of them, according to more 
than one witness {Leroij-Beaulieu, 450, cites Philaret's 
"History of the Russian Church," Liwanow's "Ras- 
kolniki i Ostroshniki," Renzki's "Ljudi Boshii i 
Skopzy,") used the flesh and blood of a new-born 
child, and particularly of the first boy, who might be 
expected from a "holy virgin" chosen to be the 
"mother of God," after the ecstatic and obscene 
ceremonies following upon her selection. If a girl 
was born, she in turn became a holy virgin; but if a 
boy " Christosik " ("little Christ ") he was sacrificed 
on the eighth day after his birth. The communion 
bread was renewed by a mixture of his heart and 
blood with flour and honey. That was called com- 
municating with the blood of the lamb. Others, as is 
conjectured, communicated with the yet warm blood 
of the little Jesus. 

Von Haxthausen, I., 349, mentions another way by 
which the Skopzys and Chlystys produced the 
materials for the solemnizing of their Communion : A 

40 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

virgin of fifteen, who has been persuaded by great 
promises, has her left breast severed, whilst she sits 
in a tub with warm water. The breast is cut into 
small pieces on a dish, which are consumed by all th(^ 
members of the congregation present. Then the girl 
in the tub is lifted on to an altar standing near, and 
the whole congregation dances wildly around it and 

sings at the same time Mv above-mentioned 

clerk made the acquaintance of several such girls, 
who were then always worshipped like saints, and 
says that at nineteen to twenty they looked as if they 
were fifty to sixty; thes^ also usually died before 
thirty. One, however, was married, and had two 

The Christian religion is not responsible foi such 

F. The following events are to be considered as 
rela'pses into heathendom or as survivals from heathen 
times. About two hundred versts (kms.) from Kasan 
is the village of Stary-Multan, whose inhabitants 
belong to the Russian Orthodox Church, with a 
church and a priest. Owing to bad harvests, famine 
and typhus visited them in 1892, and there was a fear 
of cholera. They began to doubt whether their way 
of worshipping God was the right. They thought 
they must appease the supernatural powers by sacri- 
fice. Animal sacrifices helped nothing. Whereupon 
a sage of the village received the revelation that a 
"two-legged" sacrifice (kurban) was required, that 
is, a human sacrifice. There lived in the village a 
man from another district, so that he was without 
relations and friends in the place itself. This unfor- 
tunate man, on 4th (16th) May, 1892, was dragged into 
the Town Hall, stripped there, and hung up by his 
feet to the ceiling, and then fifteen persons with 
knives began to stab at his naked body. The blood 
streaming from the wounds was carefully caught in 

" Blood Ritual " 41 

vessels, cooked and drunk by the sacrifice rs. The 
lunQS and heart were also consumed. The village 
magistrate, the peasant-born policeman, and the chief 
elder of the church took part in the ceremony. The 
people were so convinced of the righteousness of their 
action that they did not take the least pains to con- 
ceal the murder. So it soon came to the knowledge 
of the authorities. After two and a half years the 
trial came to an end, and the perpetrators of the ritual 
murder were condemned to many years' hard labour. 
(UrqueU, 1897, 118 sq., after the Freies Blatt, Vienna, 
13 Jan., 1895, No. 145). 

Government of Minsk, district of Nowogrud. In 
1831 the country people, during a cholera epidemic, 
wanted to bury a priest alive ; he only saved himself 
by begging his parishioners for a respite, in order to 
prepare for death. In August, 1855, the inhabitants 
of the village of Okopowitschi, in a similar epidemic, 
on the advice of an army surgeon Kosakowitsch, 
pushed an old woman, Lucia Manjkow, alive, as a 
sacrifice, into a pit, in which there were already 
corpses, and then quickly heaped earth upon it. In 
August, 1871, the inhabitants of the village of Tor- 
katschi wanted to inflict the same fate on an invalid 
peasant woman; her husband and son-in-law came 
only just in time to the rescue ; it is said that another 
woman who was ill, and by herself, was then sacri- 
ficed alive. The whole of the village authorities 
shared the conviction that they could save them- 
selves from the cholera by the burying of a living 
person. In the Turuchan district, government 
Jenissei, a peasant P., by descent a Russian, buried 
alive, in 1861, a girl akin to him in order to save 
himself and his family from a prevalent epidemic 
disease by the sacrifice {Lowenstimm, 12-14). 

A Samoyede, Jefrem Pyrerka, strangled in Nova 
Zembla, duringr the famine of the winter of 1881, a 

42 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

girl, Ssavanei, in order, as he openly stated, to bring 
an offering to the devil, because God, in whom he 
believed, did not help him in the time of the famine. 
Later he fashioned a wooden idol and wanted to sacri- 
fice to it his tent comrade, Andrei Tabarei; he threw 
a noose round his neck, and only the entrance of P.'s 
wife saved Andrei from death (Lowenstimm, 10). 

First element: Burying of living animals. 
District Nowogrud, in cholera time. District Grjas- 
owez, government Wologda, after the peasant 
women, perhaps on account of a cattle murrain, had 
ploughed up a village (Low. 12, 22 sq.). Human 
sacrifices, too, are said to have been offered on the 
occasion of the ploughing-up (Low. 25). 

G. The persons who took part in the following 
episode were also certainly quite untouched by 
Christian influence. " A woman, living in the Madras 
Presidency, was said to be possessed of the devil, and 
therefore barren. Her father accordingly asked 
advice of an exorciser, who declared a human sacrifice 
needful. So one evening the father, the exorcist, and 
five or six other men met together, and after a reli- 
gious ceremony sent for the victim determined on. 
Without suspecting any evil, he came and was forth- 
with given so much spirituous drink, that he became 
unconscious. They then cut off his head and offered 
his blood mingled with rice to the Deity as a sacrifice ; 
the corpse they cut in pieces and threw in a reservoir. 
The murderers, who were soon discovered, made a 
frank confession." (L. Fuld, Neve Freie Presse, 
Vienna, 4 May, 1888, No. 8510, reproduced from an 
English medical journal). 

As to human sacrifices after a case of death 
{widow, bride, slaves), cf. /. Kohler, Ztschr. f. das 
Privat- u. offentl. Recht, Vienna, 1892, 586 sq. (India, 
Central America, Ashanti, Fiji Islands, etc.) 


The drinking of human blood, or of wine mixed 
with such blood when friendship was sworn, and 
alliances were concluded, was the custom of many 
nations, in antiquity and in the middle ages. 

Herodotus, IV., 70, narrates of the tScythians: 
"They conclude agreements in the following manner : 
They pour wine into a large earthen vessel, and, after 
the contracting parties have scratched themselves 
with an awl or a knife, mix the wine with their blood, 
and then dip sword and arrows and battle-axe and 
javelin into the vessel. Whereupon both the con- 
tracting parties themselves and the most distin- 
guished of their following drink from it.t 

F. Riihs, " Handbuch der Geschichte des Mittel- 
alters," Berlin, 1816, 323 (following J. G. Stritter, 
"Memoriae populorum," Petersburg, 1771 sq.), 
observes of the Komani : " To increase the sanctity of 

* ff. a. TrumhuU, "The Blood Covenant2" Philadelphia 1893 (390). 
•/. GohI:iher, "Die Fiktion der Blutsverwandschaft bei oriental. 
Volkern," in "Globus," 1893, p. 50 sq. — In general cf. ./. Kohler, 
"Studien iiber die kiinstliche Verwandschaft" in Zeitschrift fiir 
rerghirhende Rechtswissenschaft. V. (Stuttgart 1884), 415 — 40, 
especially 434 sq. — P. Wilutzky, " Vorgeschichte des Rechts," Be. 
1903, in vol. 2 in the chapter, "Kiinstliche Verwandschaft und 
Blutsbriiderschaf t. ' ' 

t The same testimony is afforded by Pomponius Mela, the geographer, 
who probably lived in the time of the Emperor Claudius, "De situ 
orbis," I, 2 (cf. Tz><chukke, on the passage). Cf. also Lucianus 

Samosatensis (200 a.d. ; "Toxaris," ch. 37, and Athenaeus 
(beginning of the third century a.d.), "Deipnosophisatae," II., 45 E. 

44 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

covenants, they let blood run from their veins into a 
goblet and drank it up on both sides, so as to be of 
one blood ; also a dog was hacked to bits between the 
two covenanting parties." — When the Hungarian 
magnates in the ninth century had chosen Almus, the 
son of Ugek, for their ruler, they fortified the oath of 
allegiance by letting some of their blood run into a 
single vessel.* — As regards the Mongols, cf. K. 
ISleiimann, "Die Hellenen im Skythenlande," I. (Be. 
1855), 268. 

"The Medes and the Lj^dians," says Herodotus 
I., 74, " scratch the skin of the arm and then lick off 
one another's blood." — The Iberians (Radamistus) 
and Armenians (Mithridates) acted in precisely the 
same way. Tacitus, "Annals" xii., 47: "Kings, 
when they conclude a treaty, are wont to give each 
other the right hand, and to knot their hands together. 
They next produce blood by a slight prick and lick it 
up on either side. Such a bond is held to be something 
mysterious, as well as consecrated by the blood shed 
on both sides " (cf. Lifsius on the passage). 

Even the Greeks and Romans are found to be 
doing similar things. The Greek and Carian mercen- 
aries of Psammenitus butchered the children of 
Phanes, drank their blood mixed with wine and 
water, and thus bound themselves to fight bravely, 
Herodotus iii., 11. — Diodorus Siculus, contemporary 
with Augustus, relates how Apollodorus (in the first 
third of the third century b.c.) won lordship over the 
town of Cassandrea on the Macedonian promontory 
of Pallene : " When Apollodorus was struggling for the 
mastery, and wished to make sure of the conspiracy, 
he called in a youthful friend under the pretext of a 
sacrifice, killed him in honour of the gods, gave his 
entrails to the conspirators to eat, and made them 

* •/. G. Schvandtner, 'Scriptores rerum Hungaricarum" I. (Vienna 
1746), 6; Mone, "Geschichte des Heidenthums" I. 108. 

Human Blood 45 

drink the blood mixed with wine."*— In the con- 
spiracy, which the banished Tarquinius Superbus 
arranged with sons of Brutus and others, a great and 
terrible oath was sworn, in the course of which they 
offered up the blood of a slaughtered man and touched 

the entrails.! Catiline and his 

fellow conspirators are supposed to have drunk 
human blood mixed with wine.}— Cf. again the words 
of Festus, the grammarian, "The ancients called 
assiratum a composite drink of wine and blood, be- 
cause the ancient Latins called blood assir." 

" When the Ireni conclude treaties, the one drinks 
the blood of the other, which is shed voluntarily for 
this purpose" {Gyraldus, " Topographia Hiberno ." 
Cap. 22, p. 743). 

When the French Prince Henry (from 1574, 
Henry III., King of France) was selected King of 
Poland in 1573, there came to meet him, on his 
journey to his new kingdom, 30,000 horsemen " dont 
un Seigneur s'etant detache lui fit un compliment, qui 
le surprit par Faction dont il Faccompagna. File 
ressentoit un peu le genie des anciens Sarmates ; mais 
d'ailleurs elle dut lui plaire. En s'approchant du 
Roi, il tira son sabre, s'en piqua le bras, et recevant 
son sang dans sa main il lui dit : ' Seigneur, malheur 
^ celui de nous, qui n'est pas pret a verser tout ce 
qu'il a dans les veines pour votre service ; c'est pour 
cela que je ne veux rien perdre du mien,' et en meme 
tems il le but," v. G. Daniel, " Histoire de France." 
(Amsterdam and L., 1755) xii., 316. 

Among the South Slavs, when reconciliation of a 
blood feud takes place, elective brotherhood is even 

* " Bibliotheca Historica xxii, Excerpta de virtutibus et vitiis," ed. 
P. WesseUng (Amsterdam 1746), II, 562 sq. Cf. Polyaenus, 
"Strategematica" vi, 7, 2. 

t Plutarch, "Publicola," Ch. 4. 

X Sallust, " Catiline," Ch. 18. Similarly Dio Cassius xxxvii. 

46 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

now concluded with actual blood-drinking. "The 
representatives of the hostile clans cut open with a 
needle the artery of the right hand, suck one another's 
blood, exchange kisses and swear to each other un- 
changeable loyalty till the grave/' (Ur-Quell, 1890, 
196). — About blood-brotherhood, Cf. further G. 
Popovic, "Recht und Gericht in Montenegro," 
Agram, 1877 (91), pp. 39, 45; S. Gopcevic, " Oberal- 
banien und seine Liga," L. 1881, 303. 

Africa. Blood-brotherhood with drinking of 
blood by both parties. Madagascar : Vinson, " Voyage 
h M." 1865, 281 seq., 539; J. Sihree, "Madagascar," L. 
1881, 249 seq. ; Ur-Quell, 1897, 32 sq. (after the experi- 
ences of a merchant, T. Scluszanski). — East Africa: 
Die Katholischen Missionen, illustr. monthly, Freiburg, 
i. B. 1883, 32 sq.-— Zanzibar : v. " Melusine " iii., 402 sq. 
— Cameroons: " Mitteilungen aus den deutschen 
Schutzgebieten " Y. (Be., 1892), 178 sq. ; E. Zintgraff, 
"Nord-Kamerun," Be. 1895, 175, 202. 

The Berlin paper Die Post, 11th July, 1891, No. 187, gives 
information about the "Infame Legge," a band of brigands 
which was discovered in South Italy in 1891, after an existence 
of three years. It was noticeable that, in the ritual of the 
band, which was allied to that of the "Mala Vita" of Bari, 
"the neophytes drank blood-brotherhood with the leader of the 
band by sucking out and drinking the blood from a scratch 
wound, which the leader himself made in the region of his own 

RocHHOLZ I., 52 : "At Helmstiidt and Leipsic the "Hasen" (so- 
called "Krassfiichse") used formerly to drink brotherhood by 
letting some blood drip into a bowl from cuts in their arms, 
and swallowing it kneeling." 

C. The drinking of blood was foreign to the 
ancient Germans,* J. Grimm, "Deutsche Rechtsal- 

* And not merely for the object here in question, but altogether. The 
fighting heroes at the end of theNibelungenlied, 2051sq., decide upon 
an unusual drink, the blood of dead foes, only to save themselves 
in glowing heat from slow death. — The following examples are 
purely mythical. (1) The younger brother of Gunnar and Hogni is 
supposed to be provoked to murder Sigurd by eating animal flesh. 

Human Blood 47 

terthumer"2 (Gott. 1854), 193: "No German tradition 
makes mention of symbolical blood-drinking, the 
mixing of blood into wine, or else, what is related in 
'Gesta Roman.,' cap. 67, of a treaty of friendship 
would have to be referred to German custom. ' Nun- 
quid tibi placet unam conventionem mecum ponere et 
erit nobis utile ; sanguinem quilibet de brachio dextra 
emittat, ego tuum sanguinem bibam et tu meum, 
quod nullus alium dimittet nee in prosperitate nee in 
adversitate et quidquid unus lucratus fuerit alter di- 
midietatem habeat.' "— /. Grimm, " Geschichte der 
deutschen Sprache," 136 sq. " The ancient Northern 
custom is attractive. When two persons concluded 
brotherhood between themselves, they cut a strip of 
turf so that it remained hanging with both ends on the 
ground, and a spear was placed under it in the 
middle, which lifted up the turf. They next stepped 
under the strip of turf* and each of them stabbed or 
cut himself in the sole of the foot or the palm of the 
hand, their flowing blood running together blended 
with the earth." This is the explanation of the pass- 
age in the Waltharius-Lied (v. Simrock, " Kleines 
Heldenbuch ") : 

V. " Brot af Brynhildarqvidhu " 4; "Some roasted a wolf, some 
cut up a snake, others laid before Gothorm a dish of the ravenoua 
one " (i.e., the wolf, or some other beast of prey). Similarly in 
the prose Volsunga-Saga, ch. 30.— (2). In "Die altere und die 
jungere Edda nach den mythischen Erzahlungen der Skalda " 
translated by K. Simrock, Stuttgart 1871, 200, it is told of Sigurd; 
" But when Fafnir's heart's-blood came upon his tongue he under- 
stood the birds' voice."— Cf. again " Altdanische Heldenlieder, 
Balladen and Marchen," translated by IF. Grimm, Heidelberg 

♦The original significance of this ceremony probably was that the 
persons thus concluding brotherhood wished to declare themselves 
sons of the same mother, the Earth, cf. K. Maurer. " Bekehrung 
des norwegischen Stammes zum Christenthum " II (Munich 1856) 
170, and in Germania, ViertdjahrsschriH fur chittsche AUerthum- 
skunde 1874, 146 sq. and esply. M. Pappenheim, "Die- 
altdanischen Schutzgilden," Breslau 1885, pp. 21-37 

48 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

" Wir wurden Bundeshrilder and mischten unse?' Blut, 
" Da gait uns diese Freundschaft wohl fiir das hochste 

Herodotus III., 8, speaking about the Arabians: 
'* When two persons wish to seal faith with one 
another, a third party who has stepped between them, 
makes a cut with a pointed stone in the palms of the 
hands of both, then takes out of either of their cloaks 
one thread, and smears with the blood seven stones 
lying in the centre, calling upon Dionysus and 
Urania." In the period historically known to us, as 
early as the 6th and 7th centuries a.d., human blood 
is scarcely still mentioned, but the Arabians dipped 
their hands into a bowl filled with camel's blood and 
next into a bowl full of fragrant perfumes. J. Well- 
hausen, " Skizzen and Vorarbeiten," III. (" Reste Ara- 
bischen Fleidentumes," Be. 1887), 119 sq. ; cf. also 
W. Roh. Smith, "Kinship and marriage in early 
Arabia," Cambridge, 1886, 48 sq., 149 sq., 261, 284, 
and " Lectures on the Religion of the Semites, First 
Series,"^ Edinburgh, 314-8. 

The Dyaks celebrate blood-union in adoption by 
taking blood from both the parties, which is poured 
on some chewing betel and then eaten by them 
{J. Kohler in Zeitschr. f. das Privat- u. offentl. Recht 
der Gegenivart, Vienna, 1892, 569, in an article well 
worth reading on "Recht, Glaube u. Sitte," 561-612.) 

Mexican tribes form brotherhoods by smearing 
themselves with the blood of one and the same person. 
Similarly in the Dutch Indies. In the Society Islands 
it occurs that the mothers of the bridal couple let their 
blood flow together on a cloth (ibid. 565, 567). 

D. In this connection might also be mentioned 

'* Roughly translatable : 

" So we became bond-brothers, mingling together blood, 
In sooth we deemed this friendship to be the highest good.'* 

Human Blood 49 

the use of personal blood in the signatures of agree- 
ments, cf. Gotz, "De subscriptionibus sanguine 
humano firmatis," Liibeck, 1724; Scheible, "Die Sage 
vom Faust," Stuttgart, 1847. — Rochholz, I. 52, relates, 
as an absolute custom of German University fresh- 
men ("Burschen "), that the parties wrote '"mutually 
with their own blood leaves in each other's albums." 
" The leaf is still said to be in existence on which, with 
his own blood, Maximilian, the great Bavarian 
Elector, dedicated himself to the Holy Virgin." 

E. This is also the place for the " Bahrrecht," i.e. 
ordeal of the bier, the belief that the wounds of a 
murdered person begin to bleed again in the presence 
of the murderer, cf. Wuttke §329;' Mannhardt 24; li^- 
Quell 1893,275 sq. ; 1894, 284; 1895, 175 sq. 212-4; 
Chr. V. Christensen, " Baareproven, dens Historic og 
Stilling i Fortidens Eets- og Naturopfattelse," Copen- 
hagen,'l900 (289). 


A. I start with two quotations from Plin3^'s 
"Natural History," XXVIIL, 1, 2. "Thus epileptics 
even drink the blood of gladiators, and indeed out of 
living goblets. . . . They consider it the most effective 
method of cure to swallow down the blood, when it 
is still warm, still bubbling, out of the man himself, 
and thus simultaneously to swallow the very breath 
of life from the mouth of the wound. "t 4, 10 : "Human 
blood, from whatever part it has come, is said to be 
very efficacious according to Orpheus's and Arche- 
laus's assertion, in inflammations of the throat, and 
should be smeared on the mouth of the patients who 
have become subject to epilepsy; for these are said 
thereupon to stand up immediately." — Scribonius 
Largus, the author of " Medicamentorum Composi- 
tiones," in the 1st century a.d. recommends in several 
passages the use of human blood for epilepsy. 
Physicians of the Byzantine epoch (3rd to 6th cen- 
turies), such as Aetius and Alexander of Tralles, give 
similar advice. 

B. "Die Chronik des Abtes Regino von Priim" 

* About the utilisation of blood in the actual medical art of to-day, 
of. L. Landois, "Die Transfusion des Blutes," L. 1875 (358), "Bei- 
trage zur Tr. des Bl." 1878 (58); 0. Hasse, "Lammbluttransfusion 
beim Menschen," St. Petersburg 1874 (78); F. Gesellius, Die 
Transfusion des Blutes," St. Petersburg 1873 (187). 

f Cf. also Celsus, " De Medicina," III, 23, towards the end; Coelius 
Aurelianus, "Tardarum s. chronicarum passionum," I, 4; 
Tertullian, "Apolog.," 9.— Cf. also inf. oh. 7. 

Blood for Healing 51 

(translated by E. Dummler,'^ L. 1890, 93) writes about 
the Hungarians in 889 a.d. : " They eat, as report goes 
{'ut fama est ') raw meat, drink blood, swallow as a 
remedy the hearts of their captives cut into pieces." 
Bishop Liudprand, of Cremona, "Antapodosis," II., 2 
("Opera Omnia," recogn. E. Dummler,^ Hanover, 
1877, 28) gives like information, after having told of 
the death of Arnulf of Carinthia : " ut magis magisque 
timeantur, interfectorum sese sanguine potant." 

When in 1649 the Huron Mission Station at St. 
Louis was captured by the Iroquois and the Jesuit, 
Jean de Brebeuf was most horribly done to death, and 
did not show a tremor when they scalped him ; the 
savages came in crowds to drink the blood of so brave 
a foe. A chieftain then tore his heart out and de- 
voured it. {Parkman, " Jesuits in North America in 
the 17th century," 389 sq.) 

C. The medical folk-belief, or (relatively) the 
superstition, respecting menstrual blood remained 
and remains in rank fulness. ^~ For the middle ages 
the best evidences are the numerous penance books 
which for the most part arose in the period between 
600 and 1000 a.d. Cf. H. J. Schmitz, " Die Bussbiicher 
und die Bussdisciplin der Kirche," Mainz, 1883. The 
so-called penance book of Theodore of Canterbury, 7, 
3 (Schmitz, p. 530), " Qui semen aut sanguinem biberit 
III annos poeniteat." 14, 15 (536) : " Sic et ilia, quae 
semen viri sui in cibo miscens, ut inde plus amoris 
accipiat, poeniteat (tres annos)." 14, 16 (536) : " Uxor 
quae sanguinem viri sui pro remedio gustaverit, XL. 
dies vel LX. minusve jejunet." — " Poenitentiale Cum- 
meani" I.. 17. 35. 36. (617 sq.)=Theod. vii. 3; xiv. 16, 15. 
The three passages are repeated xxiii. 2 (668)" — "Poe- 

* Cf. also //., "Das Weib in der Natur- und Vblkerkunde," 
anthropological studies, 8th. ed. publd. by M. Bartels, 2 vols. L. 
1904, 1905, in the chapters on "Menstrualblut als Arznei- und 
Zaubermittel," and "Liebeszauber." — For §§ C. and D. cf. v. Wlis- 
locki, "Zigeuner," 75 sq. 

52 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

nitentiale Parisiense " 18 (683) : "Qui sanguinem suum 
aut semen causa amoris vel alterius rei bibere aliquem 
vel aliquam facerit, tribus poeniteat annis," 91 (691) 
==Theod xiv., 16.— ''Ordo Poenitentiae, Codex Barbe- 
rini" (748) : "Bibisti sanguinem vel manducasti ullius 
pecudis vel hominis, tres annos poeniteas." — Another 
repetition in the Prague synodal decrees, v. C. H'dfler, 
"Concilia Pragensia," Prague, 1862, XL, XII.— That 
the blood of female persons generally meant sanguis 
menstruus, is apparent from Bishop Burchard of 
Worms's (1000-1025) "Kanonensammlung," 19th 
Book (" Corrector et Medicus "), §39. " Fecisti quod 
quaedam mulieres f acere solent ? Tollunt menstruum 
suum sanguinem et immiscent cibo vel potui et dant 
viris suis ad manducandum, ut plus diligantur ab eis. 
Si fecisti, quinque annos per legitimas ferias poe- 
niteas " ; also from Abbot Eegino of Prlim's (ob. 915), 
"De synodalibus causis," II., 359. 378 sq. (Edition of 
Wasserschleben, L. 1840, 354. 359); from Hrabanus 
Maurus's (ob. 856) "Liber Poenitentium " ("Opera," 
Cologne, 1627, Vol. VI.); from the "Regesta rerum 
Boicarum," for 1421 a.d., etc. 

Hildegai'de* Abbess of the convent on the 
Rupertsberg, near Bingen, d. 1179, in her "Libri sub- 
tilitatum diversarum natur. creatur " (Ed. Migne, 
Paris, 1855), the oldest work of monastic medicine 
composed in Germany, which also gives experiences 
of popular therapeutics, praises baths of menstrual 
blood for leprosy. Warm uterine blood of a virgin, 
applied to gouty limbs, would alleviate the violent 
pain.t A shirt stained with this blood would ensure 

* p. Kaiser, " Die naturwissenschaftlichen Schriften der Hildegard 
von Bingen," Be. 1901 (24) ; " Hildegardis causae et curae," ed. P. 
Kaiser, L. 1903 (254). 

t "Hauss-Apothec" 50: "The pains of podagra are alleviated by the 
menstrual blood of a virgin, when it is smeared warm upon the 
place." — Fossel, " Steiermark " 166: "Linen rags steeped in mens- 
trual blood are poultices against gout well known from of old." 

Blood for Healing 53 

against blow and stab,* and would quench outbreaks 
of fire, when thrown into the flames. 

In the "CosmooTaphy " of the Arabian, Zakarija 
ben Muhammed al-Qazwmi (ob. 1283 a.d.), Edtn. of F. 
Wiistenfeld, Gottingen 1848 sq., it is observed I. 366: 
" The blood of menstruation, if the bite of the mad dog 
is smeared with it, cures it, and likewise tubercular 
(knotig) leprosy and black scab (Kaude). (In regard 
to these names of diseases, Cf. /. M. Honigherger, 
" Friichte aus dem Morgenlande," Vienna, 1853, 542 
sq.) ; 367 : "The blood of the menstruation of a virgin 
helps against the white spots on the pupil, if it is 
applied as an eye-salve." t 

" Birthmarks, red moles, and freckles vanish if 
they are smeared with warm menstrual blood, the 
placenta, or with blood from the umbilical cord. . . . 
of a woman bearing her first child. (Unter- und Ober- 
franken)," Lammert, 184 sq. (ibid, original documents). 
" Moles . . . are cured by smearing with the blood of 
a fresh umbilical cord, by rubbing with a fresh after- 
birth. . . . The red mole is covered with a linen 
clout which is moistened with fresh menstrual blood 
(Ennsthal)," Fossel 134. 56. "The freckles, especially 
of women, are sought to be dispelled by smearing. . . 
with warm menstrual blood (Oberland and neighbour- 
hood of Graz)," Fossel 135. — "The smearing of warts 
with fresh menstrual blood. ... is universal^ prac- 
tised," Fossel 140. Slightly different is the practice in 
Oldenburg: " To dispel warts, the}^ are smeared with 
the blood of another person's warts ; the blood of one's 
own warts generates more of them." Strackerjan I. 

* 'Hauss-Apothec" 45: "How a man may alwaj'S conquer in tilting 
or the lists. Take a piece of a virgin's shift, who has for the first 
time had the menses. Wrap it in a new trousers belt, which a pure 
virgin has made, and bind it on the naked skin beneath the right 
arm, so wilt thou feel the effect. Staricius in the ' Heldenschatz,' 
page 97." 

t Cf. also W. Ji. Smith, "Religion of the Semites," 2nd ed., I. 133. 

54 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

83. — " For itch, wear a shirt, in which a woman has 
menstruated, during three days on the belly (Hief- 
lau)," Fossel 135.— " Hauss-i^pothec," 45: "Above all, 
the first virgin menses, preserved on the shift or a 
piece of linen, is held in high esteem, and when 
steeped in vinegar or rose-water, and, according to 
the greatness of the disease, laid and repeatedly laid 
on diseased glands, small-pox, apostemes, is prized as 
an excellent remedy." 

In the Franche-Comte a good table-spoon of a 
woman's menstrual blood, or better still a young 
virgin's, in a glass of hot wine with sugar, is recom- 
mended for corrupt blood (sang gate). ("Melusine " 
I., C. 402). 

Love-potion*. " In the Oberpfalz . . . sweat, a 
few drops of menstrual blood . . . are mixed in the 
drink of the person, whose liking it is desired to win," 
Lammert, 151 sq. 

In 1885 in the assize circuit of Colmar, Dr. L. 
Fuld of Mainz, a barrister, had to work up a divorce 
case, in which, among other things it came out that 
the wife, in order to keep the affection of her husband, 
a farmer, had put a few drops of sanguis menstruus 
in his coffee. — An unmarried woman, B. (I intention- 
ally indicate the name only with a letter) in Schleswig 
in 1888 gave her sweetheart some drops of her sanguis 
menstruus in his coffee. " He shall not run away 
from me," she cried triumphantly; in spite of which 
he was unfaithful to her. (Information from E. 
Carstens, Dahrenwurth, near Lunden, July, 1892). — 
The same thing was done by Leila d'Errico, in order to 
chain to herself her lover, the Prince of Venosa. 
About the proceedings taken against her in 1603, v. 
Luigi Amabile, "II santo officio della Inquisizione in 
Napoli," Cittadi Castello 1892, Cf. Ur-quell, 1895, 12. 

* Cf . sup. p. 9, line 13, and Herklots, "Cauoon e-Islam or the customs 
of the Moosulmans of India," London 1832, p. 341 sq. 

Blood for Healing 55 

—The same is found in the Magyar folk-belief, v. Ur- 
Quell, 1892, 269. Likewise among the Gypsies. H. 
V. Wlislocki 77, 83-5. Cf. also J. W. Wolf, " Beitrage 
zur deutschen Mythologie " I. (Gottingen, 1852) 210.— 
In Oldenburg it is believed that a man too can win the 
affection of his beloved by the help of his blood. " The 
commonest remedy is, that one should give the other 

person something of his own body, e.g. three 

drops of blood in a glass of wine or in coffee." Strack- 
erjan I., 96.— In the province of Prussia, FrisMier 
159 : " If one wishes a beloved person to return one's 
love, one must put secretly a drop of one's own blood 
in that person's food or drink."— "The wife buries 
the hairs of a dead person and her own menses at the 
place where the husband is used to draw water in 
order to assure his marital fidelity." (Transylvania, v. 
Ur-Quell, 1893, 98). 

First Elements: "He who is unable to conceive any love for the 
beautiful sex, should on Friday evening put on silently in 
moonshine a girl's shift, and take it off again Sunday morning. 
Love is awakened (Konow, District of Kammin)," U. Jahn, 
No. 547.— Tatjana Timoschtschenkow, in 1880, made her 
judges, in order to bewitch their goodwill for herself, drink the 
water in which she had washed herself, Lowenstimm, 77.— The 
girl spits secretly in her sweetheart's beer-glass. (Neighbour- 
hood of Cofctbus). 

(Cessation of the menses). " One should drink 
some of the water in which the blood of a first men- 
struation has been dissolved or the girl's bloody shift 
has been washed, or one should put on a shift moist- 
ened with fresh menstrual blood (Franken)." 
Lammert 148. 

D. Some examples of the employment of other 
persons' blood. 

Taken from mediaeval medicine. The surgeon 
Henri de Mondeville (about 1304 in Montpellier; 
about 1306 and following years in Paris), says in his 
"Chirurgie," published by J. L. Pagel, Be. 1892, 555, 

56 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

*' Similiter dicit Thedericus, episcopus Lerviensis 
[also a famous mediaeval surgeon] in libello secre- 
torum suorum, quod nervi contracti, si fricando 
humectentur cum aqua sanguinis humani septies dis- 
tillati curabuntur," etc. He is followed by Guy de 
Chauliac, the most eminent surgeon of the middle ages 
(who practised in Montpellier, Bologna, Paris, ending 
as Papal Physician-in-Ordinary in Home) in his great 
"Chirurgie," written about 1363, or at any rate then 
published, "Tract." VI. 1, 1 (Paris, 1891, 401) in 
respect of the treatment of indurations both after 
fractures and in articular and nervous disorders, "et 
aqua sanguinis humani septies distillati est ad hoc 
per alchimistas et per Henricum laudata." 

(Against hydrophobia.) /. Wellhausen, " Reste 
arabischen Heidentumes," Be. 1887, 142: "Hydro- 
phobia is cured by King's-blood (" Kitab al-Aghani," 
ed. Bulaq XIIL, 36, 22 sq. XIV., 74, 28. "Arabb. 
Prow." I. 488. "Hamasa," 372, 9. 725, v. 5. Versio 
lat. II. 583 sq.). It can be seen from the quantity of 
instances, how widely-spread this belief was among 
the Arabs. It can hardly be explained otherwise than 
by assuming King's blood to be divine blood. The 
nobility is the centre of the stem, represents the 
straight branch of genealogy, and is nearest con- 
nected with the divine ancestor. King's blood, that 
is, does not signify the reigning King's blood, but the 
blood of the family from which the Kings or Princes 
are taken, e.g., that of the Quraishites, to whom the 
Khalifs belong. The poets flatter a Quraishite, by 
saying : " Thy blood is a help against rabies." — Cf. also 
Caussin de Perceval, "Essai sur I'histoire de 1' Arabic."* 

(Against children's convulsions). " The father 
pricks himself in the finger, and puts into the child's 

* "Son sang (du roi Djodbayma) recu dans les vases, fut conserve 
precieusement, car on croyait alors generalement que le sang des 
rois etait un specifique centre la folic ou possession, Khabal." 

Blood for Healing 57 

mouth three drops of blood from the wound," 
Lammert, "Bayern," 125, Cf. sup. Ch. 4A. 

" Against distemper in little children : The father 
should give the child three drops of blood out of the 
first joint of his ring finger (Rackow, district of Neu- 
stettin)," U. Jahn, No. 519. 

"Hauss-Apothec," 40 sq. "The wondrous virtue of human blood is 
this. If one distills into an alembic the blood of a young, 
healthy person about thirty odd years old, it makes all poor 
complexions again blooming, is good for all weakness of the 
brain, memory and spirits, banishes all poison from the heart, 
cures all manner of lung complaints, purifies the blood beyond 
all other medicaments, and is good for diarrhoea and lumbago, 
and increases the blood and semen," etc. 

E. Human flesh. Fr. L. Walther, "Von Menschen- 
fressenden Volkern and Menschenopfern," 1785. — 
R. Andree, "Die Anthropophagie," L., 1887 (105).— 
H. Gaidoz, "L'anthrophagie," in "Melusine," III., 
column 337-46, 361-3, 385-9, 409-11, 433-5, 457-60, 481-7, 
505 sq. (385 sq. contain instances of the fact that there 
is a belief in China and in Tonquin that he who has 
eaten of the flesh, especially of the heart or the liver, 
of a man has his courage communicated to him. — P. 
Bergemann, " Die Verbreitung der Anthropophagie 
iiber die Erde und Ermittelung einiger Wesensziige 
dieses Branches," Bunzlau, 1893 (53).— 72. S. Stein- 
metz, " Endokannibalismus," Vienna, 1896; H. Kern, 
" Menschenfleisch als Arznei," in Ethnographische 
Beitrdge, Festgabe zur Feier des 70. Geburtstages 
von Prof. Ad. Bastian (Leiden, 1896), 37-40. Corro- 
borations of these four works from South Slav sources 
are given by F. S. Kravss, "Menschenfleischessen," 
in Ur-Quell, 1897, 1-5, 117-9. If a brigand kills any- 
body in the Masur district, he tastes a little of his 
blood in the belief that the blood of the murdered man 
will in that case not overtake him. When the Mon- 
tenegrins cut a Turk's or Arnaut's head off they licked 
the blood off the yataghan, with the notion that the 

58 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

blood would not then descend into their feet— ^.e., 
they would not lose their presence of mind. If two 
persons in the Mazur district want to seal brother- 
hood they let blood on each other's fingers and suck 
it out mutually (p. 117). 347-350 (about the unrest in 
Croatia, 1897).' 

F. Incidentally may be mentioned here the 
longing for human blood or flesh in lunatics and 
pregnant women; v. regarding the former, C. Lom- 
broso, '' Der Verbrecher," translated into German by 
Frankel, II. (Hamburg, 1890), 89 (Verzeni), 111; 
regarding both, v. R. Leubusche?^ " Uber Wehrwolfe 
und Thierverwandlungen im Mittelalter," Berl., 
1850, 57-63 (Bichel, the murderer of girls, Bertrand, 
the mutilator and outrager of corpses, etc.). Cf. also 
Daumer, I., 148-155 (" Kannibalismus des christl. 
Alt."), and inf. Ch. 13. 

G. Blood of the Saints. Daumer, l.,l^\. When 
St. Blasius (under Diocletian) was murdered, seven 
Christian women smeared themselves with his blood, 
V. Wicelius, "Chorus sanctorum omnium," Cologne, 
1554, 39. 

H. The Communion wine and the consecrated 
wafers are referable here in so far as the partaking 
of them was also believed to alTect a person's cor- 
porality. In respect of Christ's blood shed in the 
Holy Communion cf. (as early as about 348 a.d.), the 
23rd "Catechesis" of Cyrillus of Jerusalem: "If a 
drop remains on your lips, smear your eyes and fore- 
head with it, and sanctify them." About the legends 
regarding the blood of the Crucified Saviour, v. espe- 
cially /. A^. Sepy, "Das Leben Jesu Christi," V. 
(Regensburg, 1861). For Iceland, v. Feilberg, Ur- 
Quell, 1892, 87 sq. ; for Poland, v. Schiffer, ibid. 147 
sq. A good many criminals think they can perjure 
themselves with impunity if they have with them a 
piece of consecrated wafer from Holy Communion. 

Blood for Healing 59 

The doctrine of transubstantiation, which was 
brought forward as early as the middle of the 9th 
century a.d. by Paschasius Radbertus, and ecclesias- 
tically established in 1215 at the fourth Lateran 
Synod, afforded the possibility that coarse-minded, 
and therefore also superstitious, ideas might be con- 
nected with the consecrated wafers. Cf. supr., p. 34, 
Jezer at Berne. From the end of the 13th century 
the appearance of the "bleeding holy wafers "* gave 
frequently rise to the charge that the Jews had pierced 
or cut through the wafers, and thus outraged them, 
and the accusation led to numerous persecutions of 
the Jews.t 

It is the merit of the Berlin naturalist Ehrenlerg 
to have shown the possibility of an explanation for a 
portion of these cases, v. " Verhandlungen," of the 
Academy of Sciences at Berlin, of 26th October, 1848, 
349: "Herr Ehrenberg exhibited in fresh condition 
the old-time famous prodigy of blood in bread and 
food as a phenomenon now appearing in Berlin, and 
explained the same as conditioned by a hitherto 
unknown nomadic animalcula." Ibid. 349-62, E. 

* Several points about "bleeding wafers and altar-cloths" in 
Daumer II., 111-20. 

t Besides what has been dealt with by Ehrenberg, cf. McCanI, 
''Reasons for believing, etc." 12 sq. ; Cu^arivs von Heisferhaeh (first 
half of the 13th century) in 9th Book of the "DialogusMiraculorum'» 
(edition of J. Strange, Cologne, 1851); Johanv ron Winterthnr's 
"Chronik," trltd. by B. Freuler, Winterthur, 1866. 179 sq. ; 
O. Sfobbe, "Die Juden in Deutschland wahrend des Mittelalters, 
Brunswick 1866, 187 sq., 283; B. Bree.f, "Das Wunderblut von 
Wilsnack" (1383—1522). Authoritative statement about the 
'Wunderblut" historical facts (in "Markische Forschungeu" (1881) 
131-302); F. Hnltze, "Das Strafverfahren gegen die ^markischen 
Judeu ini Jahre 1510" ("Schriften des Vereins fiir die Geschichte 
Berlins," part 21). Be., 1884. 22, 28. 173; G. SHIo, in R. Koser's 
"Forschuugen zur Brandenburg, u. Preussichen Geschichte," IV., 
L. 1891 (about the same proceedings); the names of the 36 Jews 
burnt are given, according to the day-book of Minden, by 
D. Kmtf 111(11} n. in Magnzin fiir die Wissem^ehaff de.^ J udenthum>^. Be 

60 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

gives an abundant list of cases in which the visual 
appearance of blood on the wafers and other objects 
— blood which was apparent and therefore held to be 
real — was to be explained by the appearance of a 
species of bacteria which was quite unknown till 1819 
(Dr. Sette at Padua), and was only more intimately 
investigated in 1848 by Ehrenberg himself. The 
immediate conclusion is that the Jews were unjustly 
reproached with desecration of the wafers on the 
ground of that phenomenon. 362: *' I have been able 
very easily to propagate the phenomena on conse- 
crated wafers. It makes its most flourishing 
appearance on boiled rice. It develops with striking 
facility in warm air in covered vessels and plates. — 
What a capacity for production ! What a power ! ' ' 
Ehrenberg gave publicity, on 15th March, 1849, to 
further " Mitteilungen liber Monas prodigiosa oder 
die Purpurmonade," 101-116.=^ Again Cf. C. Binz in 
V erhandlungen des naturhistorischen Vereines der freu- 
ssischen Rheinlande u. Westphalens, Bonn, XXIX. 
[1872]; Sitzungsherichte, 166-9, 210f; /. Schroeter, 
"Ueber einige durch Bakterien gebildete Pigmente" in 
" Beitrage zur Biologic der Pfianzen." Published by 
Ferd. Cohn. 2nd part, 2nd impression, Breslau, 1881, 
109-19; F. Cohn, " Untersuchungen liber Bacterien " 
(in Beitrage, etc., 153); Leunis, "Synopsis der Pflan- 
zenkunde,"^ III., 634. 


Schroeter: " Bacteridium prodigiosum." Cohu-. "Micrococcus 

Fere B adds, after Rainald, "Anuales ecclesiastici," VI. 125 
(Lucca 1750): "He (Benedict XII. in 1338) who was well instructed 
about the fabrication of miracles that blossomed in his time, 
answered the Duke of Austria's question about the ' bleeding holy 
wafers' at Passau, to the effect that the matter should first be 
carefully examined into, as in that regard there had already been 
deceptions proved. He also wrote to the Bishop, to carry on the 
investigation, taking particular heed of the falsifications that had 
already occurred, and canonically to visit severe punishment on 
those who were guilty of them." 

Blood for Healing 61 

How is it to be explained that the charge of desce- 
crating the consecrated wafers was so often brought 
against the Jews? Precisely the high esteem'^in 
which the wafers were held by many Christians con- 
duced for more reasons than one to exciting in Jews 
the desire to get possession of such valuable objects— 
e.g., as security for loans. 

Another proof of the belief in the efficaciousness 
of the blood (only apparently contradictory) is the 
widespread repugnance against the consumption of 
blood {Frazer, "The Golden Bough," 2nd edition, I., 
353), nay, even against the beholding of women's 
blood (ibid. p. 360, sq.). 


The opinion was extraordinarily widespread, 
pre-eminently in mediaeval times, that leprosy could 
be healed only by human blood. The brothers Grimm 
say ("Der Arme Heinrich von Hartmann von der 
Aue." Published and elucidated, Berl., 1815, 172 
sq.) : " Health, which has been shaken to its centre 
and spoilt, can only be restored by the approach and 
invigoration of the 'pure; ordinary aid by means of 
herbs, juices, stones, which only operate for parti- 
cular things, is futile ; a complete annihilation of the 
evil and a new rejuvenated life are requisite. Leprosy 
and blindness were regarded as such generally 
incurable diseases which could only be removed by a 
miracle. . . . The pure blood of a virgin or of a 
child was, above all, thought to be the source of life 
which would abolish those diseases and engender a 
new flourishing life. . . . The patient had to 
bathe in it or be sprinkled with it; whereupon he was 
pure and fresh, like a maid or a child." 

Doubtless the oldest evidence for the existence of 
this belief occurs in Pliny's " Nat. Hist.," XXVL, 1, 5. 
He says of elephantiasis : " This disease was chiefly 
at home in Egypt, and when kings were attacked by 
it, it was bad for the people ; for then the seats in the 
baths were warmed with human blood for the sake of 
the cure." Herewith the old Jewish exegesis (called 
the " Midrash Shemoth [Exodus] Rabba "), of Exodus 
II., 23, is in striking agreement : " ' The king of Egypt 
died,' — i.e., he had become leprous, and a leprous 

Human Blood Cures Leprosy 63 

person (Numbers XII. 12) was considered dead. ' And 
the children of Israel sighed.' Why? Because the 
hieroglyphic experts of Egypt had said to the king: 
There is no cure for you, unless every evening 150 little 
Israelite children are slaughtered, and every morning 
150, and thou bathest twice daily in their blood. 
When the Israelites learnt of this grievous doom they 
began to sigh and complain." Cf. also the Para- 
phrase usually termed "Pseudo-Jonathan " : "The 
king of Egypt was eaten away. So he bade kill the 
first-born of the children of Israel, in order to bathe 
himself in their blood." 

Cons tan tine the Great, according to the legend, 
when he was still a heathen, was, owing to his per- 
secution of the Christians, punished with leprosy. 
Neither native doctors nor Persian savants could 
prevail against the fearful malady. The priests of 
Jupiter Capitolinus thereupon declared he must bathe 
in children's blood. Children were procured; but 
the lamenting of the mothers moved the Emperor to 
such an extent that he declared he would rather suffer 
alone than make many suffer. Referred in a dream 
to Pope Sylvester, he is converted, and is restored to 
health after baptism. Cf. Simon Metaphrastes in the 
Life of Sylvester, Michael Glykas, Nicephorus Callisti 
and "Reali di Francia," cap. 1. So early a writer as 
the Armenian Moses of Chorene (ob. a.d. 487) relates 
that the advice was given by heathen priests. 
Georgius Cedrenus's story that Jewish doctors had 
counselled the bath in children's blood rests upon 
prejudiced distortion of the older form of the legend. 

"Pentamerone III., 9. The Great Turk (i.e., the witchmaster, 
Giant, great Enemy) has the leprosy, and cannot be cured unless 
he bathes in the blood of a great prince." He gets one caught, 
but the captive runs away (Grimm, 1/8 sq.). — "Histoire de 
sainct greaal (Paris, 1523, Fol. 225). When Galaad, Perceval, 
and Boort travel together, and Perceval's sister is with them 
they reach a castle. . . . and hear that the Lady of it has 

64 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

been sick of leprosy for two years, and no physician has known 
a cure for it. At length a wise man had said a basin, full of 
a virgin's blood, was needed. . . . salved with it, the sick 
woman would at once become clean "' (Grimm 180). — "Histoire 
de Giglan de Galles et Geoffrey de Mayence, cap. 19. A giant 
is leprous, and wants to bathe in children's blood in order to 
cure himself. His servant has already kidnapped eight 
children, slaughtered them, and gathered their blood in a bowl, 
and is just on the point of kidnapping the ninth'' (Grimm, 181). 

We may also allude here to the touching story of Amicus and 
Amelius (Ludwig and Alexander,^' Engelhard and Engeltrut, 
Oliver and Artus, the pilgrims of St. James de Compostella, v. 
Grimm, 187-97. Cassel, 182-6), which has been disseminted in 
several variations (just named) which, however, are secondary 
to our purpose. One of the friends becomes leprous. When 
the other learns that cure is only possible by children's blood, 
he kills his own children, and brings their blood to his friend. 
The friend is cured, but God rewards the other's loyalty by 
raising the children to life again. Cf. also the fairy tale "Der 
treue Johannes" (in the collection of the brothers Grimm, 
No. 6). 

" Der arme Heinrich," by the Swabian poet, Hart- 
mann von Aue, may here be assumed to be known. 

The story of Hirlanda belongs to the same period. King Richard 
of England (1189-99) suffering from leprosy, sent for a Jew 
renowned for his skill, as no other doctor could help him. This 
doctor did his best, but the illness grew quickly worse. At last 
he spoke : I know of "a powerful remedy, if your Majesty had 
heart enough to employ it. . . Know that you will recover 
your health completely, if you can make up your mind to bathe 
in the blood of a new-born child, since I can swear to your 
Majesty by my Law, that nothing in the world works 
so vigorously against the corruption that has settled on your 
body, as the fresh blood of a new-born child. But because 
this remedy is only external, it must be helped out by an addi- 
tional recipe, which extirpates even the inward root of the 
malady. Namely, the child's heart must be added, which your 
Majesty must eat and consume quite warm and raw, just as it 

* Tn "Die sieben weisen Meister," which story, e.g., E. Sinirock has 
printed in "Die deutschen Volksbiicher," vol. XII. Frankfort (a.M. 
1865) cf. esply. p. 237 : "Then he (Emperor Ludwig) betook 
himself into the chamber wherein the (his) five children lay, and 
killed them all five together, and took a vessel and filled it with 
the children's blood. Whereupon he went to King Alexander and 
washed him all over with it. Now when King Alexander had been 
washed with the blood, he suddenly became fresh and quite whole." 

Human Blood Cures Leprosy 66 

has beeu taken from the body." (Simrock, "Volksbucher," 
XII., 31 sq.)* 

The story of the foundation of the Schongau Bad at the Lindenberg 
relates how a libertine, having become leprous, wanted to bathe 
in the blood of twelve virgins, so as to be healed, but, after he 
had already killed eleven, he was despatched by the brother of 
the twelfth, whom he had already chained up. E. L. Roch- 
holz, "Schweizersagen aus dem Aargau," I. (Argau, 1856), 22 

Valerius Anshelm (from 1520 onward, municipal 
physician at Berne) narrates of Louis XL, King of 
France (146L83), in his "Berner Chronik," I. (Berne, 
1825), 320: " Now, when he was very ill, he seeks for 
and tries everything, especially much children's 
blood because of his illness." G. Daniel, " Histoire de 
France," IX. (1755), 413: "II avoit recours a tons les 
remedes naturels et surnaturels; et pour le guerir, 
dit un Historien contemporain, furent faites de ter- 
ribles et merveilleuses medecines. Un autre dit plus 
en particulier, qu'on luy fit boire du sang, qu'on avoit 
tire a plusieurs enfans, dans I'esperance que cette 
potion pourroit corriger I'acrete du sien, et retablir 
son ancienne vigueur." (In the margin as authority : 
"Gaguin," who wrote about 1498.) 

Two evidences for the attitude of medical science. 
The celebrated physician, Theoyhrastus Paracelsus von 
Hohenheim (1493-1541), mentions as remedies for 
leprosy: " Dosis sanguinis humani, semel in mense in 
secunda die post oppositionem." Even the Ziirich 
professor and municipal physician, J oh. v. Muralt, 
prescribes in the "Hippocrates Helveticus," Basel, 
1692, 645, human blood for hereditary scab. 

♦The narrative is not based upon actual happenings. Richard did 
not , suffer from leprosy; he died as the result of a wound he 
received. Accordingly the Jewish physician, together with his 

advice, also belongs to fiction. Cf. besides, the report given in Ch. 
15 on the death of Pope Innocent VIII. 


Very common, too, is the use of personal blood— 
i.e., the blood of the person upon whom an effect is to 
be produced. The blood is customarily either (A) 
taken inwardly, or (B) disposed of in a special 
manner, more rarely (C) applied externally. 

A. (Haemorrhages.) In violent uterine haemor- 
rhages " the woman in labour is given one or more 
spoonfuls of her own blood mixed with water," 
Lammert, "Bayern," 167.— " In May or between the 
two Lady-days catch two green frogs, dry and pound 
them, and give some of it in red wine with some 
pomegranate pods and human blood, and you will 
stop all bleeding with this (Suabia)," {Lammert, 194).— 
Hofler, too, " Oberbayern," 210, alludes to " the drink- 
ing of one's own blood in blood-letting" as an 
ordinary remedy. 

B. (Dropsy.) " A dropsical person should bleed 
himself on the right arm, pour the blood into any 
empty egg-shell, and bury this in the dung till it 
grows rotten." Buck, "Schwaben," 44.— (Ischiagra) : 
" In Nuremberg, where they scratch the spot till it 
bleeds, and plug some wool, soaked in blood, into the 
tree." Lammert, 270.— (Epilepsy) : He who is attacked 
by epilepsy should have his blood let. This blood 
should be poured into a hole, which is made in a free. 
Thereupon one must close the hole with the bored-out 
wood. Lammert, 272.— (Fever) : " If owing to great 
febrile heat the patient is bled, wet a clean rag some- 
what with this blood, and lay it, without letting it get 
otherwise wet, in a cool place, in the cellar, or in the 

Utilisation of One's Own Blood 67 

side of a well; then will the heat directly disappear 
(Unterfranken)." Lammert, 198. — The invalid goes 
before sunrise to a small tree, scratches his left little 
finger, smears the blood on the tree, and speaks: Go 
away, fever; go away into the tree, etc., v. Wlislocki, 
"Zigeuner," 82. 

(Freckles.) " Go Friday morning before sunrise 
into the wood, bore a hole in a tree, put some blood 
from the nettlerash into the shavings that have been 
bored out, put them back into the hole, and shut it 
tightly (Unterfranken)." Lammert, 179. — (Malignant 
skin-eruption) : The Transylvanian tent-gipsy lets 
some drops of blood fall before sunrise from his left 
ring-finger into running water; if a water-sprite 
swallows this blood the evil is turned aside, v. 
Wlislocki, 82. 

(Toothache.) In Northern Lithuania the following 
remedy is applied to toothache : You cut a chip from 
a living tree, and bore a hole in the tree; you then 
clean the teeth and the gums with the chip (usually 
another person does it) till blood comes ; stick the chip 
in the hole and set light to it. The sufferer turns his 
back to the tree and goes off ; but he must never look 
at the tree again. — According to Pisanski {Wochent- 
liche Konigshergische Frag-und Anzeigungs-Nachr'ichten, 
1756, No. 22) it must be an elder-tree.* With the 
splinter cut out of it, you worry the gums till they 
bleed ; then " you must plug it again into its former 
place, and let it grow together again." Frischbier, 
102. — " If anyone has toothache, let him take a nail 
when the moon is waning, bore with it into the tooth 
so that blood comes, then let him knock it silently 
into the north side of an oak, so that the sun does not 
shine on it, and as long as the tree remains standing 
he will never again have toothache." {Ad. Kuhn, 

* About this tree, Cf. U rch-Brnnnen I. (1881-2) part 9, p. 16. 

68 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

"Markische Sagen und Marchen," Be., 1843, supple- 
ment p. 384.)— In Bischofsheim, District of Molsheim, 
you take a new nail, and after it has become blood- 
stained you knock it " into a place which neither sun 
nor moon reaches." Jah^huch fiir Geschichte, Spj'acJie 
u. Litteratur Elsass-Lothringens. VIII. (Strasburg, 
1892), 13. 

(Hemorrhages). " Burning of a linen rag, on 
which three drops of blood of the bleeding person 
have fallen," mfler2l^. 

(Against gout and rheumatism). The South 
Hungarian gipsy cuts himself in the left arm and lets 
the pamful place be rubbed in, first with the blood, 
then with the grains of hip and haw berries, v. Wlis- 
locU^ 82. 

"How to make a young married pair sterile. 
Cut a strip out of the bride's shift which is stained 
with the blood of her menses. When the young 
couple are declared one in church, stick the rag into a 
padlock and close it as soon as the Pastor says Amen. 
Afterwards cast it in a well or else in a place where 
nobody can find it. As long as the padlock lies un- 
opened in its place, the pair will remain childless 
(Hinterpommern)." Jahn, "Pommern," No. 546. 

Quite similar is the method described in No. 521 
from Liepe auf Usedom.* 

C. (Haemorrhages). Qazwini I., 366: "If anyone 
has nose-bleeding, he writes his name with his blood 
on a rag and lays it before his eyes ; the blood is then 

* Magic for the same object, but without blood. Kvhn, "Mark. 
Sagen," supplement, p. 358: "Sometimes there are, among those 
present, envious opponents of the bridegroom, who, during the time 
the blessing is pronounced, open and shut three times an heirloom 
lock, in order that the married couple may remain barren." In 
the palaest. Talmud "Sanhedrin" VII., fol. 25d, the sea is obliged, 
at the command of R. Josua, to vomit forth again the magic knot 
which has been cast into it. 

Utilisation of One's Own Blood 69 

(Against decline). A communication was sent 
from Kreuzborg in Upper Silesia to the Koln. Zeitung 
(15th July, 1892, No. 567): "Widow Skroka, of Guse- 
nau, had acquired the reputation of a 'wise ' woman 
through the cures to which she subjected children 
suffering from decline. As she announced before the 
Court, she had inherited a razor from her father, with 
which she made cut-wounds behind both ears of the 
sick children, so that blood flowed properly. She 
next dipped the middle finger of the left hand in the 
blood, made three crosses in the sick child's pit of the 
heart, and spoke at the same time some words, which 
she did not dare disclose. However, according to the 
statement of witnesses before the sherilT's court at 
Landsberg in Upper Silesia, three children— one of 
them as early as the second day— died after this 
'treatment,' probably from blood poisoning. The 
' wise ' woman Skroka escaped with 14 days' impri- 


A . The blood of people who have died a violent 
death, especially executed persons, is held to be even 
more efficacious than menstrual blood. In fact every- 
thing belonging to such individuals is considered 
effective. Pliny, "Nat. Hist." XXVIIL, 1, 2: 
"Treatises by Democritus are still in existence, 
according to which, in one case, the head bones of a 
criminal are more serviceable, in another, those of a 
friend and guest. . . . Antaeus made out of a hanged 
man's skull pills for mad dog bites." 

" The blood of executed criminals, drunk warm, 
is good for epilepsy," Buck, "Schwaben," 44. The 
same evidence in Lammert, "Bayern," 271. — G. F. 
Most, " Die sympathetischen Mittel und Kurmetho- 
den," Rostock, 1842, 150, tells how somebody, to get 
rid of this complaint, drank the still warm blood of an 
executed person, but fell down dead after he had run 
a hundred paces. — Strackerjan I., 83 sq. " Blood of an 
executed person, when drunk, helps against epilepsy 
and (Ovelgonne) fever. One must if possible drink it 
fresh, and then run as long as one can (Wildeshau- 
sen)". — For Denmark and Sweden Cf. Feilberg, 
Ur-Quell III., 4. The celebrated fairy story-teller 
Andersen describes in his autobiography an execution 
which he witnessed at Skelskor in 1823 : " I saw a poor 
sick man, whom his superstitious parents made drink 
a cup of the blood of the executed person, that he 

Executed Persons 71 

might be healed of epilepsy ; after which they ran 
with him in wild career till he sank to the ground." 

Also according to the popular belief of the Tran- 
sylvanians the blood of a hanged person is helpful in 
epilepsy, v. Ur-Quell 1893, 99. 

"On 6th June, 1755, K. G. Zeibig, who when 
drunk had murdered a man, was beheaded on the 
Eabenstein at Dresden. . . . Before the execution two 
foremen of the tailor fraternity at Dresden l)egged the 
Prime Minister, Count Heinr. v. Briihl, on behalf of 
their brother member, Joh. Ge. Wiedemann, who suf- 
fered severely from epilepsy, that the same be allowed 
to drink the blood of the murderer for his restoration 
to health. An entry in the register announces that 
Briihl assented to the request, and also that Wiede- 
mann, after drinking the blood of the individual 
beheaded, ' ran off.' " Th. Distel, " Neues Archiv fiir 
Sachsische Geschichte u. Alterthumskunde," IX. 
[Dresden, 1888] 160, rightly adds : '' It is remarkable in 
this connection that even the highest official should 
have granted the request for the drinking of such 
human blood, and thus simply promoted crass super- 
stition." For more about this superstition readers 
are directed to " Breslauer Sammlungen 1721 June; 
^ Winterquartal ' 1721, pp. 654-7, class IV., art 17: Cf. 
also Oct. 1720, class IV. art. 9." He also refers to the 
article "Epilepsie," in Zedlers " Universallexikon." 

Carl Lehmann, " Chronik der freien Bergstadt 
Schneeberg" III. (Schneeberg, 1840), 299 describes 
the execution at Zwickau of the murderer Karl Heinr. 
Friedrich on 15th Dec, 1823 (Cf. inf. ch. 12). He says 
at the end : " And with our own eyes we saw how a 
pot full of the blood of the executed man was drunk 
dry by various persons, and how these persons, 
mostly children, were driven with blows from w^hips 
to run at utmost speed over the field." 

When the murderer Carsten Hinrich Hinz had 

72 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

been executed near Tonning on 16th April, 1844, the 
epileptic son of a farmer, P. Ketels, of Gunsbiittel, 
drank, by permission of the executioner, who came 
from Oldenburg, some of the criminal's blood (com- 
munication from H. Carstens, of Dahrenwurth).* — " I 
was a pupil of the famous Prof. Herrmann at Gottin- 
gen. At his suggestion, at the beginning of January, 
1859, I attended the public execution of a female 
poisoner at Gottingen. It was done with a sword. 
When the head was severed from the body, and the 
fountain of blood sprang up about 1^ feet high, the 
populace broke through the square formed by the 
Hanover Schiitzen, rushed upon the scaffold, and 
possessed itself of the blood of the dead woman, col- 
lecting it and dipping white cloths in it. It was 
positively a gruesome impression. To my horrified 
question I got answer that the blood was applied for 
the cure of epilepsy." (Communication of the Attor- 
ney-General (" Oberstaatsanwalt ") Woytasch, of Mari- 
enwerder, August, 1892). — " A woman in an 
Outer-Rhodes (Appenzell) almshouse suffered from 
epilepsy, and received from the properly qualified 
directorate of the institution permission to go on the 
day after execution [of a butcher] to Trogen [in 
Appenzell] and try the gruesome remedy. Three 
draughts must be swallowed whilst the names of the 
three Highest are invoked. She was already standing 
at the scaffold, when a fresh access of her illness 
occurred, and hindered the carrying out of the plan. 
Aarqauer Nachrichten, of 26 July, 1862." (Rochholz 
I., 40). 

" Pommern,"t U. Jahn, No. 522 : " The value of the 

*Such blood is also mentioned by H. Volhinatm, U r-Qnell 1893, 279, 
as a remedy against convulsions, believed in in Schleswig-Holstein. 

t About the significance of the blood of an executed person, 0. Knoop 
has collected further authentic documents from Pomerania in 
"Blatter fiir Pommersche Volkskunde," I. (Stettin 1893), 62-4. 

Executed Persons 73 

blood of an executed person : When a criminal is 
executed, some of his blood must be obtained in a 
piece of linen. Bakers and brewers must dip such a 
rag into their dough and their beer, merchants and 
inkeepers into the broached brandy barrels, then 
they get a large number of customers; horse-owners 
must rub in their horses with it, that they may 
become sleek and shiny. The power of the blood, 
however, only extends to the third member (general)." 
—The story of "Der Slindenfinger," well known in 
Stolp, in its essential point (v. Urds-Brunnen VI. 
[1888-9], 76 sq.) amounts to this: A merchant 
in Stolp had concealed in the spirit cask a 
finger of an executed person. In consequence of 
which customers flocked to him in crowds, and the 
business flourished. The ostler denounced his 
master, who was severely punished, and the finger 
taken away from him. After fulfilling his term of 
prison the merchant had no luck any more; the 
customers remained away. 

"Preussen," Frischhier 24: "Skinners' families 
preserve the blood of executed people as a magic 
remed}'." 106: "The finger or blood of an executed 
person brings luck into house and into business 
(Donhoffstadt). If such a finger be put in the stables, 
the horses thrive well (Ermland). — As is evident from 
the Report on the Conitz witch-trial in 1623 (" Preus- 
siche Provinzial-Blatter " II., 133 sq.), in former 
times not only were the fingers and other limbs of 
corpses hanging on the gallows lucky, but also 
gallows-chains and gallows-nails ; they helped to 
good beer-brewing and sale of beer, quickened 
manual work, made horses indefatigable, etc." Cf. 
also Tettau and Temme. 2Q5.—Mannha?'dt 49 : " A good 
many [executioners and skinners] keep the blood of 
the executed as a magic specific." 

"Masuren," Toppen 107: "The blood of the 

74 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

executed brings luck, and they often go several miles 
to get some of it (Neidenburg). Because, since a big 
crowd of people meet at the execution (at any rate 
they used to at the earlier public executions), buyers 
stream into their shops (Willenberg)." 

After Andreas Hofer had been executed in 1810, 
some soldiers, among them Miiller, the subsequent 
Director of Prisons in Vienna during the fifties, 
banded together to get hold of a limb of his body, 
because they regarded such as an amulet. They were, 
however, caught and punished (communicated by 
Prof. G. Wolf, of Vienna). 

" Shanghai, 15 July. (East-As. Lloyd). In Foo- 
chow at the beginning of the month, occurred the 
execution of a pirate. After the criminal had been 
made a head shorter, the executioner opened the 
corpse with his sword, tore out the liver and distri- 
buted it in pieces among his assistants. The fact is 
that the liver of persons who have been hurried into 
the bej^ond by the executioner's sword is deemed a 
radical cure for various illnesses, especially consump- 
tion." (Voss. Zeitung, 26 Aug., 1892, No. 397). 

B. Particular value is attached to the rope used 
by a hangman and a suicide. Pliny "N. H." xxviii. 
4, 12, alludes to the belief that the rope by which a 
person has been hanged, wound round the temples, 
alleviates headaches.— LewM " Ostpreussen " I., 57: 
" It is considered a ' Gllickszw^ang ' (compeller of luck) 
to appropriate secretly some of the property of the 
fresh corpse. A suicide's rope and the blood of an 
executed person have a quite special value." I., 115: 
" ' When W. hung himself in Gerswalcl, the man, who, 
people said, brought the rope home with him, came 
into good luck. But those in whose house he had 
hanged himself, and who had been deprived of the 
rope, came to grief.' " 

"Poland," Schiffer, Ur-Quell, 1892, 200: "He who 

Executed Persons 75 

wishes to have well-fed cattle, and that they should 
consume all the fodder in the crib, let him rub the 
crib with a rag which comes from a hanged person. 
Certain articles of the dress of a hanged person are 
needful to the efficacy of certain magic formulae."— 
P. 201 : " Udziela tells about a peasant, who buried the 
rope of a hanged person in his garden, so that the 
passing river might not overflow its banks and press 
further into the field. He who carries with him a 
piece of the rope, with which anybody has hanged 
himself, has always luck. If a publican desires a 
brisk demand for brandy, let him put into the 
brandy barrel a thread from the dress of a hanged 
person. Lukaszewicz relates that in 1559 in Posen a 
certain Anna Maciejowa Sieczczyna was whipped 
and hounded out of the town on account of dealings 
in magic, amongst other things because she escorted 
a female innkeeper to the gallows, in order to get the 
rope with which a criminal had recently been hanged. 
The peasants explain the powers of attraction wielded 
over them by the brandy barrel by the circumstance 
that the host has put in it the rope of a hanged 

" The dying can be kept very long alive, if part of 
a hangman's rope is laid in their beds. My grand- 
father told me this about a widow, who was 

kept alive in that way more than a year When 

the rope was taken out of the bed, in order ' to lighten 
the woman's anguish,' she died even in the course of 
the same day." "Transylvania," H. v. Wlislocki, 
Ur-Quell 1893, 100. 

The well-known soubrette Josefine Gallmeyer 
(not of Jewish extraction) took with her on her pil- 
grimage to Maria-Zell, a "Mesusa"*and a piece of 

♦The " Mesusa " is a small metal box, attached to the doorposts of 
Jewish dwellings, with a small parchment scroll on which are 
written the Biblical words in Deuteronomy VI., 4-9, and XI., 13-21. 

76 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

hangman's rope. (Communicated by Prof. G. Wolf, of 
Vienna, according to the narration of several persons 
friendly with J. G.) 

C. In place of the rope, a nail from a cross, gal- 
lows, or bier, is also occasionally mentioned. Pliny, 
"N. H." xxviii., 4, 11: "Some, in cases of quartan 
fever, bind round their necks a piece of a nail from a 
cross wrapped in wool, or also a rope taken from a 
cross, and, as soon as the invalid is free from fever, 
they hide it in a hole where the sun cannot pene- 
trate." Cf. p. 73, and inf. Ch. 15 B 4. 


A. Stracherjan justly remarks I, 70 : " In the use 
of ' sympathy ' for the cure of diseases, it is generally 
a question of firstly establishing the necessary connec- 
tion between the malady and another object, and 
secondly in some way to set the object aside or com- 
pletely to destroy it." I. 78: " Nothing can be more 
certainly destined to destruction, to corruption than a 
human corpse; wherefore there is scarcely a means 
more powerful for destroying hostile influences than 
when those influences are brought into connection 
with a corpse. Tumours, eruptions, outgrowths, 
warts, gout, etc., are dispelled, if one strokes the sick 
part with the hand (with the left hand) of a corpse.— 
If one puts in a coffin any part of an injured limb, say 
the scar of a wound, rags soaked in pus or blood, 
clothes covered with sweat, or a piece of wood which 
has been in contact with the suffering part, the illness 
passes away."— Hereditary lice can be got rid of, if a 
few in a pen-tray be put with a corpse in the coffin, 
Dithmarschen, v. Ur-Quell 1895, 217.— Let him who 
has a wound clean it with a cloth, lay this under the 
corpse's head and speak at the same time : Take this 
with you into the beyond ! Portugal, Ur-Quell 1898, 

B. But the idea of the majesty of death has also 
had influence in another direction, namely to the 
effect that in many cases the quality of directly curing 
and protecting has been attributed, and is still, to 
corpses and their -psnis.—Rochholz I, 232 : "The Swedes 

78 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

believed that on the possession of Frey's corpse de- 
pended the fertility and peace of the land; he was 
therefore not, according to custom, cremated, but 
buried in the hill untouched; in like manner King 
Halfdan Svarti was buried in four places in order to 
give the country fourfold fertility, and his different 
graves were pointed out (Grimm, " Kleine Schriften " 

II. 266."— "When the Northern Viking Ivar, son of 
Ragnar Lodbrok, died in England, he commanded on 
his death-bed that he wished to be buried there, 
where the kingdom was most exposed to hostile 
attacks." Likewise the Irish Prince Eoghan Bell 
was " buried with his red javelin in his hand, his face 
turned in the direction whence the foe were bound to 
make inroads into the land," v. Feilberg, Ur-Quell 

III, 118.— Cf. also F. Liebrecht "Zur Volkskunde " 
(Heilbronn 1879) 289 sq., who quotes Jul. Braun, 
" Naturgeschichte der Sage" (Munich 1864) I, 225. 
II, 407.—/. Grimm, " Geschichte der Deutschen 
Sprache " 149: "Those bones of Orestes or Theseus 
had a tutelary force for the whole land. Out of 
Pelops's bones Abaris is said to have constructed the 
Palladium and given it the Trojans (Julius Firmicus 
"Astronom." p. 435; Clemens Alexandr. "Ad gen- 
tes " p. 30). His shoulder blade was exhibited, and 
regarded as powerful to cure: "quorundam partes 
medicae sunt, sicuti cliximus de Pyrrhi regis pollice, 
et Elide solebat ostendi Pelopis costa, quam ebur- 
neam affirmabant," Pliny xxviii, 4, 4. But there was 
not evolved from it so general, all-comprehensive a 
worship as among the Christians." " They scarcely 
liked to build a church in which mouldering bones 
and old rags of clothes were not deposited; these 
saints, whose altars rose up next that of the Deity, 
whose festivals filled the whole year, were also lords 
of justice and of diseases ; for all oaths were sworn on 
their relics, all incurables besought cure on their 

Corpses and Parts of Corpses 79 

knees before their graves and relics." — Rochholz I, 
230 : " The head of S. Mal^arius in the Marienkapelle 
at Wiirzburg is laid ever}^ year [2 January] on 
believers; it is a security against headache. 
("Bavaria" iv. [Munich 1866], 220)." 

C. Drinking out of skulls. J. Grimm, " Geschichte 
der Deutschen Sprache " 144: "The monks at Treves 
had S. Theodulf's skull set in silver and gave fever- 
patients to drink out of it (" Acta Sanctorum " May I, 
99a). Leo von Rozmital came to Neuss in 1465 : There 
we saw in the church a costly coffin ; therein lay the 
dear holy Saint Quirinus, and we saw his skull, there- 
from they gave us to drink."— The author of a pil- 
grimage undertaken about 570-80 a.d. ("Antonini 
Placentini Itinerarium " cap. 22, Be. 1889, published 
by Gildemeister) writes after describing the Church of 
Sion at Jerusalem : " There is a nunnery there. I saw 
there enclosed in a gold casket adorned with jewels a 
human skull, of which they say, it is that of the 
martyr Theodota. Many drank water out of it for a 
blessing ('pro benedictione,') and I also drank." — 
Rochholz I, 230: "The Benedictine monastery ' zum S. 
Gumpertus ' in Ansbach received its name originally 
in 750 A.D., and is endowed with charters by Charle- 
magne in 787 A.D. ; it suffered the neighbouring Wend 
heathens to drink cures out of the wonder-working 
skull of Gumpertus, grew in consequence to a place of 
pilgrimage, and so gave the first occasion for the 
foundation of the future city. When S. Anna of 
Klingnau's corpse was dug up, a sick nun drank out 
of her skull {Murer, "Helvetia Sacra" 334 b). 'As 
long as S. Sebastian's skull set in silver is kept at 
Ebersperg in Upper Bavaria, and the consecrated 
wine is given those pilgrimaging thither to drink out 
of the skull, the plague has never more dared to take 
its seat in these parts.' ("Vierte Festpredigt zum hun- 
dert-jahrigen Jubilaum der Sebastiansbruderschaft 

80 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

zu Aichach." Augsburg 1757, 101.) Likewise in S. 
Nantwein near Nandesbuch, S. Vitalis in Au am Inn, 
S. Marinus in Rott am Inn, S. Alto in Altomiinster, 
the skull as a drinking vessel has been assimilated 
into the Christian religion, v. M. Hofler, "Wald- und 
Baumkult in Beziehung zur Volksmedizin Oberbay- 
erns," Munich 1894, 13. 46. 79. 87; Cf. also " Archiv 
fiir Anthropologie, Correspondenzblatt,'' xiii (1882), 
p. 46. The skull or other relics of S. Valentine (7 
January) are said to cure epileptics. — About skull- 
worship Cf. further W. Powell, " Unter den Kanni- 
balen von Neu-Britannien " (translated by F. M. 
Schroter, L. 1884, 144 b); G. A. Wilken, "Het Animisme 
bij de Volken van den Indischen Archipel," Leyden 
1885, Ch. 4, and in: " Bijdragen tot de taal-, land- en 
volkenkunde van Nederlandsch Indie" 1889, 89-130. 
The superstition that pigeons which are made to 
drink out of a dead person's skull always return to 
their dovecot, is not infrequently testified to, v. 
Rochholz " Schweizersagen " II, 160. — In order to com- 
pel a thief to restore what he has stolen, it is 
customary in Banzenheim, district of Miilhausen, to 
lay a criminal's skull and a stone on a juniper bush, 
or to take three nails from a bier smeared with some 
melted fat of an executed person — adding in both 
cases a fixed formula of incantation, v. Jahrbuch fiir 
Geschichte, S^rache u. Litter atur Elsass-Lothringens 
VIII. (1892) 22. 

D. The corpse-hand. Pliny, "N. H." xxviii. 4, 11 ; 
" Stroking with the hand of a person who has died 
early is supposed to cure goitre, glandular swellings 
near the ear, and throat complaints; nevertheless, a 
good many think this can be effected by any corpse's 
hand, provided only the dead person be of the same 
sex, and the thing is done with the left hand up- 
turned."— G^rmw, "Der arme Heinrich," 177: " Car- 
pentier (v. miselli) quotes from an authentic 

Corpses and Parts of Corpses 81 

document of 1408 a passage in which a leper is stroked 
with the hand of a still-born (therefore sinless) child, 
in which was put some salve, and is healed. There 
is even now a popular belief in parts of Austria, that 
malignant tumour is cured by the laying-on of a dead 
hand."— Hauss-Apothec 48: "Other credible people 
have affirmed that if the hand of a corpse is rubbed 
against a goitre or other swellings, the same are said, 
as the corpse rots away, to decrease and gradually 
vanish, although quicker in summer, slower in 
winter. If one rubs the swelling on a hand with a 
dead hand, the swelling goes down." — " Oldenburg," 
Strackerjan I, 71 : They stroke " the painful part with 

a dead hand what afterwards happens 

to the dead hand, happens also to the disease." — In 
Pomerania the memory of this superstition has been 
preserved, especially in numerous incantations or 
benedictions, in which the "cold corpse-hand" is 
mentioned: as protection against fire, U. Jahn, 
no. 118-20. 140-3; against water and fire, no. 132; 
against inflammatory swelling (Einschuss, lacteal 
metastasis in the breast and udder), no. 228; against 
" Riickblut " (an internal illness of cows, in which the 
urine is coloured red) no. 336; against warts, no. 387. 
— "Preussen," FrischUer 103: "The custom is uni- 
versal, in toothache, to press with a corpse's finger 
the gums or aching tooth. The right hand index 
finger is the most efficacious. The same is also 
applied for herpes, red moles, etc." — Lemke, " Ost- 
preussen " I, 47: "It is recommended to lay 
a corpse's hand on the red mole; one must not, how- 
ever, omit to utter at the same time : ' In the name of 
God the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost ' ! " 55: 
" The sufferer from toothache is moreover advised to 
stroke the gums with a corpse's finger. ' It cured 
my daughter in Gerswald immediately, when she 
went to her little dead godchild and rubbed her gums 

82 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

with one of his fingers.' "—Ur-Quell, 1890, 137: "The 
most infallible remedy for toothache is to press the 
tooth three times with a corpse's finger, saying: 'To 
thee, dead one, I bewail my distress. Take away my 
toothache, and take it with thee into the grave. In 
the name of the Father, etc. Amen.' (Neighbour- 
hood of Insterburg)."— "Masuren," Tofpen 54 sq. : 
"Apophyses on the human body, which are called 
' Knochel ' (little bones) are cured in the following 
fashion : (1) One goes into a house in which is a corpse, 
takes the hand of the corpse without uttering a word, 
and thrice presses the apophysis with the corpse's 
finger."— 107: "Toothache is cured by pressing the 
corpse's index finger on the aching tooth (Konigslerger 
Hartung'sche Zeitung, 1866, No. 9)."— Birthmarks, 
freckles, and apophyses disappear, as soon as they are 
touched with a dead hand (Natangen), Ur-Quell, 1892, 
247.— "Steiermark," Fossel 134: "Birthmarks are 

cured by contact with a dead hand, especially 

the hand of a child's corpse." 140 : For the banishing 
of warts " contact with a dead hand is. . . . generally 
practised."— In Dithmarschen, burns and carbuncles 
too are stroked with a dead hand, v. Urds-Brunnen V. 
127. "The herpes is stroked with a dead hand," 
Sehestadt in Schleswig-Holstein, Ur-Quell 1893, 278. 
Also among the Transylvanians (Henndorf): "A 
tumour or warts are cured by stroking them oneself 
with a dead hand." Ur-Quell 1893, 70.— To get rid of 
a goitre let it be stroked thrice with a dead hand, with 
the words : Even as this hand is decayed so too may 
the goitre subside. (Bosnia), Urquell 1892, 303.— After 
Russian popular belief a dead hand protects from 
bullets, L'dwenstimm 113. 

E. Fossel, " Steiermark " 172 : " The belief in the 
use of a corpse as a drug, which is a mania prevailing 
over the whole country, reaches strange expression, 
as follows: The Brothers of Mercy at Graz are sup- 


Corpses and Parts of Corpses 83 

posed to enjoy the privilege of being allowed every 
year to exploit one human life for curative purposes. 
With that object a young man, who goes into the 
hospital of the Order for toothache or other slight 
complaint, is seized, hung up by the feet, and tickled 
to death! The honourable brethren thereupon boil 
the corpse to a paste and utilise the latter as well as 
the fat and the burnt bones in their drug store. About 
Easter, the people say, a youth annually disappears 
in the hospital in this way." 

F. This mania serves to explain the disturbances 
that have so frequently broken out during three cen- 
turies in China against Europeans, especially the 
Roman Catholic Missionary Establishments (houses 
for sick persons, foundling-hospitals, educational in- 
stitutions, etc.) The riots, as I know directly 
from persons who have lived long in China, almost 
always begin by the " litterati " issuing appeals to the 
people, in which it is said : " Down with the foreign- 
ers ! Kill the missionaries ! They steal or buy our 
children and slaughter them, in order to prepare 
magic remedies and medicines out of their eyes, 
hearts, and other portions of their bodies." Baron 
Hiibner narrates, following the best authorities, in 
his "Promenade autour du monde " II. (Paris, 1873), 
385-455, the story of the massacre at Tientsin on 21 
June, 1870. From his description which, in more 
than one respect, is rich in lessons, a few sentences at 
least may be cited here. 

392 : "Vers la mi-mai .... des bruits alarmants furent mis 
en circulation : des enfants avaient disparus. lis avaient ete 
voles par des gens a la solde des missionaires. Les soeurs les 
avaient tues. Elles leur avaient arrache les yeux et le coeur 
pour preparer des charmes et des remedes. Ce n'etait pas la 
premiere fois que se disaient de pareilles absurdites. 393 : Les 
accusations se multiplierent. On cita des faits et on y crut 

Le hasard semblait conspirer avec les auteurs de ces 
bruits sinistres. Une epidemie se declara a Torphelinat des 
soeurs. Plusieurs enfants moururent .... 397 (June): 

84 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

Deux chinois etrangers portaient un sac sur les 

epaules et conduisaient par la main deux petits enfants . 
On les arreta. Dans leurs sacs furent trouves des dollars mexi- 
cains . . . . et quelques paquets de drogues. Mis a la 
torture, ils declarereut avoir effectivement ensorcele les enfants 
au moyen de ces drogues. Les dollars leur avaient ete donnes 
par les soeurs en paiement du crime. Les deux hommes, 
convaincus sur leur propre aveu d'un crime commis a I'instiga- 
tion des soeurs, furent condamues a mort et executes. C'etait 
implicitemeut condamuer les soeurs et rendre un arret de mort 
coutre les Europeens. 399: Plusieurs cadavres furent exhumes 
et examines. A quelques-uns les yeux manquaient : cet effet 
naturel de la decomposition fut interprete comme une preuve 
convaincante de la culpabilite des soeurs et des missionaires. 
400-3 : The lying statements of Wu-lan-tchen about the magic 
means by which the missionaries attract people (retracted after 
the massacre, v. 437). On 21 June occurred the butchery. 
426 sq. : Une femme fut jetee dans la riviere et retiree apres 
qu'elle eut promis de deposer contre les soeurs (deja massacrees !) 
et de declarer avoir ete ensorcelee par elles. 

Everybody knows that in 1891, and in later years 
persecutions, due to the same cause, of Europeans 
living in China, especially of missionaries, have taken 

Towards the end of 1891 a charge was brought in Madagascar 
against the foreigners, particularly the French, that they 
devoured human hearts, and for this purpose bought and killed 
children. Hence a decree of the Malagasy Government, which 
states amongst other things: " (1) Aucun etranger, ni Anglais, 
ni Fran9ais, ni d'aucune autre nation, ne cherche a acheter des 
coeurs humains. Si des gens mal intentionnes repandent ce 
bruit et disent que les etrangers achetent des coeurs humains, 
saisissez-les, attachez-les et faites les monter a Tananarive pour 
y etre juges. (2) Si on repand des bruits quels qu'ils soient, il 
est de votre devoir, gouverneurs, de reuuir le peuple, 
de I'avertir et de lui prouver le faussete de ces bruits, 
qui sont formellement interdits dans le royaume ; c'est un crime 
de les propager," v. the Paris paper Le Temps, 1 Feb., and 
25 March, 1892. 


A . The blood of sacrificed victims has a special 
position to itself. Attention may in the first place be 
draAvn to the well-known necromantic episode in 
Odyssey, Bk. XL According to ancient and wide- 
spread belief, inspiration is produced by sucking the 
fresh blood of a sacrificed victim, v. Frazer, "The 
Golden Bough," 2nd Ed., L, 133-5. As regards Egypt 
V. sup. p. 5. 

B. In the middle ages, I refer to the collection of 
the learned Dominican, Vincentius cle Beauvais (born 
1194), "Speculum naturale," xxiii. 66. — Iln Baitar's 
great medical and naturalist work prescribes, in the 
article "blood" (Ed. Bulak I., 96; French by Leclerc 
in "Notices et Extraits," xxv. [1881], 93) difTerent 
kinds of animal blood as materia medica; human 
blood, however, is not mentioned. — Qazwini, " Kos- 
mographie," L, 293: "If you desire that the vine be 
not fallen upon by worms, cut of¥ its shoot with a 
pruning knife, which is smeared with bear's or frog's 
blood." (Instead of ^iw55— "bear "—read, with Dr. 
G. Jacob, ^a6&—" lizard.") 

C. Daumer IL, 194: " Even in the last quarter of 
last century it was customary in some parts of Ger- 
many on St. James's Day (25th July) to throw from a 
church tower or even from the Guildhall, amid 
strains of music, a he-goat adorned with gilded horns 
and ribbons, and to draw off its blood as it lay below, 
which when dried was esteemed a powerful remedy 

86 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

in many illnesses* Something similar used to 
happen in Ypres, where cats were thrown from the 
tower on the Wednesday of the second week of fast- 
ing; so that that day is even now called in Ypres 
'cat- Wednesday,' or the ' cat-day.' "t 

D. In the most recent times. The following 
summary by Buck (used by Lammert 264, 221, 226), 
applies to Suabia, 44 sq. :" Cat's blood is useful against 
fever. A hole must be cut in the ear of a black cat, 
three drops of blood must be let fall on bread and the 
bread eaten {Birlinger, " Volksthlimliches aus Schwa- 
ben " [Freiburg i. B. 1861] I. 488). Ox-blood is a vio- 
lent poison. An ache or pain which is not outwardly 
manifested is cured by letting warm water flow over 
the place. Whoever bathes in warm blood becomes 
very beautiful. Hare-sweat helps against erysipelas. 
But the hare must be shot on Good Friday before 
sunrise ; it must be at once gutted, and its sweat col- 
lected in an unbleached cloth (two ells), so that it 
becomes quite wet, and this must be wrapped round 
the inflamed limb. The cloth may afterwards be 
used pretty frequently. — Blood from a jenny-ass, and 
in particular three drops from the ear, if mixed in a 
strawberry drink and a ' vogle ' (the eighth part of a 
Wiirtemberg beer measure) drunk two days running, 
restores speech which has been lost through an 
apoplectic stroke. Ass's blood extracted from behind 
the ear, soaked up with a cloth and steeped in well- 
water, if this be afterwards drunk, gives courage and 
banishes fear of ghosts. — If the eyes are smeared with 
bat's blood, a person can see as well by night as by 
day Dry pigeon blood, mixed with snufl is 

*Kosche, " Charakter, Sitteu und Religion aller bekannten Volker " 
IV. (L. 1791), 481 : and latei", Soinmer, 'Sagen, Marchen u. 
Gebrauche aus Sachsen und Thiiringen " (Halle 1846) I., 179. 

fCoreninnn, " L'annee de I'ancienne Belgique " 53; Sommer I., 180. 
i — Cf. besides, Schroder's " Arzneischatz," v. sup. p. 8. 

Animal Blood 87 

helpful for nose-bleeding."— (Bavaria). I extract from 
Lammert the following further details. In the Pfalz, 
in cases of pimples on the eye, fresh he-goat's— or 
sparrow's— blood is trickled in (228), in jaundice or 
other diseases she-goat's blood is drunk in wine (249). 
" In Suabia it is believed that weasel-blood is useful to 
strumous patients. ... For the same purpose a band 
dipped in the warm blood of a shrewmouse is wound 
round the neck " (239). 

(Pomerania). "If a man has lost his manhood: 
If thou art bewitched by a woman, so that thou dost 
not wish to have to do with any other, take he-goat's 
blood, and smear the testicles therewith, then wilt 
thou be right again." Jahn, No. 604 (after " Albertus 
Magnus .... Geheimnisse," cf. sup. p. 3, a book 
very widely disseminated in Pomerania).— " That 
people may love one: Carry bat's blood about 
you (Swinemiinde)," Jahn, No. 612 (after A. Kuhn 
and W. Schwartz, " Norddeutsche Sagen, Marchen u. 
Gebrauche," L., 1848, No. 448). 

(Prussia). FrischUer, 22: "In Lithuania such 
[ill-behaved] children are given three drops of blood, 
which has been taken from the left ear of a black 
sheep or lamb." 73 : " In Samland a remedy for convul- 
sions consists of drinking three drops of blood from a 
young sow which has littered for the first time, and a 
portion is given in the name of God the Father, etc." 
94 : " If w^arts are thrice pressed with a bleeding pike's 
head which has just been cut off, and the head is then 
buried beneath the eaves, the warts vanish as soon as 
the pike's head rots (Donhoffstadt)."— ZmA;^. 
"Ostpreussen," II., 278: "For all manner of convul- 
sions, but not for epileptic a potion is 

recommended, composed of Hungarian wine and 
(raw) hare's blood. (The hare's blood is collected and 
kept for a long time with this object in view.") 


The waste and evacuations of the human and 
animal body are variously used. If from one's own 
body, they are often laid apart for curing purposes, 
even like one's own blood; if belonging to another 
person's body, they usually serve some object of 
magic (conjuring away of thieves, etc.). There are 
numerous examples in the works mentioned, pp. 2-5. 
Here it may be merely observed that the " Areolae " of 
Johannes de Sancto Amando, Bishop of Tournay, at the 
beginning of the 13th century (published by /. L. 
Pagel, Be., 1893), was in the middle ages a much 
esteemed compendium of the science of drugs : in the 
present book the different stercora are often specified. 



The blood superstition has often led to crime, in 
proof of which I have collected a large number of 
authentic documents. They are intended to show 
legal officials, ecclesiastics, and teachers that this 
superstition has not remained merely theoretical, and 
alien to our common life. And that it cannot be 
described as a peculiarity characteristic only of by- 
gone times, but that it is a frequent cause of crimes 
perpetrated for therapeutic or magical purposes. 

A. Murders. Michael Wagener, " Beitrage zur 
philosophischen Anthropologic, Psychologic," etc., 
II. (Vienna, 1796), 268, asserts that desire for beauty 
has been a source of inhuman cruelty, and goes on to 
relate : " A story of a Hungarian lady, which is very 
noteworthy in this respect, can be found in some 
Hungarian historiographers, e.g., in Ladislaus 
Thurotz, Istwanfy, etc. I detail the circumstances 
which are relevant here, both according to the afore- 
said historiographers and (mainly) according to the 
existing legal documents. Elizabeth (Bathori)* was 

* The name, which W. omits, I have filled iu from Meyer's ' Kouver- 
sations-Lexikon3" II., 668: "E. B. (d. 1614), wife of the Hun- 
garian Count Nadasdy, is notorious for the unparalleled cruelty with 
which, after enticing young girls into her castle, she had their blood 
extracted from them, which px'esumably was used for the 
beautifying of her skin, and in which she bathed herself .... 
The Count Palatine Georg Thurzo surprised the Countess red- 
handed in 1610. The result of the examination showed that 650 
girls had been the victims of this thirst for blood. A man-servant, 
who was an accomplice, was beheaded ; two female servants were 
burnt alive. The Countess was condemned to life-long confine- 

90 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

excessively fond of making herself up to please her 
husband, and spent as much as the half of a day at her 
toilette. It happened, as Thurotz relates, that one 
day one of her chamber-maids once made some 
mistake in her coiffure, and received for it such a vio- 
lent box on the ears, that the blood spurted on her 
mistress's face. When the latter washed the drops 
of blood off her face, the skin on the place appeared to 
her to be much more beautiful, whiter and more deli- 
cate. She at once came to the inhuman decision to 
bathe her face, nay her whole body, in human blood, 
so as thereby to increase her beauty and attractions. 
With this horrible intention, she took counsel of two 
old women, who accorded her their entire sympathy, 
and promised to assist her in the ghastly project. A 
certain Fitzko, a pupil of Elizabeth, was also made a 
member of this bloodthirsty society. This madman 
usually killed the unfortunate victims, and the old 
women collected the blood, in which that monster of 
a woman was wont to bathe in a trough about four 
o'clock in the morning. She appeared to herself 
always more beautiful after the bath. She therefore 
continued her operations even after her husband's 
death in 1604, in order to win new worshippers and 
lovers. The wretched girls who were allured into 
Elizabeth's house by the old women under the pre- 
tence of going into service, were taken into the cellar 
on various pretexts. Here they were seized and 
beaten until their bodies swelled. Not infrequently 
Elizabeth tortured them herself, and very often she 
changed her blood-dripping clothes and then began 
her cruelties anew. The swollen bodies of the poor 
girls were then cut open with a razor. It was not 
uncommon for this monster to have the girls burnt 
and then flayed ; most of them were beaten to death. 
She herself beat her accomplices when they did not 
wish to help her in her torturings; whilst, on the 

The Blood Superstition 91 

other hand, she abundantly rewarded the women who 
brought the girls to her and let themselves be used 
as tools for the execution of her cruelties. She was 
also given to supposed magic, and had a peculiar 
magic mirror in the shape of a cracknel, before which 
she used to pray for hours at a time. Finally her 
cruelty reached such a pitch that she pinched her 
servants and stuck pins into them, especially the girls 
who drove with her in her carriage. She had one of 
her serving-maids stripped naked and smeared with 
honey, in order that she might be eaten up by flies. 
When she became ill and could not practise her usual 
cruelties, she had a person come to her sick bed, and 
bit her like a wild cat. About 650 girls lost their lives 
through her in the way described, partly in Cseita (in 
the County of Neutrau, in Hungary), where she had a 
cellar specially arranged for the purpose, partly in 
other places ; for murder and bloodshed had become a 
necessity to her. When so many girls from the neigh- 
bourhood, who were brought into the castle on the 
pretext of entering service or of receiving further 
education, disappeared, and the parents never 
received satisfactory, but generally ambiguous, 
answers to their enquiries, the matter became 
suspicious. . . . At last, by bribing the servants, 
it was discovered that the missing girls went hale 
and hearty into the cellar, and never made their 
appearance any more. A denunciation followed both 
at Court and to the then Count Palatine Thurzo. The 
Count had the castle of Cseita surprised, commenced 
the strictest investigations, and discovered the 
horrible murders. The monster was condemned to 
life long incarceration for the terrible crimes, but her 
accomplices were executed."* 

* [A Viennese pamphlet, communicated by Grimm, " Armer 
Heinrich," 181 sq. probably refers to the same episode, although 
the number of girls tortured to death is given as only 29, and the 

92 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

From Daumer, "Geheimnisse," II., 266, I extract the 
following : "There may also be mentioned here a well-known 
story by E. T. A. Hoffmann (ob. 1822) which, as far as I know, 
is based upon a cinminal case authenticated by documents. 
There lives in Naples an old doctor ; he has, by several women, 
children, whom he inhumanly slaughters amid special prepara- 
tions and solemnities; he cuts open their breasts, takes out 
their hearts, and prepares from the heart's blood precious drops 
that afford resistance to any disease." Hoffmann's "Nacht- 
stiicke," 1817 (Be.) "Ignaz Denner," I., 47 sq. 

Nurgalei Achmetow, of the village of Stary 
Ssalman, Govt. Kasan, had an apoplectic stroke, and 
suffered in consequence from paralysis of the right 
arm, and constant trembling of the head. When he 
heard he would recover if he ate a human heart, he 
murdered a six year old girl with his father's help, cut 
her heart out of her body, and devoured it. 
Lowenstimm, 145. 

Rochholz, I., 39 : " The murderer Bellenot, a native 
of the Bernese Jura, who was executed in 1861, con- 
fessed, at his trial, he had killed the woman, who was 
nicknamed the Doktorfraueli (doctor-woman) because 
she used to sell medicinal herbs which she gathered 
herself, in order to drink her blood, and so get rid of 
the epilepsy to which he was said to have been subject 
(Aargauer Zeitnncj , 19th May, 1861)." 

B. Desecrations of graves. " Next appeared [on 
15th February, 1890, before the Court at Hagen, in 
Westphalia] a servant, 70 years of age, named A. 
S(ander), of Wengern, on the serious charge of 
robbery of dead bodies, and desecration of graves. 

The accused has already been punished with 

ten years' imprisonment for a similar crime in 1873; 
according to the new legislation the maximum punish- 
ment is two years' imprisonment. The accused 
confesses that on the night of 6th December last year 

" beautiful and distinguished lady in Hungary" is alleged to have 
been " burnt alive in the public market-place " with the old woman 
who shared her guilt.] 

The Blood Superstition 93 

he went to the cemetery of the parish of Wengern, 
looked at the fresh graves, and dug up with a spade 
lying on the spot a child's grave, from which he then 
raised the little coffin, took it under his arm, and 
wandered off to his dwelling. He then hid the coffin 
under the hay on the house floor, and next day, after 
opening the coffin with a screw-driver, cut out of the 
thigh of the corpse a piece of flesh, which he laid on 
a wound he had had many years on his body. The 
deed of the accused is therefore, like the former one 
for which he was condemned, the result of a fearful 
superstition. S. says he got the recipe many j^ears 
ago from an old doctor as a remedy for his wound. 
He even imagines, at least he said so in to-day's 
hearing of the case, that the remedy has done good. 
The little coffin was accidentally noticed by the 
employer of the accused on the ground beneath the 

hay, and thus the affair came to light The 

accused was condemned to two years' imprisonment." 
(Hagener Zeitung, 18 Feb., 1890,' No. 41). 

In 1865, a peasant in the neighbourhood of Mari- 
ensee (West Prussia) injured himself whilst carrying 
to the cemetery the coffin of an old woman he knew. 
A "wise-woman" declared the man could only be 
saved, if he burnt a piece of the dead person's coffin 
and of her shift, and swallowed the ashes. His wife, 
together with a friend of the watchman's, were 
arrested, when she tried one night to extract from 
the grave the articles mentioned to her. Mannhardt, 

In April, 1871, the churchwarden, Peter Woro- 
shenzow, of the village of Bobinskoje, District of 
Wjatka, Russia, took out of a fresh grave a little 
child's liver and coagulated blood, in order to cure 
himself with them from an illness. He drank the 
blood, after mixing it with wine. Loivenstimm, 109 sq. 

In 1862 four shepherds of the borough of Janow, 

94 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

Govt. Radom, opened two graves, cut portions from 
the corpses, boiled the portions, and sprinkled sheep 
with the brew. This treatment was supposed to pro- 
tect the animals from infection. Lowenstimm, 110. 

In 1890 the "magician" Wawrzek Marut was 
condemned to five months' close arrest by the judicial 
court at Rzeszow (Galicia), because he had taken two 
children's corpses from the Jewish cemetery at Roz- 
wadow, in order to fumigate typhus from a peasant's 
hut. The accused asserted there were two kinds of 
typhus; one, the "Catholic," which could be banished 
by the Lord's Prayer, and the other the "Jewish," 
which could only be banished by Jews' bones. Marut 
had already been condemned for similar proceedings 
in 1881. {Ur-Quell, 1891, 179 sq.)— Cf. Vr-Quell, 1892, 
126 sq., for a similar crime committed in January, 
1892, at Razniow. 

" In Kjelce (Russia) two Christian peasants were 
recently condemned to six months' imprisonment 
each, who stole the bodies of two Israelites from their 
graves, and cut them in pieces, in order to use the 
latter for the ' cure of diseases '." (Oesterreich. Wochen- 
schrift, 1886, 452.) 

W. Mannhardt, "Preussen," 19 sq. : "The notion 
is widespread that if parts of a corpse are put in con- 
nection with a living person, the latter will pine away 
and decline in the same period and degree as the 
corpse putrefies. Now this may happen in two ways, 
either by suspending one of the limbs of the dead 
person in the chimney of the dwelling of the person 
who is to be injured, or by putting with the corpse in 
the coffin some article of clothing or any other pro- 
perty of the intended victim [Cf . sup. Ch. 8A]. 'Double 
does not tear,' thought the gardener's widow, Alber- 
tine Majewska . . . when she resolved in May, 
1875, to revenge herself on her former lover, the father 
of an illegitimate child who had been buried three 

The Blood Superstition 95 

months before. Soon after the gendarmes received 
information that the corpse of Majewska's child was 
damaged. By order of the Public Prosecutor the 
little body was dug up, and found in a mutilated con- 
dition. The sexual organs and all the fingers of the 
left hand had been torn off, and the stump of the hand 
and the face strewed with gunpowder. ... It 
transpired that she [Majewska] had removed the 
above-mentioned parts of the body in order to hang 
them in the chimney of her erstwhile lover, so that his 
hand, with which he had perjured himself, and, at 
the same time, the source of his manhood might dry 
up and wither away; and also that the gunpowder 
strewed in the coffin was taken from the man's 
belongings to ensure that he should gradually pine 
away and disappear together with the powder and the 

A village shepherd, Casimir K., in the Rajew 
district of the Government of Warsaw, in May, 1865, 
cut, with the help of two comrades, the liver out of a 
woman's corpse, in order to bury it in a spot over 
which the herd must pass, in the expectation that all 
the sheep belonging to the peasants would then rot 
away. He had wanted a corpse's tooth, in order to 
pulverise it and sprinkle it in his brother-in-law's 
snuff; but the person to be poisoned was a man, and 
in the opened coffin lay a woman. Lowenstimm, 111. 

C. Outrages on virgins. The unhappily not 
uncommon cases of rape of innubile girls are not 
ordinary crimes against morality, but find their 
explanation in the maniacal idea that contact with a 
virgin (a rudimentary element in the sacrifice! v.p. 1, 
28 sq., 37 sq.) is requisite for the cure of sexual disease 
in men. Cf. Wuttke, §532; A. Vogel, " Lehrbuch 
der Kinderkrankheiten,"^ Stuttgart, 1876, 426; "A 
wretched superstition prevails among the populace 
that gonorrhoea of the male organ vanishes if the organ 

96 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

is brought in contact with a hymen, and many an 
enticement to immorality is yielded to because of this 
belief." Henoch, "Vorlesungen liber Kinderkrank- 
heiten," Be., 1881, 548: "I can refer to a whole series 
of cases of children between 4 and 10 years old who 
fell victims to savagery, demoralisation, or a certain 
superstition." Casfev -Liman, " Handbuch der 
gerichtlichen Medizin^" Be., 1889, 122 sq. : " But it is 
well known that among the common people, and not 
alone in our country, the absurd and dreadful prepos- 
session rules that a venereal evil can be most surely 
and quickly cured by coitus with a pure maiden, and 
most certainly with a child."— Hirt relates an instance 
in J. L. Friedrich's " Blatter fiir gerichtliche Anthro- 
pologie," V. (1854), 4. The punishment of a youth, 
who in 1862 outraged a girl of eight in Berlin, is 
related by Mannhardt, 10.— On 27th July, 1881, a child 
of eleven, Christine Hammelmann, was murdered and 
outraged at Rellinghausen, in the Essen district. The 
murderer was, unfortunately, not discovered. The 
state of the district, however, had made it likely that 
the poor child "fell a victim to this morbid, mad 
idea," v. Das Tribunal, Zeitschrift fiir frakt. Stra- 
frechtsjyflege, I. [Hamburg, 1885], 621-3.— Persian 
soldiers, according to Polak, have commerce with 
horses for the same purpose {Wiener Medizinische 
Wochenschrift, 1861, p. 629, in Lowenstimm, 147). 

D. Vampires (a widespread superstition, especi- 
ally in the province of Prussia).* Mannhardt, 13: 
" Those who have fallen ill through a vampire's bite 
are healed by having mixed with their drink some of 
the blood {i.e., the thickish product of decomposition 
so described by the populace) of its head when cut 

* About the vampire, cf. especially W . Hertz, "Der Wehrwolf, Bei- 
trag zur Sagengescliichtc," Stuttgart, 1862, 122-8. Also C . Gander, 
Ur-Qvell 1892, 288-90 (after Joh. Pilichius, "Drey predigten zum 
eingang des newen Jahrs," Wittenberg, 1585). 

The Blood Superstition 97 

off." 17 sq. : " Only a few months ago (March, 1877), 
at Heidenmiihl, in the Schloehau district, the body of 
a recentlj^-deceased child . . . was mutilated in 
its grave, and a small bit of the corpse-flesh was given 
internally to a sick child as a cure [for a vampire's 
bite]."— Cf. Tettau and Temme, 275-7 (especially about 
a case that happened about the middle of the 18th 
century in the family of Wollschlager, at Jacobsdorf , 
in West Prussia). 

Graves are not seldom desecrated in Russia, 
because the people believe the dead person is going 
about sucking their blobd, or causing epidemics, or 
producing drought by milking the clouds. Lowen- 
stinim, 95-103.— In the Greek island of Andros 
(Cyclades) a countryman suffered from a swelling 
in the face. He attributed it to a dead enemy, opened 
his grave, stabbed the heart of the corpse, and also 
mutilated the bones. An old man knew about it and 
told everybody; he also intended to denounce it to 
the authorities, but stopped on learning that his own 
son had done a similar thing. For he had desecrated 
his mother's body in the same way, had even dis- 
membered it and scattered the portions, in order to 
dispel his wife's puerperal fever. Freisinnige Zeitung 
(Berlin), 1893, No. 86 (after the Kolnische Zeitung). 

E. Witches. Mannhar'dt, '• Preussen," 59 seq. : 
" The test of witchcraft [swimming ordeal*, fumi- 
gation with "devil's dung"] is generally not 
carried out; but when there is an urgent con- 
jecture of witchcraft, the person suspected is seized 
and beaten till her blood flows, in order to 
give it the sick man to swallow or to wash 
him with it, or until she promises to with- 
draw the spell. . . . That takes place in our Kas- 

"Schwemme" : the person suspected is thrown into the water and is 
made to swim (must try to swim), and if she cannot, she is drowned. 

98 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

subian villages as it were daily, and only a few cases 
come to the knowledge of the courts and to publicity. 
Nevertheless, the number of them is not inconsider- 
able. ... In 1874 we again see a country-school- 
master in the Strasburg district an accomplice in a 
deed of the kind. He and his wife, on the advice of a 
somnambulist woman, beat their own aunt with a 
pair of tongs till blood flowed, with which they 
sprinkled their child, whom they supposed bewitched 
by their victim.— 57 : " A peasant in Jaschhiitte had 
. . . his leg broken. He did not seek any profes- 
sional help . . . and was taken ill, in addition, 
with typhus. Neighbours who visited him persuaded 
him he was bewitched by a woman in the village, who 
had sent to plague him her twenty-fifth devil, called 
Peter. The witch, a young relative of 26, living 
opposite, is made to enter the house of the possessed 
man, and asked by those present to give him some of 
her blood to drink, because only then would the devil 
Peter quit him. . . . [She is] forced by blows of 
the fist from two of those present to let the salving 
blood be drawn from her nose. The attempt is a 
failure. . . . One of the two men goes to the court- 
yard, dirties his hands with manure, whilst at the 
same time he makes three crosses with it on them. 
Flesh blows of the fist on the nose with the blessed 
hands had the desired effect. The witch was now 
obliged to lay herself on the bed of the possessed man, 
and to let the blood trickle into his opened mouth. 
The devil then, indeed, seemed to give way, for soon 
after the patient was able to utter the words: ' Nu 
wart mi beeter' [I'm better now !] The still-flowing 
blood was then collected in a cup for possible relapses. 
. . . The two exorcists were condemned to three 
months' imprisonment by the District Court at Berent 
on 16th October, 1868." 

"The wife of a farmer G., in Niederhutte (Kas- 

The Blood Superstition 99 

subei) was suddenly taken ill. The neighbours 
arrived ... at last at the conclusion that it was 
not entirely owing to natural causes, but there was 
also witchcraft in the business. Very soon, too, a 
scape-goat was found in farmer K., a relative of the 
invalid. He unsuspectingly approached the sick-bed, 
when he was suddenly surrounded by all his male 
and female cousins, who violently demanded blood 
from him, red, warm blood; for the Kassubians, in 
their therapeutical anxiety, had recognised the 
w^izard's blood to be the only effectual remedy. In 
order to avoid violent attacks on the part of the 
fanatical crowd, K. wounded himself in the little 
finger. But ... an ' expert ' affirmed the blood 
must come from the middle finger, and the wretched 
victim of this superstition had also to cut himself in 
the middle finger." {Ur-Quell, III., 46.) 

According to Joh. Scherr, " Deutsche Kultur-und 
Sittengeschichte^" 1879, 585 sq., the following hap- 
pened in Steiermark in 1867: "The son of a peasant 
was suffering from a leg injury. Instead of calling in 
a doctor, the father went to a ' wise-woman ' for 
advice. She declared the boy was bewitched, and 
would not recover till the witch, whose name and 
abode were given, had named the necessary 
remedies. The peasant went to the 'witch,' and by 
brutal intimidation forced from the poor woman the 
recipe of a potion, the use of which, however, did not 
cure the boy's sick leg. The peasant thereupon went 
again to the 'wise- woman,' who gave him the advice 
to use force, and in the following way. He must 
bind the witch fast hand and foot, then tear out a tuft 
of the hair of her head ; dip this in the blood coming 
from a deep transverse wound in the sole of the right 
foot, and mix it with her excrement, and use the 
result as a fumigation cure for the leg. No sooner 
said than punctually and earnestly done and exe- 

100 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

cuted; only in regard to the excrement the torturer 
had to content himself with remains that were in a 
pot, because the poor wretch could not immediately 
satisfy his desire. By a coincidence the healing of 
the leg-injury began after the fumigation had taken 
place. At the trial of the case of the woman, who had 
been crippled by the cut- wound, the accused, who 
was convicted, stood all the more upon the justice of 
his act because the cure of the leg had begun." 

A village elder's wife fell ill in the Ranenburg 
district, and declared her old aunt had bewitched 
her. The peasants dragged the old woman to the 
invalid, knocked her down with a thrust with a 
hedge-pole, made cuts in her fingers, and collected 
the flowing blood in a vessel. Loivenstimm, 58, after 
the Eussian periodical Ssewerny Wjestnik, 1892, No. 9. 

In Tubingen, at the beginning of October, 1896, 
George Speidel was condemned for perjur}^ It came 
out in the case that he had once, at the request of a 
peasant, performed a piece of magic, so as to kill a 
witch. The peasant had to pull the coffin-boards out 
of a fresh grave; on these Speidel stuck a figure of 
clay, and then told the peasant he need not now fear 
the witch any more. (Lbwenstimm, 73 sq., after Vos- 
siche Zeitung, 10th October, 1896, No. 478.) 

F. Hidden treasures. About a crime perpetrated 
in Hamburg in 1783, I have had placed at my disposal 
tAvo printed documents from the Commerz-Biblio- 
thek : (1) " Richtige Ausziige aus den Akten der Inqui- 
sition Namens Borchers, gewesenen Biirgers in 
Hamburg, Anna Catharina Neumanns, seiner Stief- 
Tochter, und Anna Lliders, Borchers Dienstin, wegen 
Ermordung eines Juden-Burschen in Hamburg. 
Frankfurt, 1785" (45), and (2) an extract, marked 
with the page numbers 187-192, from a journal printed 
outside Hamburg in 1785, in small quarto, whose 
name I unfortunately cannot ascertain. — According 

The Blood Superstition 101 

to them, the facts were these. A band of swindlers, 
consisting of an Altona Jew, Meyer Siidheim, a cer- 
tain Freudentheil, a one-eyed fellow who went by 
the name of Pater Fliigge, and a certain Montfort or 
Musupert, whose tool was Liiders, a woman of 65 who 
was fooled by them, persuaded the uneducated 
simpleton Neumann, a woman of 36, to disburse con- 
siderable amounts of money on the pretext that 
money was needed in order to dig up the treasure of a 
Count von Schaumburg, which was buried in Otten- 
sen. Neumann had several times given money 
directly ; she then found notes in her house, mysteri- 
ously thrown in, in which she was asked to place 
ready in the parlour, at punctually fixed times, cer- 
tain definitely named sums of money, and frequently 
meals also. What she handed over vanished in a 
most extraordinary way. When, impelled by curio- 
sit}^, she once played the spy, she suddenly received 
so severe a box on the ears that she was deafened. It 
was repeatedly demanded in the notes "that a girl 
should be produced and killed as a sacrifice to the 
treasure, and particularly a Jewish girl, or, what 
would be better, a Catholic girl ; for if this were not 
done, fifteen persons would lose their lives in this 
affair, and old Liiders and the Master [Borchers] 
would be smashed to pieces." An attempt to kill a 
Catholic girl, Maria Johanna Sardach ("Ausziige," 
p. 32), failed. Then came a note saying "that the 
treasure could not be dug up otherwise than with 
blood ; because it was sealed with blood. A Jewish 
youth must also be killed, who was possessed of as 
much as 83 marks in value, and these 83 marks would 
also have to be brought to the sacrifice." ("Ausziige," 
37, 41). In consequence of which Johann Jiirgen 
Borchers, who had already for some time been told 
about the buried treasure, his stepdaughter, and 
Liiders murdered, on 13th October, 1783, a young 

102 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

Jewish pedlar called Renner, with whom Liiders had 
made an appointment at the house of Borchers. Of 
110 marks received for pawning the things, 83 were, 
in accordance with the instructions contained in the 
note, placed in the ante-room, and vanished like the 
amounts previously demanded. A few days after 
the murder there was a demand in a new note, firstly 
for the Jew's clothes, secondly that " the breast-cloth 
[probably the so-called small prayer-cloak or Tallith], 
which the Jew wore on his naked body, should be 
burnt as a sacrifice " (" Auszlige " 3'4). These com- 
mands were likewise executed. Borchers wounded 
himself mortally by cutting his throat immediately 
after his arrest; the two women, of whom Liiders was 
indubitably the most guilty, were broken on the wheel 
from top to toe, their heads stuck on posts. — The 
thieves were only concerned with mone}^ and money- 
values. They would hardly have brought their sacri- 
fice to the point of robbery and murder, solely for such 
a purpose. They therefore played upon Neumann's 
proved superstitiousness. Neumann was a Protes- 
tant; so she might consider a Jew's blood to have a 
special virtue, and still more the blood of a Catholic; 
for there was at that time in Hamburg only quite a 
small number of Catholics. Cf. Ch. 20. 

On the morning of 14 April, 1892, the body of a 
corporal in the artillery, Ilija Konslantinowitsch, was 
found on the banks of the Danube not far from the ram- 
part of Fort Semendria. It lay stretched out on a bed- 
covering perfectly nude, the larynx had been cut out, 
the heart torn from the pectoral cavity. The murderer 
soon came forward of his own accord ; he was a friend 
of the murdered man, an artillerist called Vasilje 
Radulowitsch. He said Ilija had come to him in the 
night and told him he had already dreamt five nights 
running there was a big treasure to be dug up at a 
fixed spot outside the walls of the fort, but he would 

The Blood Superstition 103 

have to sacrifice his life for a short period of time. 
Ilija begged him to accompany him, and took his bed- 
covering also with him, and when they reached the 
place, he asked his friend to kill him by stabbing with 
a knife, to cut out his larynx, to take his heart out of 
his breast, and then to besprinkle a certain spot with 
the blood of those parts of the body ; Vasilje was then 
to dig quickly, whereupon he would find a small iron 
rod and a bottle of brandy — he was to stroke the 
whole body twice with the small rod, replace the 
heart and larynx, and pour the brandy on the raw 
places. Thereupon he (Ilija) would again come to 
life, and have the power to dig up the treasure which 
would make them among the richest people in the 
world. After Ilija had given these instructions, he 
stripped and lay down on the bed-clothes. After some 
hesitation, Vasilje killed Ilija by a stab in the neck; 
Ilija made no resistance, and only gnashed his teeth 
through pain. Vasilje next cut out Ilija's throat and 
heart with difficulty; he then dug till day-dawn, but 
found neither the bottle nor the rod. When he 
despaired of success, he returned the throat and heart 
into the murdered man's body, and betook himself 
secretkf back to the barracks without anybody having 
seen him. The investigations showed Vasilje had 
spoken the truth. Ilija had spoken to several com- 
rades about his dream, and his intention to get the 
treasure by sacrificing himself, and there was not the 
least trace of resistance on the corpse. (Vossische 
Zeitung, 24 April, 1892, No. 191). 

Ilija's sacrifice was intended as a propitiatory 
sacrifice to the Earth Spirit, the guardian of the 
treasure. Cf. Milan Vesnic's work, " Praznoverice i 
zlocini s narocitim pogledom na praznovericu o zako- 
panom blagu " ["bigoted faith and crime, with 
special reference to beliefs concerning buried 
treasure"], Belgrade, 1894 (62). Ur-Quell, 1895, 

104 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

137-40, contains an account according to V. of two 
other crimes perpetrated in Servia which arose from 
the same superstition. 


A. "Pommern," Jahn, No. 524: "To prepare 
thieves '-tapers : Take the entrails of an unborn child 
and mould tapers out of them. The same can only be 
extinguished with milk, and as long as the}^ burn, 
nobody in the house is able to wake up." 
(Meesow, Regenwalde District). 526: "If a thief 
gets the fat of a pregnant woman, makes a candle 
of it, and lights it, he can steal where he likes, with- 
out anxiety. No one will see him, no sleeper can 
awaken (Konow, Kammin district.)" 576 : " If a thief 
dries an unborn child, lays it in a wooden casket, and 
then carries it about with him, he is invisible to every- 
body, so he can steal to the top of his bent(Konow, 
Kammin district.)"— Cf. E. M. Arndt, " Marchen und 
Jugenderinnerungen," II. (Be., 1843), 348 sq. (" Der 
Rabenstein," ad init.) 

" Oldenburg," Strackerjan, I., 100: " The finger of 
an unborn child is useful to thieves by keeping the 
dwellers asleep in a house into which they have pene- 
trated; it is simply laid on the table (Vechta).— The 
saying goes in Wardenburg that robbers and mur- 
derers cut open the bellies of pregnant women, and 
make candles of the fingers of the unicorn children. 
When these candles are lit, they allow no sleeper to 
wake up as long as they burn. The candles can only 
be extinguished by dipping them in sweet milk." 

"Bayern," Lammert, 84: "According to a wild 

106 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

delusion circulating in the Pfalz, the finger of a child 
that has diedunbaptized renders invisible, so that even 
40 or 50 years ago, the churchyard at Speyer had to be 
watched (" Bavaria, Landes-und Volkskunde des 
Konigreichs Bayern," IV., 2 [Rheinpfalz], Munich, 
1867, 347). A similar superstition dangerous to public 
safety prevailed in Mittelfranken among thieves, 
namely, that the blood, which is collected with three 
wooden sticks from the genitals of an innocent boy, 
and carried about on the person, renders invisible in 

According to a popular belief obtaining in Ice- 
land and Jutland, inextinguishable lamps can be 
made of liuman fat, as well as of the finger of an 
executed person, v. Feilberg, Ur-Quell, III., 60 sq. 
Feilberg relates, 89 sq., that there is still in existence 
" in Denmark and Norway the notion of the magical 
power of an unborn child's heart." Also in Sweden, 
the last-named article of magic was well-known, v. 
Harsdorffer, "Der grosse Schauplatz jammerlicher 
Mordsgeschichten,"^ Frankfort, 1693, No. 182. 

"Preussen," Lemke (East Prussia), I., 114: 
" * Human fat ' yields a light which is useful to thieves. 
' Many a one murders a man simply for the purpose of 
making a candle out of his fat ' — at least so everybody 
says — whether it's true, it is impossible for me to tell. 
Such a candle is supposed to be the best thing a thief 
can have. But when they've lit it, they must hold it 
under the soles and under the noses of the sleepers; 
then the sleepers don't wake till the thieves are away. 
Such light can be put out neither in water nor in 
brandy, nor b}^ kicks; such light can only go out 
in m\\\i.''—T'6fpen, 57: "A candle of human tallow 
puts all in the deepest sleep with its light. Such an 
article has therefore quite a special value for a thief 

Poland, especially Ukraine. Scliiffer, Ur-Quell, 

Among Criminals 107 

III., 148: "The first vein met with in a corpse, when 
dried and set light to, renders a thief invisible. A 
taper of corpse-fat has the effect that sleepers do not 
w^ake up, and the thief can steal quietly. The sleeper, 
on whom the shine of such a taper falls, abides in a 
heavy, invincible sleep. The hand of a five-year-old 
child's corpse opens all locks." 

People in Little Russia believe (Papirnia, near 
Trembowla) corpse-fat candles have the faculty of 
sending everyone, except the persons holding them, 
into a swoon. With these candles in their hands, 
thieves need not fear to be caught. TJr-Quell, 1894, 

In Russia thieves attribute a narcotic effect also to 
the hand of a corpse. Ldiue7istimm, 116, says: "The 
proverb, 'The people slept, as if a dead hand had 
travelled about them,' has not sprung up without 
cause." From a Russian folk-song, which in truth 
sounds like a survival of cannibalism, Lowenstimm, 
120 sq., quotes the following passage: " I bake pastry 
out of the hands, out of the feet, I forge a drinking-cup 
out of the mad head, I pour drinking-glasses out of 
his eyes, out of his blood I brew intoxicating beer, and 
out of his fat I mould candles." 

H. V. Wlislocki, "Zigeuner," 94 sq. : A cloth, on 
which are some drops of blood of a hanged person, 
preserves a thief from discovery. Parts of the limbs 
and shreds of the clothes of a hanged person have the 
same result. He who drinks of the blood of a hanged 
person can go in the darkest night as w^ell as in the 
brisfhtest daylight. When the robber-murderer 
Marlin was hanged at Hermannstadt in 1885, a gipsy, 
Roska Lajos, got some of the blood and drank it, after 
mixing it with a strong decoction of hempseed flowers. 
He who consumes the little finger of the left hand of 
a still-born child, can by his breath bring it to pass 
that people who are already asleep will not be 

108 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

awakened by he loudest noise. The nomadic gipsies 
of Servia and Turkey therefore stick a needle through 
the above-mentioned finger of such children so that no 
one may consume the finger after digging up the 
corpse. Thieves who possess a taper made of a white 
dog's fat, and the blood [95] of still-born twins can be 
seen by no one. He who eats some of a paste com- 
posed of that material, can see hidden treasures on S. 
John's Eve and New Year's Eve. The South Hun- 
garian gipsies rub such salve into their soles, in order 
to make their footsteps inaudible whilst stealing. A 
nomad gipsy, in November, 1890, paid a peasant 
woman, Lina Varga, of Vorosmart, four kreutzers for 
every drop of blood yielded by her still-born twins. 

Further authentic documents proving the wide 
currency of the belief in the magical properties of the 
fingers of children who were unborn or died unbap- 
tised. Grimm, "Deutsche Mythologie," p. 1027, quotes : 
Schamberg, "De jure digitorum," p. 61 sq. ; Prae- 
torius, " Vom Diebsdaumen," 1677 ; " the ' coutume de 
Bordeaux," '§ 46. R. K'dhler, in the treatise immediate- 
ly to be named, cites : Philo (Bartholomaus Anhorn), 
"Magiologia, Augustae Raurac." 1675, 768 sq. ; 
H. L. Fischer, " Buch vom Aberglauben," I. (L., 1791), 
155; F. Wolf, "Proben portugiesischer und catalon- 
ischer Volksromanzen," Vienna, 1856, 146; Rochholz, 
" Alemannisches Kinderlied und Kinderspiel aus der 
Schweiz," L., 1857, 344.— Here may also be added, 
"Das Lied von der verkauften Miillerin," v. R. 
Kohlers careful homonymous essay in the Zeitschi^ift 
fiir deutsclie Mythologie und Sittenkunde, IV. (Gottingen, 
1859), 180-5. There are also supplements by L. 
Parisius, "Deutsche Volkslieder in der Alt- 
mark und im Magdeburgischen," Part I. (Magdeburg, 
1879), 45-9. In Lower Saxony the song is shown to be 
in existence by H. Sohnrey, v. Urds-Brunnen, I., Part I., 
16 sq., ; a variation from Dithmarschen, Part III., 16. 

Among Criminals 109 

—L. Strackerjan has found in a j3rosaic form this story, 
which indeed testifies to the existence of a popular 
superstition, in the Oldenburg region, II. (1867), 127: 
"A good fifty years ago a hired-man in Schwege, 
parish of Dinklage, sold his pregnant wife to a Jew 
at Vechta for 400 rx., who wanted to use the foetus for 
purposes of magic. The children listened and told 
their mother, who repeated it to her three brothers. 
The latter gave the Jew a thorough hiding on the 
night when the woman was to have been taken away, 
but the man went to prison." Direktor K. Stracker- 
jan, of Oldenburg, wrote me on May 1st, 1889, in 
answer to my question as to the source of the informa- 
tion, which appeared to me to lack historical value : 
" In the papers my brother left behind there is nothing 

that could serve as an elucidation I judge the 

story in this way. The fifty years mentioned are an 
arbitrary artifice, which goes back far enough to 
thrust aside at once the hearer's critical faculty, but 
not so far that it exceeds his circle of experience 
through traditions of living persons (grandparents, 
etc.), and so weakens the interest. Formerly there 
were no Jews anywhere in the Oldenburg Miinsterland 
except in Vechta ... so that if the story were to be 
brought closer home to the hearer, the buyer had to be 
a Jew of Vechta. Poetic justice required the imprison- 
ment of the Jew. The district prison is at Vechta : I do 
not doubt that the story also assumed the man 'came to 
Vechta,' as readily occurs in popular tales in such 
cases. If the basis of the story were in the main 
historical I am old enough myself, as well as the law- 
yers among my acquaintances .... to recollect the 
circumstances not exactly directly, but in any case 

indirectly I consider the story altogether to 

have come from outside An examination into 

the public documents of the courts of justice would be 
futile; for the departmental conditions in our 

110 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

Miinsterland have so altered during the last 60 or 70 
years, that no documents can be now in existence, 
even supposing any ever existed at all." 

B. Montanns, " Die deutschen Yolksfeste, Volks- 
bniuche und deutscher Volksglaube," Iserlohn, 1858, 
130 sq. : " This peculiar superstition of illumination 
with a child's limbs seems to hang together with folk- 
beliefs about will-o'-the-wisps. Thieves are said to 
have also wrought very powerful magic results, perti- 
nent to their night w^ork, with the hearts of new-born 
or innocent children as well as with their blood, and 
even with children cut out of their mothers' wombs, 
which superstition has then demonstrably had as a 
consequence several murders of innocent children 
and of wives about to become mothers. — The follow- 
ing incident* put together from the documents of 
investigation may serve for the explanation and sig- 
nificance of a superstition even now prevailing among 

the masses After the Thirtj^ Years' War had 

very much decivilised human beings, crowds of 
thieves roamed about the lower Rhine. On 7 October, 
1645, Heinr. Erkelenz, a poor rural worker, who was 
hardly a year married, went from his lonely dwelling 
towards Angermund, to buy oil and other trifles there, 
when he was knocked dowm by two robbers in the 
forest. 'I am poor,' he says, 'and my wife is near 
her confinement; I have to buy what is necessary for 

her.' Whereupon the robbers ' Your gold you 

shall have back and 100 gulden in gold in addition; 
but you must bring your wife here to us in return ' . . 
. . . After some deliberation, the barbarous man, 
seduced by filthy lucre, agrees to the bargain." He 
tells his wife he has sold their little house for 100 
gulden in gold, and when she talks against it, entices 

* [The author, v. Zuccalmaglio (Montanus is a pseudonym), has been 
dead for some time. For that reason I could not ascertain the 
sources of information he used.] 

Among Criminals 111 

her into the forest on the pretext he intends to cancel 
the transaction there. The wife becomes afraid, but 
starts on the road, after secretly praying her brother 
to follow her. " Erl^elenz approaches her with one of 
the robbers, while the other leans on a tree. The 
robber holds up a heavy money-bag; her husband 
seizes it and runs aside with it, and the poor victim 
is dragged away by the robber's strong arm. She 
screams, she struggles, but all resistance is useless. 
She is gagged and ])ound to a tree, she is stripped 
naked, and the elder robber pulls out a big sharp knife, 
in order to slit up her belly — then comes the crash 
of a bullet, and one of the robbers, hit in the heart, 
lies in his own blood." The other robber is knocked 
down by the woman's brother, gagged, and dragged 
to Angermund. " The robber was, according to the 
judicial sentence, on 12th October, before the Ratinger 
Thor, at Diisseldorf, first pinched with red hot tongs, 
and then broken alive on the wheel from toe to 
top. Erkelenz was hanged. The reason why the 
robber was visited with the severer penalty was the 
confession that he and his accomplice, among many 
other outrages committed by them, had cut two 
unborn children from their mothers' wombs, and ex- 
tracted their little hearts. Had they got the third 
heart as well, they would have become masters of 
magic powers w^hich no one could have withstood; 
they would thereby have been able to make them- 
selves invisible, and to perform a number of devil's 

Lammert, 84 : " A horrible example of superstition 
about the magic power of unborn children is aiforded 
in more recent times by Hundssattler, who was exe- 
cuted in the middle of last century at Bayreuth. He 
was under the delusion that a man could fly if he ate 
nine hearts of new-born children. With this object 
he had already butchered, cut up, and eaten the still- 

112 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

throbbing, warm hearts of eight pregnant women 
(Meissner, " Skizz." xiii., 107). The Nuremberg 
reports* of 1577 and 1601 are lamentable for a similar 

Tettau and Temme, 266 : " The hearts of unborn 
children were held by robbers and thieves to be a 
means of protection; in a raw state, even as they are 
torn from the mother's womb, and from the child's 
body, they were cut into as many pieces as there were 
partakers, and a piece was eaten by each of them. He 
who had thus partaken of nine hearts could not be 
caught, whatever thievery or other crime he might 
commit, and, even if he accidentally fell into his 
opponents' power he could make himself invisible, 
and so again escape his bonds. The children, how- 
ever, had to be of the male sex ; female were no good 
for the purpose. The band of the robber captain. King 
Daniel as he was called by his men, " Kix Teufel aus 
der Holle " ("King Devil from Hell") as he was 
called by the populace, which terrorised Ermeland in 
the middle of the 17th century, admitted after their 
capture, that they had already killed 14 pregnant 
wives with that object, but had only found male child- 
ren in very few of them." 267 : " Moreover, there were 
not only means of insurance against earthly punish- 
ment, but there were also means for quieting the 
conscience. For he who had killed a man had only to 
cut a piece out of the man's body, to roast and eat it, 
and he never thought again about his evil deed." 

* The Nuremberg executioner, Meister Frank, broke on the wheel in 
1577, at Bamberg, a murderer who had cut open three pregnant 
women; in 1601 he executed a monster at Nuremberg, who had slain 
20 persons, among them also several pregnant women, " whom he 
afterwards cut open, cut the children's hands oflf, and made little 
candles of them for burglary." Cf. "Meister Franken, Nachrich- 
ters allhier in Niirnberg all sein Richten am Leben, sowohl seine 
Leibsstraffen, so er verricht, alles hierin ordentlich beschrieben, aus 
seinem seibst eigenen Buch abgeschrieben worden. Genau nach 
dem Manuscript abgedruckt und herausgegeben von /. M. F. v. 
Endter," Nuremberg, 1801. 

Among Criminals 113 

In the defile behind Wiemes-Ilof, near Siichteln, 
stands, amid the underwood of ferns and briars, an 
old cross with the inscription : " Anno 1791 den 14. 
Merz ist Anno Margaretho Terporten alt 9 biss 10 Johr 
durch eines Morders Hand grausamlich umgebrocht 
w^orden" (On 14 March, 1791, Anna Margareta Ter- 
porten, aged 9 to 10, was cruelly killed by a 
murderer's hand). R. Freudenherg, in his book, 
"Soitelsch Plott,'' Viersen, 1888, attaches the follow- 
ing note to the poem, " Et Kriiz an den Hoalwag": 
" The cross is in memory of a little Siichteln girl who 
was murdered towards the end of the last century. . . 
The murderer committed the crime because he had 
been told that anybody possessing the heart of an 
innocent child, might steal without being discovered. 
Shortly after the finding of the body he was convicted, 
beheaded in Jiilich, and his corpse broken on the 
wheel on the so-called Galgenhaide (" gallows- 
common ") outside Diilken." I also take the follow- 
ing details, which rest upon the statements of the 
oldest inhabitants, from the Crefelder Zeitung, 1892, 
No. 197 : " It was alleged the child had been seen to go 
into the forest with a strange Jew. For that cause, 
and because the heart was extracted, people gave 
credence to a ' ritual murder ' . . . . The Jews in the 
neighbourhood were persecuted for three months, till 
the real criminal was found. A child of the murderer 
wore a hairpin and a little ring belonging to the 
murdered girl. So the murderer was found in a 
mason and day labourer of Anrath, who had also fre- 
quently worked here in Siichteln He confessed 

he had committed the murder of his own accord, in 
the belief that he could steal without being caught, if 
he possessed the heart of an innocent child." 

A. F. Thiele, "Die Jiidischen Gauner in Deutsch- 
land2," Be., 1848, 7: "The handsome Karl made the 
wives and concubines belonging to his band swear by 

114 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

the prince of darkness, and by everything evil, to 
deliver up unhesitatingly for that ghastly purpose 
[thieves' candles] the fruit of their wombs, if they 
were required so to do by himself or any other gradu- 
ate of the band. The foetus was then, before it had 
reached maturity, expelled and roasted!"* Theodor 
linger (that was ' handsome Karl's ' real name), who 
was executed at Mageburg in 1810, was not a Jew, 
and there is no proof discoverable that the Jews 
concerned in the robbery disorders of that period had 
the superstition here under notice. 

On 12th December, 1815, Claus Dau was executed 
on the Galgenberg, near Heide, district of North 
Dithmarschen, for killing three children, and devour- 
ing their hearts. He fancied he could make himself 
invisible by eating seven hearts. t 

Lehmann, " Chronik der Stadt Schneeberg," III., 
299, says under date 15th Dec, 1823: "We have still 
to mention a horrible custom, whose existence could 
scarcely be still thought possible in the 19th century. 
Friedrich's place of execution was close by the road 
from Zwickau to Werdau. Already early the next 
morning the two thumbs of the corpse were cut off, 
and a portion of the criminal's clothes stripped off. 

* " The notorious concubine of Horst, Luise BeUtz, has uttered re- 
markable revelations I'egarding these and similar facts." 

-}■ " Rede nacii der Hinrichtung des Morders Claus Dau am 12 Dez. 
1815, vor der Richtstatte an das Volk gehalten, von Karl Schetelig, 
erstem Prediger zu Heide," Heide 1816. The well-known 
poet Cknis Grof/i. a native of H., says about Dau in the "Quick- 
born" ("Hans Schander beim Rugenbarg") : 

He wehr sin Tid en argen Siinner, 

He driissel dre unschtilli Kinner, 

Mit saben Harten — as he swahn— 

Kunn he bi Dag unsichtbar gahn." 
Roughly translatable : 

" He was in's time a sinner bad, 

Three harmless bairns he strangled had, 

With seven hearts — for he thought so — 

He could by daylight unseen go." 

Among Criminals 115 

Within a week, however, the corpse lay on the wheel, 
deprived of all its toes and fingers as well as all its 
clothes, and caused an unparalleled scandal, so that 
the authorities saw themselves compelled to order 
its burial at once. And whence came the aforesaid 
despoiling and mutilation of the body ? In order by 
means of the various single items to obtain safety 
whilst thieving, and so forth." (Then follows the 
passage quoted supr. p. 71). 

Mannhardt, 21 sq. : " On New Year's Eve, 1864, a 
fearful murder with robbery was perpetrated at Eller- 
wald, near Elbing, on Elizabeth Zernickel, 23 years 

old A piece of flesh, nine inches long, and the 

same in breadth, had been cut out of her belly. For 
a considerable time there w^as no trace of the criminal, 
till on the evening of 16th February, 1865, during the 
committal of a thief. ... a working man, Gottfried 
Dallian, of Neukirch, in the Niederung, was caught, 
and there was found on him a strange candle, consist- 
ing of a tolerably firm mass of fat, poured round a 
wick, and contained in a leaden cylinder. . . . The 
murderer made a frank confession at the trial. He 
had intended merely thieving on 31st December, but 
Z.'s loud screams for help had caused him to strike 
her senseless by blows on the head with his knotty 

stick After he had packed everything together 

.... he cut out of the body. ... a piece of belly- 
flesh, which he roasted at home. He had made the 
thieves' candle out of the roasted human fat by the 
addition of beef tallow, but had eaten the residuum. 
At the Elbing Assizes he was condemned to death on 
23rd June, 1865. The motive of the . . . deed was the 
delusion instilled into Dallian by hearsay, that a 
candle or small lamp prepared from the fat of a 
murdered person would not be extinguished by any 
draught, and the flame could only be put out with 
milk; the person who carried it would be invisible. 

116 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

whilst all living people round about would be held in 
a deep slumber. In that way the thief was ensured 
against any interference in his business. And if the 
murderer cut a piece out of his victim's belly, roasted 
and consumed it, he would have peace in his con- 
science, he would never again think of the crime." 

TJ. J aim reports on " the murder-trial of the work- 
ing man Bliefernicht, of Sage, heard at the Assizes at 
Oldenburg," in the spring of 1888, in the " Proceedings 
of the Berlin Anthropological Society," 7th April, 
1888, 135: "As the statements of two witnesses 
informs us, B. was of the opinion that he who ate the 
flesh of young innocent girls, could do anything in the 
world, without anj^body being able to make him 
answerable. He killed two girls of six and seven 
years old respectively, and one of the two corpses not 
only had its throat cut from ear to ear, but had also 
its stomach ripped up, so that the entrails, lungs, and 
liver were exposed. A large piece of flesh had been 
artistically cut out of the rectal region, and could not 
be found in spite of search being made, for the reason 
that the monster had eaten it." 

In March, 1895, a man-servant, called Sier, of 
Heumaden, dug up in the cemetery at Moosbach, in 
the Bayrischer Wald, the body of a child recently 
dead, knocked out one of its eyes, and likewise appro- 
priated the little shroud. By getting its eye he 
imagined he could make himself invisible, so that he 
might then follow unseen his bent towards stealing. 
Ur-Quell, 1895, 200. 

In the night of 27th February, 1873, three Russian 
soldiers in the village of Sheljesnjaki, District of 
Grodno, opened the grave of a comrade recently 
dead, and took the entrails out, because they had 
heard that they could steal without danger by the 
light of a candle composed of human fat. — In 1884, in 
the town of Perejaslawl, Govt, of Poltava, three 

Among Criminals 117 

youths were arrested as they were opening a fat man's 
coffin, in order to use his fat for the preparation of a 
thieves' candle. Ldwenstimm, 114 sq.— In 1872 three 
horse thieves in the district of Kanew, Govt, of Kijeff, 
took out of a girl's grave one of her hands and her 
waxen cross. They thought it was enough to put the 
dead hand into the window, and set light to a taper 
made of the wax of the little cross, to cast the inhabit- 
ants of a house into deepest sleep. L'dicenstimm, 115. 

Russian criminals are not frightened even to 
commit murder in order to get thieves' candles. 
Ldwenstimm, 117-20 quotes four cases. In April, 1869, 
Kyrill Dshuss murdered a boy and flayed the skin off 
his stomach in the Wuikowitsch forest, district of 
Wladimir-Wolynsk ; but the rustling of the leaves dis- 
turbed him and drove him out of the forest.— In 1881 
two youths of 18 or 19 killed a peasant with the same 
object in the Tschembarsch district. Govt, of Pensa.— 
In 1887, Jefim Semljanin, after he and his two accom- 
plics had failed in three other attempts, strangled a 
girl in a wood in the Bjelgorod district, Govt. Kursk, 
and made a candle of her fat. The criminal was only 
discovered more than seven months later, when his 
house was searched on account of a theft, and a bundle 
with cooked flesh was found ; the cloth in which the 
flesh was wrapped had belonged to the murdered girl. 
— In 1896, two men of the Korotojak district, Govt. 
Woronesh, throttled a boy of twelve in order to mould 
a candle from his fat. 

A weakened form of this superstition occurs in 
the Govt, of Nishnij-Nowgorod: he who wants to 
become a magician must cut off the toe of a married 
woman's right foot. That was done at the beginning 
of the eighties by an inhabitant of the village of Fokin. 
Ldwenstimm, 126. 


The dividing-line between superstition and 
dementia is often only recognisable with difficulty or 
not at all, particularly as both may occur combined in 
the same individual. Yet it may be said in general : 
Superstitious ideas arise in single instances chiefly 
through conditions of up-bringing, society, hearsay, 
reading, more rarely through influences from facts; 
madness, on the other hand, is mainly based either on 
hereditary derangement, or on a terrible shock either 
to the body or to the mind (to the body, e.g. a fall, 
wound, debauched life ; to the mind, accumulation of 
misfortunes). — Lively religious feeling, when clean of 
every impure alloy, shows us man from the side of his 
similitude to God ; otherwise it may, if — what we have 
solely here to consider — superstition or madness be 
superadded, lead to horrible deeds. 

In referring to the "Bernstein case" (Ch. 15), I 
here collect a few facts, which may be characterised 
partly as "superstition among dements," partly as 
" crimes due to religious mania." 

A. "A tradesman's assistant, 27 years old, 
suffered from persecution mania, was confined in the 
lunatic asylum at Cadillac, quieted down, and 
engaged in useful occupation. One day he met in a 
dark corridor an old, weak invalid, split his skull 
open with an iron stick, extracted his brain, ate a por- 
tion of it at once, and saved the rest in his cell, tie 

Among Dements 119 

confessed, when asked, what he had done, and a 'so 
that he wanted still to eat the remainder. Five whole 
years afterwards he remained quiet, till he one day 
found himself with the doctors in the mortuary of the 
institute, and in an unguarded moment seized hold of 
a brain, and began greedily to devour it. He was put 
back again among the ' dangerous ' patients, and he 
was more than once surprised eating the brains of 
birds he caught in the yard.— The persecution mania 
had altered in him. As he noticed he was ill in his 
mind, he fancied he could help himself and increase 
his understanding by swallowing the brains of 
others." (C. Lombroso, " Der Verbrecher," done into 
German by Frilnkel, 11. [Hamburg, 1890], 154). 

B. Margarete Peter, daughter of a peasant, who 
was born in 1794, at Wildisbuch, was disposed from 
youth upwards to morbid religious enthusiasm ; and, 
the remainder of her understanding having been 
ruined by the confused mystic, Jakob Ganz, she 
fought, together with her family, on 13th March, 1823, 
with such vigour against Satan with axes, wedges, 
and rakes, that the floor of the house partially gave 
way. On 15th March she declared: "If Christ is to 
conquer and Satan to be completely overthrown, 
blood must flow!" She then seized an iron wedge, 
pulled her brother Kaspar to her with the words: 
"Behold, Kaspar, the Evil Enemy wants your soul," 
and planted several blows on his head and breast, so 
that he began to bleed in both places. Kaspar is led 
away by his father; some others, too, go away. 
She now says to those who have remained behind: 
" Blood must be shed. I see my mother's spirit, which 
requires of me to quit my life for Christ. And you, 
will you also surrender your life for Christ?" " Yes," 
they all replied. Her sister Elizabeth cries out : " I 
shall gladly die for the salvation of my father's and 
my brother's souls. Kill me dead, kill me ! " and she 

120 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

beats herself on the head with a wooden mallet. Mar- 
garete attacks her sister with an iron hammer, wounds 
her brother-in-law, Johannes Moser, and his intimate 
friend, Ursula Kiindig, and then orders those present 
to kill Elizabeth downright. Without uttering a 
single cry of pain, the latter passes away with the 
words: "I quit my life for Christ!" Margareter 
" Some more blood must be spilt. Christ in me has 
given his Father a pledge for many thousands of souls. 
I must die. You shall crucify me." And she strikes 
herself with the hammer on the left temple, so that it 
begins to bleed. Johannes and Ursula are obliged to 
deal her further blows, and make a circular cut 
round her neck with a razor, and a cross cut on her 
forehead. " Now I want to be nailed to the cross, and 
you, Ursula, must do it. You go, Zasi [her sister 
Susanna], and bring up the nails, and you others 
meanwhile get ready the cross." The victim's hands 
and feet are nailed to the cross. The strength of the 
crucifying woman is again about to fail her. " Go on, 
go on! May God strengthen your arm! I shall 
awaken Elisabeth, and within three days shall myself 
arise again." Continuance of the hammer blows; a 
nail is driven through both of the victim's breasts, 
likewise through the left elbow-joint, then by 
Susanna also through the right one. " I feel no pain. 
Only be you strong, that Christ may conquer." In a 
firm voice she further commands a nail or a knife to 
be driven through her head into her heart. In raving 
desperation Ursula and Konrad Moser rush upon her 
and smash her head to pieces, the former by means 
of the hammer, the latter with a two-bevelled chisel.— 
On Sunday, 23rd March, there was a pilgrimage of 
Margaret's adherents to W. One of them scraped 
blood from the place where the bed was, broke a 
blood-stained piece of chalk out of the wall of the 
room, and carefully wrapped up these relics. (/. 

Among Dements 121 

Scherr, "Die Gekreuzigte, oder das Passionsspiel von 
Wildisbuch," S. Gallen, 1860 [219].— Precisely accord- 
ing to the public documents preserved at Zurich. 
Unfortunately the author has distorted his book by 
blasphemous attacks on the Bible, especially the Old 
Testament, and on the Christian religion). 

Scherr has the audacity, reminding one of Daumer and Rohling, to 
remark: "'Even in our days we have lived to find a pietist, 
emulous of Abraham and Jephthah, slaughtering his five 
children as a sacrifice to the El-Schaddai : Georg Hiller at Ober- 
jettingen, in Suabia, in March, 1844." — Prof. Eb. Nestle, 
now at Maulbronn, has at my request read through the news- 
paper reports : "No mention of religious motives, either in the 
first conjectures or in the professional opinion of the medical 
faculty, nor in the proceedings at Court. — Schwaebischer 
Merkur, 1844, 10th March: 'Great poverty and drunkenness 
are supposed to have been the causes.' — 11th March: 'probably 
in desperation owing to financial ruin and disaster.' — 11th 
November : consigned to Tiibingen for observation by the 
medical faculty. — 1845 19th June, a short report, 23rd June, a 
detailed report (6 columns) about the judicial proceedings. 
Speech of the public prosecutor : death penalty because of 
wilful murder : speech of defending counsel : emotional man- 
slaughter : lessened responsibility owing to passing emotional 
disturbances : verdict of 18 years' imprisonment for man- 
slaug-hter. Accordins: to the rea.sons for this decision some 
of the judges were for murder, others for emotional 
manslaughter, some adopted full responsibility, others— the 
majority — diminished responsibility. (The man had no more 
money, sent for brandy and rolls of white bread for the 
evening meal, and as the children went to sleep through it, he 
used the occasion to free them by death from the misery of the 
world. He had not determination enough to kill himself. I 
found it nowhere mentioned in the Merkur that the man was 
a pietist)." 

" The ' heiligen Manner ' (holy men) at Chemnitz, 
in Saxony, whose society had been founded by a 
religious enthusiast shoemaker called Voigt [carried 
on their life in 1865] with truly Molochistical piety, by 
persuading two mothers in the sect to slaughter their 
sick children, because the same were ' possessed of the 
devil.'" (/. Scherr, "Deutsche Kultur-und Sitten- 
geschichte,"^ L., 1879, 585). 

" Two sisters from Briancon, the one 45, the other 

122 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

47 years old, were rich, and had no other occupation 
but going to church. One morning the elder sister 
informed the younger, God had appeared to her in a 
dream, and had asked that she (the younger sister) 
should sacrifice herself as a sign of love for him. The 
other finds it all right, agrees to offer herself as a sacri- 
fice to God, lets her hands and feet be cut off with a 
razor, and dies crying: ' Jesus and Maria!' whilst the 
sister collects her blood as a relic, then carefully 
adorns the corpse, goes to the notary, to whom she 
announces her dream and her sister's murder, and 
deposits a will, by which all her papers of money- 
value are to be burnt." (Loinbroso, II., 146 sq.) 

" A certain Kursin, a very pious man . . . killed 
his seven-year-old boy, convinced he was offering up 
a sacrifice pleasing to the Lord. . . . ' The thought 
that the whole of mankind must perish, had disturbed 
me so that I could not sleep. I got up, lit all the lamps 
before the eikon, and prayed God to save me and my 
family. . . . Then the idea came to me to save my 

finest and best son from eternal damnation.' 

When brought to prison (after he had killed the child), 
Kursin refused all nutriment, and died of starvation." 
{Lomhroso, II., 152 sq.) 

The awful crimes committed in the last centuries 
of the middle ages, and yet later on even in the 17th 
century, and connected with alchemy, magic, Satan- 
ism ("black masses!") and sorcery of all kinds, 
cannot be gone into here. Only one example: Gilles 
de Rais, Marshal of France, a contemporary, and for 
a time, a companion of Jeanne d'Arc, murdered about 
200 children between 1432 and 1440 for purposes of 



A. The Jews have always, and also since their 
"dispersal among the people of the earth,'' been 
strongly influenced by their environment (e.g. in 
dress, food, language, etc.), likewise in the matter of 
superstition.^*^ Superstitions, too, of Jewish origin 
are not wanting. t For both reasons it is not permis- 
sible to assert a priori, that such views and customs as 

* M. Lichbamki, " Jiidische Sagen aus Russlaud u. Polen," in Urds- 
Bninnen IV., 55-61, is also of the opinion that the Jews had taken 
over with the German language several of the German popular be- 

t Cf. D. J oil, " Der Aberglaube und die Stellung des Judentums zu 
demselben," 2 parts, Breslau 1881 (116). 1883 (65); M. Gildemann, 
"Geschichte des Erziehungswesens und der Cultur der abendlandi- 
schen Juden wahrend des Mittelalters and der ueueren Zeit." 
Vienna I. (1880), especially 212 sq. ; II. (1884), especially 219 sq., 
333 sq., 255 sq. ; III. (1888), especially 128 sq. ; G. Wolf, "Die 
Juden" [part of the compilation, "Die Volker Oesterreich- 
Ungarns"], 113 sq. ; (S'. liuhin, "Geschichte des Aberglaubens," L. 
1888 (159. From the Hebrew). In the Tosephta (a very ancient 
Halakhish work running parallel to the Mishna) in the Treatise on 
the Sabbath, ch. 7, 8 (edition of Zuckermandel 117-9) several matters 
of superstition are collected, in many cases with the remark that it 
is heathen (belongs "to the ways of the Amorites"). //. Levy has 
translated both chapters and explained them in the ZeiUchrift des 
VereiuK fur Volkskiiude, 1893, 23-40, 130-43.— Cf. also: G. Brecher, 
" Das Transcendentale, Magie und magische Heilarten im Talmud." 
Vienna 1850 (233). /. Bergel, " Die Medizin der Talmudisten. ' 
L. 1885 (88). L. Blait, " Das altjiidische Zauberwesen," Budapesth 
1898 (167). J . Hamhuryer, " Boser Blick " in the " Real-Encyclo- 
padie fiir Bibel u. Talmud" II. (1883), 117 sq. 

124 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

we have learnt about in the first main portion of this 
work never occur among Jews, because they are 
impossible among them. Assuredly, however, not 
only a Jew, but also an unbiassed Christian inquiring 
into the matter may point out, that several precepts 
of Judaism are bound to form a great obstacle at any 
rate to the wide dissemination of the thoughts and 
acts described or alluded to in the preceding chapters. 
B. The most important of these precepts is the 
prohibition of the consumption of blood and of meat with 
blood in it, which several times occurs in the Pen- 

Genesis ix. 4 : "But flesh, with the life thereof, which is the blood 
thereof, shall ye not eat." Leviticus xvii. 10 : "And whatsoever 
man there be of the house of Israel, or of the strangers that 
sojourn among you, that eateth any manner of blood ; I will 
even set my face against that soul that eateth of blood, and 
will cut him off from among his people. 11: For the life of 
the flesh is in the blood : and I have given it to you upon the 
altar to make an atonement for your souls : for it is the blood 
that maketh an atonement for the soul. 12: Therefore I said 
unto the children of Israel : No soul of you shall eat blood, 
neither shall any sti'anger that sojourneth among you eat blood. 
13 : And whatsoever man there be of the children of Israel, or 
of the strangers that sojourn among you, which hunteth and 
catcheth any beast or fowl that may be eaten ; ye shall even 
pour out the blood thereof, and cover it with dust. 14 : For 
it is the life of all flesh ; the blood of it is for the life thereof : 
therefore I said unto the children of Israel, Ye shall eat the 
blood of no manner of flesh : for the life of all flesh is the blood 
thereof: whosoever eateth it shall be cut off."— Leviticus vii. 
26 : "Moreover, ye shall eat no manner of blood, whether it be 
of fowl or of beast, in any of your dwellings. 27 : Whatsoever 
soul it be that eateth any manner of blood, even that soul shall 
be cut off from his people."— Cf. Lev. iii. 17, xix. 26 ; Deut. xii. 
16, 23, XV. 23, besides I. Samuel xiv. 32-4; Ezekiel xxiii. 25; 
Acts XV. 29. 

The first quotation gives at the same time an im- 
portant reason why the Israelites must abstain from 
partaking of blood. God has fixed upon blood as the 
means of atonement ; therefore it must serve no other 

Jewish Religious Law 125 

C. The later Jewish legislation goes even further 
than the Old Testament. In the " Schulhan Arukh," 
written by Joseph Qaro (1488-1575), whose work in 
combination with its acknowledged commentaries is 
considered the chief authority in Jewish Law matters 
for those who are either not in a position or have not 
the time to refer back to the original authorities (Tal- 
mud, the oldest decrees of the Law, etc.), we read in 
"Jore De/a," LXV., 1: "There are veins, the con- 
sumption of which is forbidden because of the blood 
contained in them, e.g. the veins of the fore-arm, the 
shoulder and the lower jaw." LXVL, 1 : " The blood 
of cattle, of beasts of the field, and of birds, no matter 
whether these animals be clean or not, must not be 
partaken of." LXVL, 3 : " If a drop of blood is found 
in an Qgg, the blood should be removed and the rest 
eaten ; but only if the blood was in the white. If it 
was, however, in the yolk, the whole egg is forbid- 
den." The gloss of the Cracow Rabbi Moses Isserles 
(ob. 1572/3), which is held in equal esteem with the 
text, especially among the East European Jews, re- 
marks on this passage : " In these countries it is 
customary to declare without distinction every egg 
forbidden, in which there is a drop of blood." 
LXVL, 9: '* Fish blood, although [because not forbid- 
den in the Pentateuch] allowed of itself, must 
nevertheless not be partaken of, if it has been collected 
in a vessel, because it might be thought to be a differ- 
ent kind of blood. It may, however, be consumed if 
it is easily recognisable as fish blood, e.g. if there are 
scales in it." 

The watering and salting, that have to be carried 
out in the case of meat intended for eating, for the 
sake of thoroughly getting rid of the blood, are treated 
of by e.g. Eleazar of Worms (beginning of 13th 
century) in his work entitled "Roqeah," Ascher ben 
Jehiel (ob. 1327) ; Jakob ben Ascher (ob. c. 1340) in 

126 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

"Arba^a Turim; " Joseph Qaro; Naphthali Benedict 
Sepher B^rith Melah," Prague, 1816 sq. 

D. The practice of the j^resent time, corresponding 
to the traditional Law, is related b}^ Ludw. Stern, " Die 
Vorschriften der Thora," Frankfort a. M., 1882, §118: 
"After all forbidden parts have been sejMrated from the 
animal, the flesh, which is intended for cooking,"^ 
must, before the lapse of 72 hours after the butchering 
of the animal, be laid in a vessel specially used for 
the purpose for half-an-hour in water, so that it is 
quite covered with water (''soaking in water").— 
Next, the meat is thoroughly washed in this water and 
cleajised of blood sticking to it, then laid on a slanting 
board also used for the purpose, or on a perforated 
vessel, so that the water may run off properly (''water- 
ing off " ).— When that has been done, every piece is 
singly sprinkled with fine-grained salt so abundantly 
on all sides and in all crevices that it looks as if it 
were covered with hoar-frost (" salting " ).—The meat 
remains lying with the salt for an hour, as after the 
watering off on the slanting board or on the perforated 
vessel, so that the blood drawn out by the salt can 
trickle down; then every piece is so abundantly 
watered on all sides that all the salt is washed away 
("moistening with water"). Only after this treat- 
ment may the flesh be cooked. . . . If the flesh 
was frozen before the treatment, or if it is frozen 
during it, the whole treatment must be again per- 
formed when the flesh has again been thawed. — 4- 
. . . [the liver which is rich in blood'], after being 
cleansed by thorough washing from the blood attached 
to it, must, sprinkled with some salt, be roasted directly 
by the fire, but not lying on paper or on the leaves of 
plants; but on a spit, on a gridiron, or freely on the 

* [The salting-out of blood is not needed in meat which is roasted, v. 
"Jore De'^a" LXXVI., 1, because the fire is held to suck up the 
blood; about blood, which remains in the limbs, v. LXVII., 1.] 

Jewish Keligious Law 127 

coals. It must remain at the fire till the Mood has 
been extracted and it is j^erfectly well-cooked for 
immediate eating. After being taken away from the 
fire it must he thrice watered abundantly on all sides. 
— 5. . . . In the case of the heart, milt, lungs, 
head, feet with claws, as well as birds, there are yet 
especial prescrijjtions to be observed. — More detailed 
instructions about it in . . . (the suq^flement to) 
'Amirdfi Ibeth Ja'aqob,' by Rabbi S. B. Bamberger 
[Snd edition, Fiirth, 1864].'' 

E. The prohibition of the consumption of blood, 
according to its phrasing, certainly holds good only 
of animal blood, or, more accurately, the blood of 
warm-blooded animals (quadrupeds and birds). The 
consumption of human blood is not expressly forbid- 
den in the 0. T. ; it does not follow, however, that it 
was allowed. The lack of an express pronouncement 
may be explained very simply, if the following is 
taken into consideration. Firstly: It is altogether 
beyond the imagination of Israelites as such to con- 
ceive that anyone could have the idea of partaking of 
human blood. Secondly: The Pentateuchical 
Law forbids the partaking of animal blood 
particularly because it ordains animal sacri- 
fices; whilst human sacrifices are strictly 
prohibited, v. Leviticus xviii., 21; xx., 2 sq. ; Deuter- 
onomy xii., 31. — In the whole of the literature con- 
cerned with the Jewish religious law there is no pass- 
age whence it could be concluded that the Jews are, or 
were, permitted to eat human blood. Moses Maimo- 
nides (1135-1204) writes in his great ritual code, 
"Laws about forbidden foods," Ch. 6 (Venice, 
1524, No. 361 b): " §1. Whoever eats blood to the 
amount of an olive, if he does it intentionally, incurs 
the punishment of extirpation ; if it happened unin- 
tentionally, he brings the usual sin-offering. But the 

128 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

guiltiness is only imputable in regard to the blood of 
cattle, game, and birds, no matter whether they are 
clean or unclean; v. Leviticus vii., 26; Deuteronomy 
xiv., 5. But there is no guiltiness because of the 
prohibition of blood* with the blood of fishes and 
locusts and creeping and swarming animals or with 
human blood. It is accordingly explicitly allowed to 
eat the blood of clean fish, and also to drink it after it 
has been collected in a vessel; but the partaking of 
the blood of unclean fish and beasts is, like the milk 
of unclean cattle, forbidden solely because it is a com- 
ponent part of their bodies; the blood of reptiles, as 
well as their flesh, is likewise forbidden [because those 
animals are unclean]. — §2. Human blood is rabbini- 
cally prohibited, w^hen it is separated from the body, 
and the transgression is punished with disciplinary 
scourging. Blood from the gums may be swallowed 
[because it is still in the mouth, not separated from 
the body]. But whoever has bitten into bread and 
then finds blood on it, scrapes the blood of^ and only 
eats the bread, because the blood was separated from 
the body." — Already in- the first unre vised edition of 
the " Schulhan Arukh," Venice, 1565, it is stated, 
" Jore De^," Ixvi, 1, without mention of human blood : 
" Blood of cattle, game and birds, be they clean or 
unclean, is forbidden, likewise the blood of a foetus; 
but the blood of fishes and locusts is allowed.' Cf. 
again ibid. §10 : " Human blood when separated from 
the body, is forbidden on account of its appearance 
[because it might be regarded as Biblically-forbidden 
animal blood]. Therefore, whoever eats bread must 
scrape off the blood which has perhaps come on the 

* [Because the Bible, when forbidding the eating of blood, does not 
expressly mention these two kinds of blood. The Mishna, 
"Bikkurim" ii, 7, states on similar lines : The blood of human beings 
and the blood of creeping animals are in so far alike, that their con- 
sumption is not visited with the penalty of extirpation.] 

Jewish Religious Law 129 

bread from his gums ; if, however, it is still between 
his teeth, he may swallow it." 

" Talmud, Makkoth," 16 b: "Rab Bibi bar Abaje 
has said : Whoever drinks from the horn of an ' Ader- 
lasser ' (a kind of cupping-glass) transgresses the pro- 
hibition in Leviticus xx., 25." 

It is true that in circumcision the Mohel sucks the blood from the 
wound (usually with the mouth ; during some years in Germany 
also by means of a glass tube, in whose middle is sterilised 
wadding) ; but that is only ordained with the object that the 
wound may heal more easily, and because, according to the 
"Talmud," the wound, if not sucked out, would be dangerous 
to the child's life (Cf. "Sabbath," 133 b), and he immediately 
spits out the blood, Cf. M, Baum, "Der theoretisch-praktische 
Mohel," Frankfort a. M., 1884, 35 sq. ; Jakob Molln Ha-Levi, 
"Minhagim," Cremona, 1558, No. 89 b. — According to the 
"Zohar" to Leviticus xiv. and xix., the blood of the circum- 
cision is preserved by God for the healing of the child (in case 
it should be necessary), and in order that it may not be injured 
by the female demon Lilith. — Concerning the covering of the 
blood of circumcision with earth Cf . Pirqe de Rabbi Eli'ezer 29 
(in the notes to Josh, v., 2 sq., and Numb, xxiii. 10). 

A II 'partaking of human hlood (because the swallow- 
ing of a few drops of one's own blood, when the gums 
are bleeding, cannot be taken into account) is accord- 
ingly forbidden the Jews unconditionally hy their 
religious law. 

F. Yet another precept of the Jewish religious 
law puts obstacles in the way of the superstitious 
utilisation of other men's blood and altogether of all 
parts of corpses, viz., the sentence: " Utilisation of a 
dead person is prohibited," " meth 'assur bah^na'a*^ " 
(Talmud, "Aboda zara," 29 b). Maimonides, 
"Laws about mourning," xiv. 21: "Utilisation of a 
dead person is prohibited, with the exception of his 
hair,* because this does not belong to his body." 
Schulhan Arukh, Jore De'a 349, 1: "Utilisation of a 

* "Jore De'^d" 349, 2, says more precisely: The utilisation is only al- 
lowed when it is false hair and when the deceased before death has 
expressly determined, that son or daughter should get it. 

130 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

dead person, be he ' Goj ' (non-Jew*) or Israelite, is 
prohibited." Cf., too, Talmud, "Arakhin" 7ab, 
"Sanhedrin" 47 b. sq., "Hullin" 122a, "Nidda" 
55a; Salomo ben Adreth (Rabbi at Barcelona, ob. 
1310), "Legal Opinions," No. STS.f On this are 
based the following ordinances referring to burial 
(after J. Rabbinowicz, " Der Totenkultus bei den 
Juden," Frankfort a. M., 1889, §21-3): "No employ- 
ment must be made either of the corpse itself or of its 
clothes. . . . The clothes must be intended for 
the deceased, and have already come in contact with 
him. ... In this case the objects in question, if 
for any cause whatever they have failed in their pur- 
pose, must be buried or burnt. If, however, they had 
not yet come into any contact with the deceased, they 
may assuredly be used for something else, but . . . 
not just as they now are . . . but the coffin must 
be knocked to pieces and the clothes must be torn 
asunder. . . . Even if anyone had testified in his 
will that his hair shall be used after death and for a 
certain purpose, it is not permitted to derive benefit 
from it. But if he wore false hair, it may be utilised 

* The famous Jakob Emden, in the collection of technical opinions, 
"She'ilath Ja'be9," I., No. 70b gq. (Altona 1739) forbids a Jewish 
doctor the dissecting of corpses, and declares all prohibitions of utili- 
sation expressly as also holding good of the corpses of non-Jews 
(Cf. D. Hoffmann, "Der Schulchan-Aruch2," Be. 1894, 83 sq.). Even 
now orthodox Jews are averse from the dissection of corpses, and 
allow it only in consideration of the saving of human life possibilised 
thereby. — Respecting dissection of corpses in Talmudic times, v. 
" Bekhoroth " A^^, and /. Hamburger, " Real-Encyclopadie fiir 
Bibel und Talmud" II. (Strelitz 1883)', 685-7. 

t On the Talmud treatise "Ta'anith" ("fasting") 15b: "They scat- 
tered ashes on the holy ark," the commentary " Tosaphoth " (12th 
and 13th century) says : " These ashes were of human bones; because 
these ashes were to recall the "^Aqeda [binding of Isaac and the fol- 
lowing sacrifice by Abraham, Genesis XXII.], in which instance also 
bones were burnt." According to this passage parts of corpses were 
even used ritually. But there were no ashes of human bones among 
the Jews, since corpses were not allowed to be burnt ! The text is 
corrupt"; the word ""^adam" ("men") must be struck out. 

Jewish Religious Law 131 

after his death, if he permitted it during life-time. 
. . . A murdered person, and a woman who has 
died in child-bed, to whose clothes blood adheres, are 
in several places not washed before burial, also they 
are not undressed, but the burial costumes are drawn 
over their clothes. . . . All blood they have lost 
since passing away, as well as all articles of clothing, 
utensils, parts of the bed and suchlike, to which any 
of this blood sticks, are laid in the grave with the 
body. . . . Everything that has been cut from or 
has fallen from the dead is consigned with him to the 
grave."* — Much that is relevant here also occurs in 
/. Ch. Korn, " Der Talmud vor Gericht," Part I., 
Vienna, 1884 (46). 

G. Finally, the fact may be also alluded to that 
the corpse and all parts of the corpse make unclean, 
according to Jewish religious law, Cf. Numbers xix. ; 
Mishna treatise "Ohal6th"t; Maimonides, "Laws 
about defiling by a dead person (Tum'ath meth)." 
The want of the means of purification, ac- 
cording to the Law (ashes of a red cow), 
has caused several alterations in the practice. But 
even now the numerous Kohanim, i.e., the men who, 
by tradition, belong to the priestly caste, must avoid 
all pollution through corpses, so that they may not 
even be in the same house together with corpses. 

» Cf. Landshuth, "Seder biqqur holim ma'^abar Jabboq w'^sepher ha- 
hajjim" ("Prayer and devotion-book for the use of invalids, dying 
persons, and at burials " (Be. 1867 XXXVI. sq. ; Schulhan "^Arukh, 
Jore De'^a, 364, 3.4 with the commentaries. 

-j- .S'. Jerome, Epistle 109 to Riparius : "Samaritanum et Judaeum, qui 
corpora mortuorum pro immundis habent et etiam vasa quae in 
eadem dome fuerint pollui suspicantur " (Opera ed, Vallarsi 1., 719). 


A . In Judaism the opinion prevailed : " At the 
head of all diseases stand I, the blood [out of the 
blood come most diseases]*; at the head of all 
remedies stand I, the wine," " Talmud Baba bathra," 
58 b. Thence it is declared in "Sabbath," 41 a: "It 
has been taught : If any one has eaten and not drunk, 
his eating is blood, '^akilatho dam ' [ie., he is consum- 
ing his vital power, he is becoming emaciated], and 
that is the beginning of indigestion; if anyone has 
eaten and not walked four ells, his eating causes 
putrefaction, and that is the beginning of bad smell." 
— The Jew has naturally a disgust for partaking of 
blood, as is clearly stated in " Makkoth " 23 b : " Rabbi 
Simeon bar Rabbi said: It is written (Deuteronomy 
xii. 23), 'But take heed that thou eatest not blood, 
for the blood is the soul,' etc. If, then, man, whose 
soul loathes blood, receives reward because he 
abstains from blood, how much must it be counted to 
him for a merit if he abstains from robbery and for- 
bidden carnal intercourse, on which, nevertheless, his 
lust is set ! " Cf. also " Siphre," No. 76, on Deutero- 

* The British Museum Greek papyrus, 137, says of the pre- Aristotelian 
doctor, Thrasymachus of Sardes, that he regarded the blood as the 
cause of all illnesses. It is the teaching of Galen about the plethora, 
which doctrine was also the cause of the excessive use of blood- 
letting in the East, Cf. /. Bauer, " Geschichte der Aderlasse," 
Munich 1870 (230). ,.., 

Popular Therapeutics 133 

nomy xii. 23 (Friedmann's Edit., No. 90 b).— These 
views and the contents of Ch. 14 justify the assump- 
tion that only rarely, at least considerably more rarely 
than heathens or Christians, have Jews used, or do they 
use, blood for therapeutical or for magical purposes. The 
assumption is confirmed by the consistency of tradi- 

B. Antiquity. Except what follows, it would be 
hard to find anything requiring elucidation in the 
whole Talmudic literature. Several points here 
brought forward are neither superstitious nor loath- 
some, but simply component parts of an all-compre- 
hensive " popular medicine " ; they should, however, 
be mentioned here, so that they may not appear to 
have passed unnoticed (e.g., the consumption of 
animal milt). Of what an altogether different species 
are the " Hauss-Apothec," the "Dreck-Apotheke," 
and what may be read in the Ebers papyrus, in Pliny, 
etc. (v. Ch. 1) ! 

1. Animal blood. For the eye-disease "Bar- 
qith," the eye is smeared with woodcock's blood, for 
" Jarod " with bat's blood (Cf. p. 57, 1. 3). " Sabbath," 
7S a. — "Against one-sided headache take a woodcock, 
butcher it with a silver ' Zuz ' (a coin) above the side 
on which the head aches, so that the blood flows on 
that side; care, however, must be taken that the eye 
is not blinded (by blood flowing in). Next hang the 
woodcock at the door in such a way that the patient 
rubs against it on entering and on going out," 
" Gittin," 68 b. — For the cure of jaundice it is recom- 
mended in " Sabbath," 110 b. etc., that the blood of a 
very young donkey should be let run over a place 
shaven clean on the centre of the patient's head, but 
so that the blood may not flow into the eye. — "Hullin," 
28 a supr., 85 b fin. : Bird's blood as a means for dis- 
persing moth (" janiba,") which have got into the flax. 
Palestinian Talmud Ma'aser sheni V., fol. 56 b. Rab, 

184 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

whose flax had turned out a failure, asked Hijja the 
Great, whether a bird might be killed, and its blood 
mixed with the flax-seed (to better its growth). (The 
consideration was that then the command to cover up 
blood would not be fulfilled). 

Whoever smears himself with salamander's 
blood, is, according to "Hagiga," 27 a, immune 
against fire. Ahas wanted to sacrifice to Moloch also 
his son Hiskia; but Hiskia's mother had smeared her 
son with salamander blood, v. "Sanhedrin," 63 b. 
Together with the name of " Salamandra," the Jews 
also took over from the Greeks their wondrous notions 
about the idiosyncrasies of that creature. 

2. Parts and refuse of animals. For nyctalopia, eating roasted 
animal-milt is among, other things, thought a remedy, 
"Gittin," 69 a. Mar Samuel is of opinion that after a blood- 
letting milt-food is strengthening, "Sabbath," 129 a. A 
Mishna teacher, who had been in Rome, advises for hydro- 
phobia that one should eat a lobe of the mad dog's liver, 
"Joma," 84 a * — "Sabbath," 109 b sq. : "If anyone is bitten 
by a snake, let the foetus of a white jenny-ass be taken and 
divided, and let the bitten person sit on it. An official in 
Pumbeditha was bitten by a snake. Now, there were ten 
white jenny-asses on the spot. They were slit open one after 
the other; but they were all found to be f^repha^ (i-e., afflicted 
with an injury of the womb)." — "Kethubboth," 50 a. : Abaje 
heard from his mother that should a boy of six be stung by a 
scorpion, one should dip the gall of a white kite in 
beer (schikhra), and make the boy drink it. — "Sabbath," 67^: 
For tertian fever, collect several [counted singly] objects in the 
number of seven of each, among them also seven threads from 
an old dog's beard, and bind all to the neck with 'nira barqa 
(white thread? tuft of hair?). "Gittin," 69b: For the disease 
of "Karsam," touch a white dog's excrement with balsam. But, 
if possible (i.e., if one has another remedy, or if the malady is 
endurable), the excrement should not be eaten. — "Sabbath," 
67a : Whoever has a bone stuck in his throat should take a bone 

* M. Sachs, "Beitrage zur Sprach-und Alterthumsforschung," I. (L. 
1852), 49, compares here Aelian, "De Natura Animalium" XIV. 
20, and [Pseudo-3 Dioskorides " Ue/ji fwropio-rwi/ K^apfLaKtav"!!., c. 113 
— Cf. also Galen, " Hcpi ruiv dirXoiv 4>apfjLa.Kiov " k.t.X. xi., 10 (ed. Kiihn 
xii., p. 335). The same remedy also found among the aborigines of 
the present day, e.g., the Haussas, v. Zeitschr. fur Ethnologic 1896, 
Verhandlungen, p. 31. 

Popular Therapeutics 135 

of the same kind, lay it on the crown of his head, and say: 
"One, one, go down, be swallowed, be swallowed, go down, one, 

3. Parts of corpses. Among a series of popular 
remedies for diseases of the spleen* (e.g., take the 
spleen of a she-goat which has not yet had young, 
stick it to an oven, stand opposite, and say: Even as 
this spleen shrivels up, so let the spleen of N, the son 
of N, diminish) occurs also the following, " Gittin," 
69b : " Or look for a dead man, who died on a Sabbath, 
lay his hand on the sick spleen and speak : Even as 
this hand shrinks, so may the spleen of N, son of N, 
diminish." Cf. supr., Ch. 8 D. 

4. Executed persons. According to the 
Mishna "Sabbath," vi., 10, the hope of being cured 
induced many people to carry about with them a 
locust's egg [against pains in the hips] or a fox's tooth 
[if from a living fox, for facilitating waking up ; if 
from a dead one, for insomnia] or a nail from the 
"Club" (cross, gallows) [for fever]. Cf. supr. p. 76. 
Besides, Cf. " Sabbath," 134 a: A new-born child, that 
will not cry, should be smeared with the after-birth 
belonging to it.— " Sabbath," 109^: R. Hanina said: 
If you take 40 days' urine, 1/32 of a log (taken 
inwardly?) helps against hornet's sting; 1/4 against 
scorpions' ; 1/2 against the harmful effect of water 
which has stood uncovered; 1/1 even against sorcery. 
—Palest. " Sabbath," xiv., fol. 14^ line 3, mentions a 
child's dry ordure as an ingredient of a medicament 
against the mouth disease "Caphdina" (scurvy?). 

5. So far as I see, human blood is only mentioned 
" Sabbath," 75 b, fin. : " Some say menstrnation blood 
should be kept for the cat; others it should not be 
kept, because it is weakening." The blood is here 
regarded not as a means of cure or magic, but simply 
as a tit-bit. Moreover, Rashi remarks on the pas- 

* Cf. on the point, Pliny, " Nat. Hist." xxx., 6, 1. 17 ! 

136 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

sage : " Whoever gives such blood to a cat gets ill.'' — 
// it is true what Dio Cassius Ixviii. 32 relates about 
the war against Trajan (115-7 a.d./ the question 
does not turn wpon a superstition, but only upon a 
reaction against the most outrageous maltreatment, 
though certainly a reaction of the grossest barbarity. 
The Jews are said to have killed 220,000 persons in 
Cyrene, to have sawn their enemies asunder ^ 
besmeared themselves with their blood, and eaten of 
their flesh. 

The following fact characteristically proves that 
the statements here gathered together have not the 
remotest connection with the Jewish religion. The 
blood of the sacrificed animals which ran from the 
altar of burnt offering through a subterranean pipe to 
the valley of Cedron at the time of the Second Temple 
was sold to gardeners for manuring, v. Mishna, 
"Joma" (day of atonement) V. 6; Talmud, "Pesa- 
chim " (Easter Festival) 22a. 

C. Middle Ages. In " Sha'are Cedeq," a collec- 
tion of legal professional reports of the Geonim=^ (Sal- 
onichi, 1799, No. 22 b), we read, Book L, Ch. 5., §10: 
" The Jews in Babylon circumcise over water and wet 
their faces with the water; the Jews in Palestine cir- 
cumcise over earth, v. Zachariah ix., 11." — §11 : " Rab 
Kohen Cedeq: As regards your questions about the 
child's circumcision over land and water, there is no 
manner of prohibition, which w^ould justify us 
ordering you to alter your practice. But we are used 
to boiled water, in which are myrtle and perfumes, 
which are pleasantly fragrant, and circumcise the 
child over the water, so that the blood of circumcision 
falls into the water, and all our young men wash 

» Thus are called the most prominent of the authorities in the sphere 
of traditional Jewish religious law, who lived at Sura and Pumbe- 
ditha in Babylonia from the 7th century till the year 1040. 

Popular Therapeutics 137 

themselves therewith in remembrance of the blood of 
the covenant that exists between God and our father 
Abraham." M. Brilck makes a mistake when he says 
in his " Pharisaische Volksitten und Ritualien," 
Frankfort a M., 1840, 25, that the Babylonians "held 
the blood of circumcision holy;" also Gaon's answer 
does not contain the statement of purpose advanced 
by Briick — " but in order that the public may be eager 
to snatch at this blood- water." — Cf. also Jakob hen 
Ashers " Tur Jore^^ De^a^, 265, and /. Miiller, " Hil- 
luph Minhagim," Vienna, 1878, No. 17. This custom 
is no longer referred to in the " Schulhan Arukh." 

In the "Buck der Frommen," by Jehuda ben Samuel the 
Pious, who lived c. 1200 in Regensburg, the following 
sto7'y is told to establish the conception that parents 
and children constitute a single body also from a 
physical point of view (Bologna, 1538, \232 ; Be., 
1891, sq., ^291): A rich 7)ian travelled with his 
servant over the sea, and took a large sum of money 
with him. Soon after he died in foreign parts. 
Thereupon the servant seized upon all the treasure, 
making himself out to be the son. But a short time 
after her husband' s departure his pregnant wife, who 
remained behind, had borne a son. When this son 
grew up, he went to the Gaon Saadja \in Sura; flor. 
892-942]. The Gaon advised him to go to the king. 
The king commissioned Saadja to decide the matter. 
Saadja bled both, and then laid a bone, taken from 
the father's grave, in the servant's blood; still the 
bone did not suck the blood up. This, however, 
actually happened when the bone was laid in the 
other's blood, because they were one body. So Saadja 
gave the son the fortune * 

* Cf. Geo. AI. Kohut, "Blood test as proof of kinship in Jewish folk- 
lore," in Journal of Amer. Orient. Society, vol. xxiv. (1903), p. 129- 

138 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

"Bahrrecht" (ordeal of the bier) (Cf. p. 49)- ''Buck 
der Frommen," Bologna, \1143 : " When the 
murderer approaches the corpse of the 
murdered man the wound begins to bleed, 
so that the murderer may be brought to justice; 
but this occurs also when anyone who has eaten bread 
dipped in soup, and then eaten no dry bread, 
approaches the corpse. Therefore murderers, after 
committing the crime, are wont to eat dry bread!' — 
Rudimentary element of the building-offering 
(r).p. SI sq.). Jehuda the Pious says in his " Testa- 
ment," §27; " Where a house has never stood, there 
let none be built. Should it, however, come to pass, the 
house should remain uninhabited for one year.'' He 
probably considered the empty spot to be the happy 
hunting-ground of demons (Isai. xiii. 21). For 
that reason timid Israelites, even in the first half of 
the 19th century, " iuhen they reared up a house in 
such a place, quartered in it a cock and a hen befoi'e 
they installed themselves there, and then had them 
killed. These propitiatory sacrifices were intended to 
avert the peril menacing the new inhabitants of the 
male and female sex," Urquell, 1894, 158. 
F. Gregorovius, " Geschichte der Stadt Rom im 
Mittelalter," vii. (Stuttgart, 1870), 306 sq., relates 
about the death of Pope Innocent VIII. (July, 1492) : 
" Surrounded by his greedy nephews, Innocent VIII. 
lay meanwhile dying in the Vatican. He was barely 
able to take any other nourishment than woman's 
milk. If the fine picture of the departing Medici, 
whom his doctor tried in vain to save by a potion of 
dissolved pearls, resembles a significant fable of the 
value of riches, by what name indeed should the scene 
be called, which is said to have been played at the 
death-bed of a Pope ? His Jewish physician-in-ordin- 
ary lit upon the idea of instilling the life-blood of boys 
into the dying man ; three boys of ten submitted to it 

Popular Therapeutics 139 

for money, and they died victims of this criminal 
experiment. The dying man, it is true, did not give 
his consent; he thrust the doctor from him"* 
Assuming (not yet admitting) that the Pope really 
hesitated to accept the medicine offered him at the 
last, it is abundantly demonstrated as a conclusion 
from the first part of this work that the Jewish doctor 
did not advise such remedy as a Jew, but as a doctor 
living in the illusions of his period. 

D. Modern Times. A great mass of varied 
material that properly belongs here is afforded by the 
numerous Avritings called "Book of Medicine" 
(Sepher r^phu'oth or Sepher r^phu'a*") or "Book of 
secret cures" (Sepher s^gull6th),j which, partially 
belonging already to the Middle Ages in their 
material, even now stand in high esteem with those 
Jews, especially the Polish, who are little or not at all 
affected by modern culture. Before me lie four books, 
to which I limit myself, since they were even 
reprinted a few years ago, and we are here especially 
concerned with the relations that exist even now 
between Jews and superstition. 1. "Sepher 
ToPdoth Adam," by Elia Ba^al Shem, firstly at Wil- 
hermsdorf, 1734; in an undated new impression, 
names the same place of printing. 2. " Sepher 
R^phu'oth," Kolomea, 1880, 18a-24a, secret remedies 
from David Salomo Eybeschiltz' s " L®bushe ^®rad." 3. 
"Sepher Z^hira^," by Sacharja Plungian, Hamburg, 
1709, and often in the Warsaw edit., 1875. 4. 


" Judaeus quidem fugit, et Papa oon sanatus est. The blood-monij 
was a ducat for each poor child. No wonder that the fable of the 
Passover blood persisted. Infessura and Raynaldus n. xxi. The 
Florentine Valori, however, gives no information of the kind." — 
[Also Burkhard's diary has here a hiatus, as Gregorovius mentiona 
in another place: The Manuscript in the Chigiana stops at the 14th 
July, 1492, and then begins the Pontificate of Alexander VI. with 
his elevation to the throne.] 

^ J. A. Benjacoh, "09ar-ha-sepharim," Wilna 1880, p. 407 sq ; 548- 
50 gives a fairly copious, but yet incomplete list. 

140 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

" Sepher Miph^aloth 'Elohim," by the Kabbalists, Joel 
Ba'al Shem and Naphtali ben Isaak Kohen, and the 
physician Simha, Zolkiew (?), 1810; Sklow, 1821; 
according to the Lemberg edition, 1872 (128).* 

Some samples. Tholedoth Adam prescribes for 
jaundice: "Let the patient take a yellow turnip, 
make watert into it, and hang it in the chimney," 
and " Let goose-dung be put in wine, and let the 
patient drink without knowing about it." Against 
fever: "Take some of the patient's urine, add milk 
and bread to it, and give it to a dog to eat." Against 
fever and other illnesses: "Let the patient bury a 
small mug of his water under an elder-tree, and say 
thrice: 'Consumption, jaundice, vomiting-illness, 
siebenundsiebzis^erleij ("seventy-seven kinds of") 
illness; it is better I bury you than you me.' " To 
stop the bleeding of the circumcision wound : " Take 
warm pig's dung, and lay it on the child's belly." 
To stop menstrual bleeding : " Pulverise a ruby, and 
drink it in water or wine." One's own blood helps 
against bleeding : " Boil the circumcision blood or 
blood from the nose till it becomes a dry mass, and 
sprinkle this on the circumcision wound or the 
nose;" or: "Write on the nose or the forehead with 
the still fluid nose-blood : ' tib bHib p^nim b^dam,' 
or *zeto' (iiOT) = Gk. ^ ^^Vai* § ' let him live.' " Quite 

* Similar writings have been utilised by A. Grunwald, ''Aus Haus- 
apotheke und Hexenktiche," in Mittheihingen der Geselhchaft fiir 
judische Volkskvnde, 1900, 1-87, and 1907, 118-45, (chiefly manu- 
script, in Hamburg and in Vienna).—!/. Ginshnrger, " Jiidische 
Volksmedizin im Elsass," ibid. 1907, 1-10, mentions a volume writ- 
ten in Alsace in 1777 by Joseph Lehmann, with recipes and pre- 
scriptions ("Segulloth u-rephu'oth"), whose contents are said to be 
very similar to those in " Albertus Magnus " ' [v. supr. p. 21] 

+ J^liny, Nat. Hist, xxviii., 6, 18 ; Bergel, "Medizin der Talmudisten," 
63 ; Strackerjan II., 115; Wnttke'^ §182, 338, 477, 493 sq., 500, 505, 
530 sq., 541 ; Frischhier 58 ; " Melusine," III., 278 (Vosges). 

+ For the number "77" cf. the proverbs in Frischhier 54. 

§ In the Palest. Talmud "Berakhoth" vi., fol. 10<i : "If anybody 
sneezes at a meal, one must not cry out to him "tar" " (;i7^[t] " (live! 
= be healthy!) because otherwise he might swallow the wrong way 

Popular Therapeutics 141 

similar stuff in the Sepher RephuotK (e.g. 4a. 14b. sq.) 
from which let also the following be taken. Extern- 
ally applied: fox's blood and w^olf 's blood are good for 
stone in the bladder; ram's blood for colic, weasel 
blood for scrofula and podagra; wolf's blood in 
deafness; pigeon's blood in eye-ache; dry raven's 
blood, fresh hare's blood, and hare's gall in hemor- 
rhoids. In excessive or improper bleeding let the 
woman bake some of the blood in bread, and give it a 
pig to eat. The coming-out of a tooth is effected by 
the laying-on of the tooth of a corpse. For the plague 
there is a tried and approved remedy 23a : lay the key 
of the house in a dead Jew's hand. In order to be 
protected from all evils, gird yourself with the rope 
with which a criminal has been hung. No. 20a (Cf. 
supr. p. 47 sq.). 

B. W. Schiffer (fictitious name for "Segel!") "All- 
tagglauben u. volktiimliche Heilkunde galizischer 
Juden," Ur-Quell, 1893. Under the pillow of a person 
seriously ill is put a cloth which has previously lain 
on the grave of a pious person (119). If a woman 
after her first child wishes to have a boy, the after- 
birth should be given to a dog to devour ; if a girl, to 
a bitch. "'An efficacious, but godless remedy,' an 
old Jewish nurse remarked to me " [B. W. Sch.] (187). 
Washing with urine as a cure, rarely (211). For 
epilepsy: Kill a cock and let it putrefy (273).— 5. 
Benczer, •' Jlid. Volksmedizin in Ostsfalizien," Ur- 
Quell, 1893, 42, 120 sq. (no blood).— J. Spinner, "Zur 
Volkkunde galizischer Juden," ibid., 1893, 95 sq. 
J. A. Charap, "Volksglaube galizischer Juden," 
ibid., 1894, 81 (No blood. Love magic: Hold an apple 
about an hour under the right arm, and then give it 
to the girl).— 5. TV. Segel, "Materyaly do etnografii 
zydow wschodnio-galicyiskich," Cracow, 1893 (72). 
Cf. Ur-Quell, 1894, 184. 

142 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

For authentic proofs that these remedies are known to the people, 
V. Urquell, 1894, 290 sq. (remedies for epilepsy and jaundice, 
collected in London among Jewish emigrants from Russian 
Poland : Urquell, 1898, 33 sq. — "In order to get children, 
barren women drink water in which was boiled moss which had 
been plucked at the ruins of the Temple wall. — The Sephardim 
[Spanish Jews] prepare a remedy from the powder of bones 
which are found beneath the sand of the desert. These bones 
are mostly connected with the pilgrims for whom the eimoon 
has i-eady a grave in the glowing desert-sand. The collected 
bones are reduced to dust and sold to the apothecaries. The 
powder is shaken up with mead, and it is given every now and 
then to the patient, who has been washed beforehand and wrapt 
in white linen." Urquell, 1894, 225 (after Moses Reischer, 
"Schcare Jerushalajim," Lemberg, 1875). 

So far as regards the use of human blood, the su- 
perstitious Jew uses only his own blood, and particu- 
larly indeed for the stopping of bleeding. — Apart 
from this only menstrual blood (of. supr. p. 51 sq.) is 
mentioned, and that too quite seldom. Against fire, 
" Sepher Zekhira," 130: Let a garment stained with 
such blood be hung at the fire on a long rod. Let the 
sufferer from quartan fever put on such a garment, 
" Sepher Rephuoth," No. 17 b. In order to be invisible, 
put water melons first in such blood, then in the 
earth; after the new fruits have ripened, one of them 
will make him invisible who carries it about with 
him, ibid. 23 b.* For podagra the smearing of the 
menstrual blood of a woman who has borne for the 
first time is a help. Tholedoth Adam, 96, and 
Miph^aloth Elohim, 96. If a midwife is visited by a 
menstruating woman, the child gets leprosy on the 
head and face. Cure for it : Bathe the child with the 
stained shift, Ur-Quell, 1893, 171 [v. sup. p. 141, line 19]. 
Otherwise as far as I perceive, in superstition among 
Jews blood is never mentioned as a cure for leprosy 
(cf. supr. p. 62 sq.). — Also, as far as my knowledge 
goes, there is nowhere the point, that animal blood or 
even human blood, in particular the blood of another 

*Cf. Jr^«/te,2 §482 sq. 

Popular Therapeutics 143 

man, should be drunk or swallowed dry for supersti- 
tious purposes. 

Corpses as ' pain-removers ' (Cf. Ch. 8) : In the 
"Hatham Sopher " of the Pressburg Rabbi, Moses 
Sopher (1762-1839) is a technical decision on the fol- 
lowing quer}^ put from West Hungary : A man of the 
family of the Aaronides, who must not touch a corpse 
[Cf. supr. Ch. 14 G], suffers severely from epilepsy. 
May he, to cure himself, take a dead man's hand and 
•say: "Take this evil from me; you it will not hurt, 
and me you will benefit thereby?" (L. Mandl, Ur-Quell, 
1895, 37). Cf. supr. Ch. 8 D.— When about three 
decades ago many Israelite children were carried off 
by an epidemic in a small West Plungarian town, an 
old man put a padlock [cf. sup. p. 68] into the grave of 
a child just buried, threw the key away and spoke : 
" With you shall everything evil be shut up." L. 
Mandl, Ur-Quell, 1895, 37. 

Cassel 34 says that "even recently Jewish bridal pairs in Silesia 
mingled blood from their fingers at the wedding." Nothing 
is known about it by the Christians and Jews I have asked ; 
also in books nothing was to be found. If the statement is 
correct, the custom may be explained according to Ch. 3. 

E. The attentive reader will admit that a con- 
siderable amount of the practices here alluded to are of 
non-Jewish origin. The reference appearing in but 
few passages to something specifically Jewish is obvi- 
ously not aboriginal, as in the " Sepher Rephuoth," 19 
a b : " In order to stop an enemy's tongue, take wax of 
an Atonement Day candle, put a spider into it, then 
stick it in your mouth and speak, ' As the spider en- 
dures in the wax, so may all enemies, who do evil, be 
in my hand and power, that I may be able to do them 
evil, but not they me.' " Quite as little, of course, do 
the concluding words, " In the name of the Father, 
and the Son, and the Holy Ghost ! Amen " (e.g. supr. 
p. 57), used in many magic formulas, " sympathetic," 

144 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

and other superstitious attempts to cure by supersti- 
tious Christians, prove any connection between these 
superstitious forms and the Christian religion. The 
other popular-medical and purely superstitious 
ideas, which are propounded in the Jewish medical 
and secret-cure books, are, as is established in the 
first part of this work, common to the whole of man- 
kind. Also the fact that there is but little of the kind 
to be discovered in the Talmuds, which are yet so 
comprehensive, corroborates the assumption that 
much was introduced later from non-Jewish circles. 

F. Relying on the Bernstein case, which was 
much discussed in February and March, 1889, not a 
few papers at the time accused the Jews of ritual 
employment of blood. H. Des'portes, 244-8, and many 
others repeated this charge in 1890. — A Jewish 
candidate for a Rabbiship, Max B., of Breslau, was on 
21 February, 1889, condemned for doing deliberate 
bodily harm, by making a slight scratch* on the skin 
of the penis of Severin Hacke, a Christian boy, which 
had caused a few drops of blood to flow. The circum- 
stance that B. had immediately soaked up the blood 
in two bits of blotting paper was from the start con- 
vincing proof to me that the " Christian blood " was 
not intended to serve any of the objects commanded 
or even allowed by Jewish religion, that it was much 
rather a case of "blood-superstition." This convic- 
tion was brilliantly confirmed by the official 
publication about the case. The Vierteljahrsschrift 
fiir gerichtliche Medizin, 1891, 207-35, published in 
regard to the B. case the supreme decision of the 
Royal Scientific Committee for the medical profes- 
sion of 5 Nov., 1890. An autobiography of B. himself, 
printed there, states that B., tortured by pangs of 
conscience, owing to non-fulfilment of the ceremonial 

« The accusation, which has been several times made, that there was 
" repeated tapping of blood," is untrue. 

Popular Therapeutics 145 

law, tried beforehand, in the case of two Jewish boys, 
to replace by a quite similar scratch the circumcision 
which had not been at all, or had been unlawfully 
carried out in their regard, in order to announce to 
God his repentance by such voluntary action. It then 
goes on further (220 sq.) : " The performance of the acts 
of repentance lightened my spirits, but did not quite 
content me, so I made up my mind to free myself 
from sin. Now since, according to the Biblical doc- 
trine, the soul is contained in men's blood, and since 
my sin-burdened soul could only be atoned for by an 
innocent one, I had to get blood I could use from a 
human being who was without sin. Then as I knew 
the boy H. was suitable, as his soul was sinless, I re- 
solved to procure m^^self blood from him, and I dealt 
with H. as a few months before with the two others, 
but carrying out the circumcision on this occasion 
without intending to complete it, as it was useless to 
a Christian boy. It is possible those first two actions 
in my search for freedom from sin guided me. I kept 
the blood I got on a sheet of blotting paper, and 
shortly undertook my atonement with it. After it 
had itself become sinful by taking on itself my sins, I 
buried it in a cemetery, as it could not remain in the 
vicinity of men." (Cf. Leviticus xvi., 21 : The high 
priest on Atonement Day lays the sins of the people 
of Israel on the goat, which is then to be driven into 
the wilderness). The Royal Scientific Committee for 
the Medical Profession did not investigate the connec- 
tion of the superstition appearing in B. with other 
ancient forms of superstition, none of which have any 
specifically Jewish stamp, and therefore they did not 
use the general key to the explanation of B.'s method 
or action. On the other hand they, or rather the 
report agreed to by them, of the judicial expert, Pro- 
fessor Dr. Lesser, of Breslau, who was first consulted, 
gives an answer to the question whether such a 

146 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

superstition in a man of B.'s education was reconcil- 
able with mental equilibrium. P. 210 : " Not merely 
the mother's, but also the father's relatives were not 
intact in regard to the central nervous system; no 
fcAver than seven of B.'s relatives, some on the 
mother's, some on the father's side, had died mad or 
were still alive in a condition of insanity. The 
deputation came to the conclusion (234 sq.l based 
upon personal observation of B. in the Charite 
Hospital at Berlin : " (1 ^ that B. is diseased in mind, 
and suffers from religious madness, Paranoia 
chronica religiosa ; (2) that he committed the deeds of 
bodil}^ injury he was charged with, in a state of 
morbid disturbance of his mental activity, by which 
his free decision of will w^as excluded." — Thus the 
"Bernstein case " must be judged just like the occur- 
rences described in Ch. 13.* 

I do not think it impossible that some medical superstition had also 
something to do with B.'s action. The consulted medical expertSj, 
as far as I know, did not go farther into this question. 




That the question whether the use of the blood 
of a non-Jew, particularly the use of Christian blood, 
is requisite or allowed, perhaps for the preparation of 
the Easter loaves (Mazzoth) or for the Easter wine — 
that this question is to be answered in the negative, 
is already sufficiently obvious from the collective 
whole of the previous researches. Yet I think I should 
adduce some further reasons for the negation. 

If the use of Christian blood were commanded, or 
even only allowed, there would be bound to be pass- 
ages referring to it in the Halakhish literature of the 
Jews, w^hich is positively colossal in its comprehen- 
siveness, and enters into every detail of both religious 
and domestic life. But neither the zeal of the experts 
among the controversialists of Christian faith nor the 
hate-sharpened penetration of those proselytes, who 
wished to show their reliance on the new religion by 
fanatical enmity towards the Jews, has been able to 
extract anything out of all those writings which could 
in the lease serve for corroboration of the notion. It 
is also not to be expected that such passages shall yet 
be discovered in MSS. of the Talmud and the other 
ancient Jewish literary productions; the learned 
Spanish Dominican, Raimundus Martin (second half 
of the 13th century), whose "Pugio fidei adversus 
Mauros et Judaeos " has taken all its numerous quo- 

148 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

tations from Talmud and Midrash MSS., knows 
absolutely nothing of the charge here in question. 
There is also absolutely nothing to be found in the 
collections of the passages struck out by the cenor- 
ship in the later editions of the Talmud and in the big 
collection of variants, "Diqduqe Soph^rim," by R. 
Rabbinowicz, that could afford any sort of corrobora- 
tion of the " blood-charge." 

B. Those proselytes, who have given voice to 
the accusation in question against Judaism, have been 
throughout both malignant and ignorant enemies of 
the Jews, on whose statements, as no proofs are 
afforded, no weight can be laid, e.g. : Samuel Friederich 
Brenz, author of " Jiidischer abgestreiffter Schlangen- 
Balg," Nuremberg, 1614 (again printed in /. Willfer's 
"Theriaca Judaica ad examen revocata," ibid. 1681, 
4°), or Paul Christian Kirchner,^ author of " Jiidisches 
Ceremoniel Frankfurt, 1720," or Paulus Meyer, whom 
the Berlin Anti-Semites had hired to libel me in 1892, 
and who then on account of his bookf "Wolfe in Schafs- 
fell, Schafe in Wolfspelz! Enthiillungen iiber die 
Judenmission und eine Abrechnung mit Professor 
Strack. Alle Rechte vom Autor vorbehalten! " L., 

* What sort of a fellow this Kirchner was, Joh . de le Hoi, " Die Evan- 
gelischc Christenheit und die Juden " I. (1884), 405, and S. J 
Jugendres, the preparer of a second, improved edition of the "Cere- 
moniel," Nuremberg, 1734, 150, have shown. The latter at the 
same time gives the reason why Kirchner '"should have remained at 
home with this accusation." That Kirchner deliberately uttei-ed 
falsehood can be inferred from a letter of the learned Pastor Chr. 
Theoph. Unger (ob. 1719) to Joh. Chr. Wolf (v. his " Bibl. Hebr." 
III., 914): " Miror, qua fronte Kirchnerus talia scripserit. Nam 
ipse mihi non rogatus, cum in sermones de Christianorum crimina- 
tionibus, Judaeis imputatis, incideremus, coram adfirmavit sancte 
disertis verbis : Judaeos quidem omnes et singulos esse Christianorum 
hostes infensissimos ; eo tamen ipsis injuriam fieri, quod a nonnullis 
incusarentur, ac si Christianorum sanguinem ad certos usus adhi- 

" "Wolves in Sheep's Clothing. Sheep in Wolves' Clothing! 
Revelations about the Jew mission and a reckoning with Professor 
Strack. All rights reserved by the author !" 

Christian Blood 149 

1893 (94), was condemned by the Royal Court of 
Sessions at Leipsic, in November, 1894, to a year and 
ten months' imprisonment for " libellous insult." 
About his " operations " in Vienna Cf. Ch. 18 for the 
year 1893 (p. 224). As to the denial given by numer- 
ous proselytes, v. Ch. 19, B. 

C. About the middle of the 8th century, a.d., 
arose the sect of the Karaeans, of whom even now the 
survivors, not very numerous indeed, dwell especially 
in the Crimea, in Poland, and in Cairo. The Karaeans 
are essentially, apart altogether from anything else, 
differentiated from the other Jews, the so-called Eab- 
banites, by the fact that they reject the Talmud, while 
the latter acknowledge it. A violent enmity existed, 
and still exists, between Rabbanites and Karaeans, 
which has also found vent in numerous writings. 
Now, no one has ever believed that the Karaeans use 
Christian blood for the purposes of their ritual. If, 
then, there were such a ritual among the Rabbanites it 
w^ould be perfectly unintelligible that this difference 
is nowhere touched upon in the Jewish polemics, that 
neither the Rabbanites reproach the Karaeans with 
the non-accomplishment of this rite, nor the Karaeans 
reproach the Rabbanites with this murderous and 
cannibalistic savagery. 

D. The Sabbathaically-disposed Frankists, fan- 
atical believer's in the Sohar, asserted in the presence 
of the Bishop Nik. Dembowski of Kamienec Podolsk, 
1756 and 1757, not only: that according to the Sohar, 
the Godhead consists of three persons alike one to 
another, which form at the same time a trinity and a 
unity, and that the Godhead has continually assumed 
human form, in order to show himself visibly to all, 
but also : that the Talmud contained the most abomin- 
able things, inculcated the slaughter of Christians as 
a religious ordinance, and the adherents of the Tal- 
mud used the blood of Christians, And in 1759 they 

150 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

declared to the Archbishop Wratislaw Lubienski, 
that they panted for Baptism like the hart for the 
water- springs, and offered to prom " that the Tal- 
mudists shed innocent Christian blood, even more 
than the heathens, lusted after it, and made use of 
it.'' At the same time they asked to have dwelling 
places assigned them east of Lemberg, in order to be 
able to live by the work of their hands, '' ivhere the 
Talmudic brandy- farmers mirtured drunkenness, 
sucked out the blood of poor Christians, and marked 
it up with double chalk.'' In May two deputies of the 
Frankists pronounced in the name of all of them 
before Canon Mikulski the confession : The cross was 
the symbol of the Holy Trinity, and the seal of the 
Messiah. It concluded " The Talmud taught the use 
of the blood of Christians, and whoever believed in it, 
was bound to use the blood." At the discussion 
carried on in July in the Cathedral of Lemberg, under 
Mikulski' s presidency, the Frankists tried to show 
" that the Sohar taught the trinity, and that one of the 
persons in the Godhead had become flesh. . . . That 
such ideas occurred in the Talmud," the Talmud- 
ists " could not deny. They had, indeed, been able to 
repel with all decisiveness the fictitious assertion as 
to the use of the blood of Christian children, and the 
blood-thirstiness of the Talmud, and to appeal to the 
testimony of Christians and even to statements of 
Popes. But they were ignorant about their otvn 
history of suffering, and their ignorance has avenged 
itself upion them. It is, indeed, credible that the 
Talmudic spokesmen returned home ashamed and con- 
fused after three days' discussion. Even the blood 
accusation remained sticking to their confession." 
Soon after the disputation, about a thousand Sohar- 
ites had themselves baptized, on the pressure of the 
polish ecclesiastics ; in November also Frank himself, 
who had brought it to pass that the King was inscribed 

Christian Blood 151 

as his godfather (Jakoh Frank called himself, after 
that, Joseph). As it became evident that the baptism 
was to him merely a means to an end, and he alloived 
himself in secret to be worshipped as God Incarnate 
and ''Holy Lord," he was confined in March, 1760, 
in the monastery of Czenstochow. After thirteen 
years' confinement he was set free by the Russians, 
and played for many years more the part of an im- 
postor in Vienna, Briinn, and in Offenbach; he died 
in 1791. 

The preceding is taken as far as possible verbatim 
from H. Gratz, '' Geschichte der Juden,"^ X., 4^5 
sq., 430 sq. Gratz, however, is mistaken, when 
trusting the exceedingly one-sided Jakob Emden 
'' Hith'abb^kuth,'' Altona, 1726 sq., 35), he writes 
that the Hamburg Rabbi, Jonathan Eibeschutz, had 
remained ''dumb" to the imploring entreaty of the 
Polish Jeivs that he should " meet the accusation of the 
use of Christian blood."*— As this sentence has left 
an impression on Christians, that there might after 
all be something in the blood-accusation, I will here 
put the facts of the case cleai'ly. Eibeschiltz not only 
himself elaborated a detailed, professional report in 
December, 1759 (probably for despatch to the Danish 
Government), but also repeatedly urged Christian 
scholars to express their views. E.g. in 1760 (he was 
impelled to do so precisely by the lies of the Frank- 
ists) the tvell-known Professor of Theology in Halle, 
Chr. Ben. Michaelis, and John. Sal. Semler, v. 
"Jiidische Volks- und Haus-Kalender filr das Jahr 
1893," Breslau, Jahrbuch, p. 79-109. Semler' s preg- 
nant exposition closes with the sentences : " But from 
it all comes the irrefutable inference that people who 
impute guilt to the Jews and want to prove from the 
books of their law that they use Christian blood, must 

" Christentums " in Gratz is obviously a printer's error. 

152 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

he either very illiterate simpletons or malignant 
hostile spirits. . . . and that the Jews could not be 
accused before any equitable magistrate ufon such 
frivolous ivr etched charges, but far rather such 
simple or malignant accusers might be repulsed, and 
probably even held to an apology.'' Jonathan 
Eibeschiltz himself writes at the beginning of his 
work : " / have had to hear, not mei^ely ivith the great- 
est exasperation, but also with the greatest sorrow, 
how a few godless people, forgetful of honour, who a 
long time ago were expelled from the Jewish Syna- 
gogue, have banded together, and in order to conceal 
their viciousness have tried to diminish the Jewish 
nation in the sight of the Christian high authorities, 
and to affirm, with baseless, even altogether lying 
sentences taken from Jewish books, that the Jewish 
nation has need of Christian blood for its chief cere- 
monies. But this accusation is so Godless that 


The manuscript which contains these three 
documents has been transferred out of the 
property left by Dr. B. Zuckermann to the 
Jewish Theological Seminary at Breslau. — And 
already in 1736, likewise at the request of Eibeschiltz, 
Prof. F. Haselbauer, of P league, delivered a pro- 
nouncement against the blood accusation, v. inf. Ch. 
19 E. 

E. It is generally admitted that those Jews who 
held fast at all to their religious law, or now hold fast, 
have always been ready, or still are ready, to give up 
their lives rather than to become unfaithful to that 
law. If, then, there were any phrase whatever that 
ordained the use of Christian blood, such blood would 
be annually requisite, would therefore also be shed; 
in that case, however, a considerable number of 
instances must doubtless have been alluded to, espe- 

Christian Blood 153 

cially during the period of the last hundred years, at 
least in those law-governed States of Europe in whose 
midst the Jews live in scattered groups. Yet such 
proofs are altogether wanting.— iVgain, the accusation 
of the ritual use of blood would be bound to have been 
declared and to be declared everywhere ; also, it would 
be bound to have been referred to in every century 
since the establishment of the Christian religion; or, at 
any rate, since the Christian religion has become the 
ruling one in the old Roman Empire. But there is no 
"everywhere " nor "at all periods" to be found in 
this case. It is especially noticeable that the decree 
by which the " Catholic Kings " Ferdinand of Aragon 
and Isabella of Castile, on 31st March, 1492, com- 
manded all the Jews of Spain, Sicily and Sardinia to 
emigrate within four months on pain of death, does 
not mention the blood accusation. 

F. In order to make the assertion of the ritual 
use of blood plausible, people talk readily about 
" Schachtschnitt* (Jewish butcher's cut), and the 
employment of a " Schachtmesser " (Jewish butcher's 
knife); also " Schachter " (Jewish butchers) are 
accused, by preference, of killing Christian children. 
It is on that account very notable that Joseph 
The 'omim, a Rabbi of Lemberg and Frankfort a. 0. 
(ob. 1793), in his extremely prized Hebrew commen- 
tary, "P'^ri m'^gadim " (Be., 1772, sq.), on the first two 
parts of the "Schulhan Arukh, Jore De^a," 8, relates 
the following :— A " Schachter " bought a knife which 
an executioner had used at an execution, and wanted 
to use it for his own professional purposes. Rabbi 
Joseph declares this forbidden ; because human flesh 
was forbidden, and the human flesh absorbed by the 
knife would combine with the animal flesh in slaugh- 

4: 'Schachten" is the verb used in German for "to butcher" in the 
Jewish manner: the usual Gentile butcher "schlachtet," not 
"schachtet . ' ' — Translator. 

154 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

tering, and thereby make the latter also forbidden. 
Whoever affirms the ritual killing of Christian chil- 
dren by " Schachtung " (Jewish butchering) is bound 
to assume that the "Schachter" have tivo sets of 
"Schachtmesser," one for the animals which are to 
be slaughtered, the other . . . would not such 
an assumption exceed the extremity of foolishness? 

G. Every experienced criminalist, especially 
every investigating judge who carefully handles 
criminal cases, knows that the detailed information 
of public journals about " interesting cases " has often 
acted as a provoking influence on the imaginations 
of men, who were not firmly established in the good 
or were already disposed to the bad. The fact that 
men who make attempts on crowned heads, even 
when the bullet or the dagger has not reached its 
mark, are, at least temporarily, notorious through the 
daily Press, has provoked many a fresh attempted 
murder of the kind.* Accordingly, it might be 
imaginable that precisely the unceasing repetition of 
the idea that the Jews want Christian blood might 
have suggested or might suggest, f somewhere, at some 
time, to a subject not quite mentally responsible who 
happens to have been born a Jew, just to try whether 
Christian blood was really a quite different fluid from 
Jewish blood. An incident of the kind could not be 
laid to the charge of the Jewish religion. 

• The imitative impulse altogether plays a great part in criminology, 
V. e.g. Lomhroso, II., 289-91, 86, 106. 

■Jo. Stall, "Suggestion und Hypnotismus in der Volkerpsychologie," 
L. 1894 (523). 


The Imperial-Royal Austrian Professor Aug. 
Rohling, of Prague, became in 1883 the mainstay of 
the blood accusation levelled against the Jewish 
religion. To the scientific world, indeed, his name 
has never been worth anything. His polemic against 
the Talmud and his "proofs" of the reality of the 
Jewish blood-ritual were of such a kind that one 
could only be in doubt whether, owing to his malig- 
nancy, the penal law ought to be invoked, or owing 
to his spiritual obfuscation the doctor ought to step 
in. It unfortunately happens, however, when one 
looks at the result, that it is often far less important 
whether an assertion is true than whether it is 
believed. Therefore, as Aug. Rohling, in consequence 
firstly of the praise of very numerous partisan news- 
papers, secondly, of the irresponsible patronage, even 
favouritism, on the part of the then Austrian Ministry 
of Education, was blindly believed in very wide 
circles, not only of Austria, but also of Germany, nay, 
even of France and other countries, I wrote in Sep- 
tember, 1892, in the fourth edition of this book:— 


Royal Austrian Professor and Canon iVuGUST 
Rohling of perjury and gross forgeries. / further 
'publicly ask those who, after reading this book, protect 
the aforesaid Aug. Rohling, whether they are not 
making themselves guilty of aiding in the continuance 

156 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

of the aforesaid crime or delinquency. Finally I 
declare that Aug. Rohling has given numerous proofs 
in his judgments on Jewish literature and Jewish 
religion of his disgraceful ignorance, and that he got 
the copious quotations from Talmudic and Rabbinical 
literature which blind the lay mind, partly copied out 
of Eisenmenger s " Entdecktes Jttdenthiim," partly 
guided by others, especially by Ahron Brimann. — / 
am ready to establish this grave accusation in the 
presence of any Court of Justice.'' 

Although this edition sold to the extent of 9,000 
copies, and numerous papers, especially Austrian, 
quoted my words and made them widely known, 
neither Rohling nor the Austrian Ministry of Educa- 
tion took action against me. Rohling kept silent, in 
the hope that his reputation among the racial Anti- 
Semites, Avhose feelings of justice are dulled by 
hatred, could not be damaged by anything whatever, 
and that the great majority of people partly possess 
a short memory, partly had remained ignorant of my 
accusation. At any rate, I will to the best of my 
ability prevent Rohling from being again in the future 
regarded as an expert. For that reason I have here 
repeated my accusation, and bring forward some 
points, at least, to substantiate it. 

Rohling became most known through his book (which 


Talmud jude,'' Milnster, 1871; in 6th edition, 1877 
(126). The " Entdeckte Judenthum,'' of Eisenmen- 
ger, owing to the one-sidedness with which the author 
has made his compilation, offers no accurate picture of 
the Jew who holds fast to the Talmud ; yet the reader 
is able, at least to a certain degree, easily to check his 
[i.e., E.' s'] assertions because Eisenmenger everywhere 
gives the Hebrew or Aramaic wording of the original, 


Canon Aug. Rohling 157 

and indeed frequently long extracts-* Rohling, however, 
only quotes those words which exactly suit his pur j>ose, 
without any consideration of the context, and indeed 
only in the German la.nguage( according to E.'s trans- 
lation), so that his exposition is not merely a 
caricature of the truth, but even the contrary of it.— 
The most important counterblast is that of Franz 
Delitzsch, '' Rohling' s Talmudjude,'' L., 1881 (64); 
5th impression enlarged by a continuation, 1881 
(87). Among writings of Jewish authors I 
only name: Josef Nobel, '' Kritisches Richtschwert 
filr Rohling' s ' Talmud jude,' " Totis (Halberstadt), 
1881 (87).- Rohling rejoined in ''Franz Delitzsch 
und die Judenfrage,"^ Prague, 1881 (155). With 
how little knowledge and veracity, Delitzsch has 
showed in the 7th edition of his already -mentioned 
work,L., 1881 (120); Cf. also Delitzsch's " Was 
Dr. Aug. Rohling beschworen hat und beschworen 
will," L., 1883(39). 

Rohling followed up with " Meine Antworten an 
die Rabbiner. Oder: Filnf Brief e ilber den Talmu- 
dismus und das Blut-Ritual der J uden," Prague, 1883 
(106),and'' Die Polemik und das Menschenopfer 
des Rabbinismus," Paderborn, 1883 (108).— Re- 
joinders by Delitzsch : " Schachmatt den Blutliignern 
Rohling und Justus,'' Erlangen, 1883 (43), and: 
"Neueste Traumgesichte des antisemitischen Pro- 
pheten," Erlangen, 1883 (3£).—Jose7 Block, Rabbi 
at Floridsdorf, near Vienna, also wrote very severely 
against the "Antworten," in the Wiener Allge- 
meine Zeitung, 22 Dec, 1882; 6, 10, and 24 
January, 1883, which articles are reproduced in 
''Aden und Gutachten in dem Froze sse Rohling 
contra Bloch,' ' I. ( Vienna, 1890), 5-89. This book of 

Cf. A. Th. Hartmann, " Johann Andreas Eisenmenger und Bcine 
jiidischen Gegner," Parcbim 1834 (40). 

158 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

S5 sheets contains altogether an abundance of con- 
clusive evidence against Rohling. 

Rohling was repeatedly and publicly accused by 
Franz Delitzsch and others not only of gross ignorance 
and malignant distortions, but also perjury. R. went 
on lying and kept on indulging again and again in 
false swearing, in the comforting conviction that the 
authorities over him would not make up their minds 
to take steps against him, or even allow the actual 
state of affairs to be expertly examined into. At 
length R.'s attempt to influence the Hungarian court 
of justice of Nyiregyhaza (Tisza-Eszlar trial) caused 
the aforesaid /. Bloch to accuse Rohling (" Acten," I., 
109-20) of offering perjury in the Wiener Morgenjyost 
of 1st to 4:th Juty, 1883, in such strong terms. *that R. 
could not but take action, and, in fact, instituted an 
action "for insult to honour." Bloch pronounced 
himself ready to produce the proof of the truth of 
what he wrote. He prepared this proof in an uncom- 
monly thorough-going manner, so that the judicial 
proceedings could not be commenced before 18th 
November, 1885, and the twelve following days. Just 

* A few examples : " His lying Talmudic quotations he has already 
often solemnly sworn to An Imperial Royal pro- 
fessor with repeated false swearings is in itself a unique fact in the 
variegated changeful history of Austrian Universities .... 
But a forum must at last be found before which lying, which has 
lost conscience and shame, habitually carried on, is judged accord- 
ing to truth and law If, meanwhile, naked men- 
dacity and fraud prostitute themselves before the whole world in 
barbaric nudity free from shame, it must be named by its true name 

and recalled to decency and morality The professor, 

however, is ever ready and greedy to swear, especially then when he 
puts forward assumptions, and propounds assertions about which he 
is sure, that, being without the slightest shadow of truth, they 

would be harshly repelled by all experts The Pro 

fessor of Hebrew Antiquities at Prague carries on lying like a 
handicraft." — Cf. also Bloch's " Rohling und kein Ende " in the 
Ot'sfeneichischr Wochenschrift, 12 August 1892, No. 33 (R. is there 
repeatedly termed the "perjury-canon"), as well as the article, 
" Meiueid " in Jiidnche Presse, 1892, No. 30-3, 35. 

Canon Aug. Kohling 159 

hejore the proceedings Rohling simply withdrew the 
charge! Cf. also Joseph Kopp (a Catholic, and a 
well-known barrister-at-law in Vienna), "Zur Juden- 
frage nach den Akten des Prozesses Rohling- 
Bloch,"^L., 1886(199). 

According to R.'s statement— and here he seems 
to have uttered the truth for once— the Ministry com- 
manded him, after the appearance of the "Antwor- 
ten " and the "Polemik," "to leave the Jewish 
question alone on his part." This command afforded 
him the welcome opportunity to write under a false 
name a justification of his whole conduct and a 
laudation of his own erudition, and so to create the 
impression that there was a Christian scholar and 
expert in the Talmud who had tested and approved 
of R.'s assertions! "Prof. Dr. Rohling, Die Juden- 
frage und die offentliche Meinung. Von Abbe Dr. 
Clemens Victor,"' L., 1887 (83). Victor is nobody, but 
Rohling himself, although R. has obstinately denied 
it. So far as this writing shows wide reading in 
Jewish literature, it does not proceed from Victor- 
Rohling, but from a convert (probably from notes of 
Brimann, which R. has in part entireh^ misunder- 
stood)— and so far R. has indeed a certain right to 
deny his authorship; in all main points, however, 
the same ignorance and mendacity come to light as in 
the writings describing the aforesaid Rohling as their 

At any rate, two examples, intelligible to any 
reader, may be adduced of Rohling's ignorance. He 
translates "dam b^thulim " not "sanguis virgini- 
tatis," but "sanguis virginum," which in Hebrew 
would be "dam b*'thul6th." The very frequent 
expression "Am ha-'arec," "the mass ignorant of the 
law " (John vii. 49, " this people who knoweth not the 
law"— in particular, the "tradition of the elders" 
—or also "the individual Jew ignorant of the 

160 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

law," he translates " non-Jew! " and thus he renders 
a saying of the Rabbi Eleasar : " It is permitted even 
on the Day of Atonement, when it falls on the Sab- 
bath, to stab a non-Jew." That the sentence, which 
is formulated with real Oriental coarseness, is not to 
be taken literally, but is merely a proof of the fana- 
tical hatred dividing those learned in the law from 
those ignorant of it, is shown by the opposite saying 
of the Rabbi Aqiba, not quoted by R., which has been 
handed down on the same page of the Talmud, 
Pesahim 49b — " When I was an Am ha-areg, I said : 
Give me a learned man that I may bite him like an 

Between most of the others, especially the older 
advocates of the "blood-charge " and Rohling, there 
is in particular this difference, which is, indeed, only 
secondary as far as results go, that R. does not so 
much assert the partaking of Christian blood, but 
rather the effusion of Christian blood by the murder- 
ing of Christians as an object of the Jewish ritual. 

Now what are the froofs? Firstly, the 

unproved and unprovable assertion of the exist- 
ence of a tradition about the blood-ritual or ritual 
blood-murder, orally handed down from generation 
to generation. I think I may declare there is at the 
present moment absolutely no domain of the Jewish 
ritual, however remote in appearance, which has not 
been dealt with in more than one printed book. 

Rohling makes particularly much ado* about a 

* Cf. E.'s writing, dated 10th July, 1892 (during the Xanten pro- 
ceedings) to the District Crout at Cleve : "If the facts of history 
cannot be denied, it is indeed unintelligible that, in spite of the 
castration of certain Rabbinical works there are still texts here and 

there, which point to the subject The Talmud 

hints at the matter even in the castrated editions [about " Kethub- 
both" 102^ V. infr. p. 162 sq.]; Sefer halkutim and Zohar speak 
more definitely, as is stated in my work, " Polemik and Menschen- 
■opfer des Rabbinismus " (Paderborn, 1883). This statement is to- 
day still completely convincing to me But since my 

Canon Aug. Kohling 161 

passage in the " Sepher ha-liqqutin," written down 
after the discourses of the Kabbalist Isaak Luria (b. 
1533, d. 1572, in Safet), the Jerusalem edition of 
which R. used, I have had since 1884, and 
about some passages of the "Zohar." Against the 
.crazy interpretations of R. cf. Franz Delitzsch, 
" Schachmatt," and Ad. Merx, " Wissenschaf tliches 
Gutachten iiber den wahren Sinn der Stellen aus dem 
Sohar und aus Vital's liqqutim, auf die Herr Profes- 
sor Rohling seine Blutbeschuldigung griiden will," 
Vienna, 1885 (repeated in Block, ''^Acten," I., 125-38). 
The original phrasing of these presumably so blood- 
thirsty passages is also to be found in "Acten," I., 
353-7. To this may be added the following: Rohling 
made the acquaintance of these passages through Bri- 
mann * and blindly believed his interpretations. 
Brimann, however, writes in his work bearing the date 
1885, dedicated to Prince-Archbishop Eder, of Salz- 
burg, "Die Kabbala " (Innsbruck, 58), f p. 44: "How 

holy conviction ( ! !) was officially branded a frivolity before a court 
of law (by the judicial expert, Prof. Th. Ndldeke), I held it to be 
my duty to inform you that, in view of death and my eternal Judge I 
cannot ^peak otherwise, and must confess that the blood-accusation is 
the truth." 

Dr. Justus [pseudonym of Ahron Brimann], " Der Judenspiegel," 
4th edition, Paderborn 1883, 80. About Rohling's dependence on 
Br. V. also " Acten " I., 205, 207. 
+ The work certainly appeared without a name ; I know, however, 
from an absolutely sure source (through a Christian theologian 
descended from a Christian family), that Br. is the author. And 
Br.'s testimony must be decisive for R. ; for even in 1887 (I will 
not here touch upon testimonies from the year 1883) Roli ling -Victor, 
10, writes: " Briman?i .... is an alto- 
gether honourable, strong man, who always studies honourable 
conduct, and is entirely worthy of every confidence." — I have good 
reason for the belief that Br. adhered later on, too, to his deprecia- 
tory judgment of R. (the letter of Br. communicated by Rohling 
Victor, 14-6, is either a forgery or was extracted for Br. by some 
stratagem). And, besides, I am convinced (till proof of the 
contrary), that the fifth edition of the "Judenspiegel" which ap- 
peared in 1892 was produced without the author's express consent. 
Possibly Br. sold his author's rights in return for a single payment 
or for some other cause he could not resist ; but he did not collaborate 
in that edition. 

162 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

many there are, unfortunately, who from ignorance 
believe or from malice wish to make others believe 
that the Kabbala contains nothing but murder and 
conflagration, slaughter of virgins, assassination of 
Kings. . . . What a disgrace. ... to our century. 
. . . that there are still such fools as to lend ear to 
such malignant calumniations." In the Kabbala one 
could "find true pearls, which will afford such an 
apologia for Christianity as could hardly have been 
expected." And p. 41: "How unskilfully Messrs.. 
the Jew-eaters or the so-called anti-semitic scholars 
exploit quite harmless passages in their amazing 
ignorance, can be seen from the truly laughable inter- 
pretation of this Sohar text in [Rohling's] ' Polemik 
und Menschenopfer.' etc., p. 62!" 

For a considerable time R. was of the opinion that 
ritual blood-murder was taught indeed in oral 
tradition as well as in the books of the Kabbala (the 
Jewish mysticism), but that it could not be pointed out 
in the Talmud. But as he sought and wanted to find, 
he found. He first of all gave information of his find 
in the Antisemitische Coi^respondenz, No. 171, of 22 
November, 1891. He then disseminated (as a contri- 
bution to the Neiie Deutsche Zeitung, of 16 March, 1892, 
evening edition, and in other ways) a pamphlet " Eine 
Talmudstelle fiir rituelles Schachten." Beneath thi& 
superscription he put firstly, " Confidential," in order 
to give the impression of something mysterious, 
secondly, "Pamphlet for connoisseurs," so as to 
flatter the noodles who would be caught in his snare. 
The main sentences run: 

" It might be interesting to know that the Talmud 
itself, although the fact long remained unnoticed, 
testifies to the Jews' blood-ritual. The Talmudic 
passage occurs in the treatise Kethubboth, 102b 
(infr.). It is there announced that even a Jew boy, 
a minor, was killed on the evening before the 

Canon Aug. Rohling 163 

Easter Festival hy his brothers or [/] was going to 
be killed. The Talmud states that people (on the part 
of the Jewish authorities) did not desire this slaugh- 
ter, and therefore let the minor groiv up with his 
mother, and not with his brothers, who were avari- 
cious, and wanted at the same time to inherit the boy's 
property ; it was not allowed because the dead father 
had bequeathed the boy to the mother, and so they 
wanted in this case to show respect for his last will. — 
In this affair, logic [//] forces on everyone the convic- 
tion, that ( 1) even a Jew boy, whom his father's last 
will did not protect, can be slaughtered as an Easter 
lamb. . . . (2) If Jews sought for [/] Easter lambs 
even among the minors of their own people, how much 
more will they ritually [/] slaughter the non-Jews 
(esteemed low as the beasts?) — The memorable 
passage runs. . . . according to the Amsterdam 
edition of the Talmud " Babli ' ' as follows : " djji^ io 
1QS1 ^2b'^i^ bii Nn* DnQ^^< 2Kn wiv ids'? iiop ]2 n^:m 
rn'jD ah^ ^D^< '^iiN ^n1^< vn*:D ^b:iii bi^ ^n ^<^> niDMi 

".nosn 21)^ imion::?! n^n n^i^^D .wirb ^iNn b:^ im« 
That means : If a person dies and leaves behind a son, 
not yet of years, for his mother, and the father's 
heirs (the brothers) say: " Let him become big (grow 
up) with us, but the mother says : " Let my son 
become big with me " — he is left with his mother, and 
he is not left with those entitled to his inheritance: 
the case comes to pass (it might occur in analogous 
cases, Cf. Berakhoth 2a), that they would slaugh- 

Festival (l^th Nisan, on 15th is the actual Easter 

This passage in the Talmud had been known to 
me since 1885; I did not, however, mention it in the 
first edition (1891) of this book of mine, because I did 
not think it possible for anyone, who had read even a 

164 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

single page in the Talmud, to come upon the idea of 
using these sentences for proof of the accusation that 
Christian Hood is employed by Jews for ritual 
purposes. As, however, they had been quoted by 
Rohling, I give the correct interpretation in the fourth 
edition (1892). First of all an exact translation of the 
whole extract. 

Mishna xii., 1 (101b): If anyone takes a wife, 
and she arranges with him that he should rear up 
her daughter \jrom a previous marriage] five years, 
he is under obligation to rear her up for five years. 
If she marries another man [after being divorced 
from that one] and arranges with him, that [also] he 
should nurture her daughter for five years, he is 
[likewise] under obligation to nurture her five years. 
Let not the first one say, ' Only if she comes to me, 
will I rear her up,' but he brings her her maintenance 
there where her mother is." 
The Gemara, 102^ attaches the following elucida- 
tion to the last sentence : — 

Rab Hisda says : " This Mishna teaches, the 
daughter must be with her mother.'' (Question) — 
" Whence does it follow that it holds good of a grown- 
up daughter? Perhaps it holds good of a little 
daughter, and the Mishna refers to a fact which has 
once occurred^ for a doctrinal tradition says : ' // any 
one has died and leaves a little son to his mother, and 
the father's heirs say: Let him be brought up with 
us — and the mother says, my son shall be brought up 
with me — he is left with his mother, and not with 
anyone who might inherit from him, for it once 
happened that he was murdered (shdhdt) on the day 

* Rashi declares : It has namely to be feared (on account of the occur- 
rence mentioned in the doctrinal tradition), that the brothers might 
murder her (harag) in order to inherit the tenth of the fortune due 
to her. But in the case of a grown-up daughter murder (r®9iha) is 
not to be feared ; whence one might continue thinking that she might 
live with the brothers. 

Canon Aug. Rohling 165 

before the Easter festival.''' (Answer) — "/w that 
case * it would be said in the Mishna : ' There where 
SHE 75. 'f But why does the Mishna say: 'There 
where the mother is '? Thence you can infer that 
the daughter should be with the mother without dis- 
tinction, whether she is grown up or little." 
To understand this it may be remarked : The wife 
is not the heiress of her husband ; altogether women 
only have the right to inherit in a very limited way, 
if males entitled to inherit are present. (Cf. M. Bloch, 
"Das mosaisch-talmudische Erbecht," Budapesth, 
1890) ; so the small children (the daughters, and, 
according to the doctrinal tradition quoted in the 
question, also the sons) are safe with the mother, but 
this is not equally the case with the males entitled to 

The reader will ask in wonder : How is it possible 
to find in Kethubboth 102^, the ordaining or even 
merely the permission of the ritual slaughter of 
Christians ? In this sphere everything is possible for 
R. when he pleases. — Firstly, e.g., he translated 
"Shahat," by "religious, ritual slaughtering." This 
meaning, however, is only proper to the verb when 
animals are in question. When human beings, 
" Shahat " stands for the meaning of a violent death, 
e.g. the word " slew," in Jerem. xxxix., 6, and lii., 10 : 
The King of Babylon slew the sons of Zedekiah, and 
the chief Jews; Jerem. xli., 7: Ishmael, the son of 
Nethaniah, slew eighty Israelites; II. Kings x., 7: 
The inhabitants of Samaria slew 70 of Ahab's de- 
scendants; Judges xii., 6; Jephthah's followers killed 
42,000 Ephraimites; Cf. also Numbers xiv., 16: "The 
heathen will say of God, He slew Israel in the wilder- 

'■Rashi: "If namely there was a distinction to be made between a 
grown-up and a little daughter." 

T Rashi : "A grown-up daughter, where she is, and a little daughter, 
where she is." 

166 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

ness," and I Kings xviii., 40; Elijah slew the priests 
of Baal. With regard to the human sacrifices which 
were offered up on the part of the idolatrous Israel- 
ites, the word Shahat is twice contemptuously used, 
Isai. Ivii., 5 ; Hezek. xxiii., 39. It need not be pointed 
out that in all these passages, and in Genesis xxii, 10, 
Jewish ritual slaughter cannot be alluded to. — In 
agreement therewith is the Talmudic use of language, 
V. "Nedarim," 22a, "Megilla," 7b; "Hullin," 56b, 
infr. Of violent death' at the hands of the Romans : 
"Sanhedrin," 110b, and "Pesahim," 69a. In the 
ritual blood-murder was taught assuredly in oral 
Midrash on Jerem. ii., 2, it is related that Nebusara- 
dan, in the place where Zachariah was killed, 
killed, "shahat," the members of the great and the 
little synedrium, the young priests, the school child- 
ren; but the Talmud, " Gittin " 57b, says of the 
occurrence, therefore quite synonymously, 'harag.' 
The two verbs are likewise used, " Sukka," 52a, supr. 
Secondly: The "doctrinal tradition" advanced 
by Rohling alone closes with the sentence : " For it 
once happened," etc. These words ("ma'a^e^ haja^"; 
literally, "fact [or occurrence] has been") are so in- 
terpreted by R. that a reader ignorant of Hebrew gets 
the doubly false impression: that such actions 
happened repeatedly, and the Talmudic ordinance 
(the child shall stay with the mother) had the object 
of preventing religious butcherings from taking place 
on the day before the Easter festival. In reality, how- 
ever, the ordinance is' not intended to forbid religious 
slaughtering on the day before the Easter festival, but 
to assure the lives of young heirs and heiresses. And 
furthermore it is only a matter of a single event that 
happened once. The latter follows from the perma- 
nent use of the word "ma'a^e^," Cf. Mishna Sabbath 
iii., 4; xvi, 7 sq. ; xxii., 3; xxiv., 5, etc.; moreover, in 
the old collection of Jewish law traditions called 

Canon Aug. Rohling 167 

"Tosephta," Zuckermandel's edition, 273, where 
the same thing is related, the words are; "ma'a^e^ 
haja^ 1/ehad," "it came to pass with one man, that 
they killed him on the day before the Easter festival/' 
The phrase "ma'a^e^ haja^," or the Aramaic (of iden- 
tical meaning) " hawa ^obada," often points to a 
previous case, which gives occasion for the establish- 
ment of a decree of the law. Cf. "Qiddushin," 85^. 
fin., and especially "Kethubboth," 60^. It is stated 
in the latter passage, in the addendum to the 
doctrinal tradition brought forward 60* fin., according 
to which a suckling woman, whose husband dies, 
can neither be betrothed or marry before the lapse of 
24 months : " If the child dies, the new betrothal or 
marriage is allowed ; if she has weaned it, she must 
await the expiry of the 24 months. Mar, the son of 
Rabx\she, said: ' Even if the child has died, the pro- 
hibition holds good, that she may not kill it so as to 
marry. The fact once happened, that she strangled 
it.' But that is worth nothing, because that woman 
was a fool ; women, after all, are not wont to strangle 
their sons." 

Thirdly: From the words "the day before the 
Easter festival"* no inference can be drawn about 
the ritual character of the killing. Far from it. The 
choice of the day (if altogether there is need to think 
of anything else than a purely historical assertion) is 
connected with the circumstance that on this day 
there was least fear of discovery of the cause of death. 
Everyone is occupied with the preparations, and no 
one enters the house of a dead person, unless obliged, 
because he would then be unclean for seven days, 
and therefore miss the whole of the festivities, cf. 
Tosephta "Ahiloth," iii., 9 (Zuckermandel, 600). 

* The conjecture expressed on the Jewish side in consequence of R.'s 
"find" (they wanted to deprive the "Antisemites" of a point of 
attack), that the statement of the time rested on an error in the text, 
is quite untenable. 

168 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

According to Talmud "Hullin," 83% this day of pre- 
paration belonged to the four days on which many 
entertainments at meals and rejoicings took place. 

Fourthly. The reference to the Christians is 
introduced by R. into the passage in the Talmud by 
the following audacious conclusion : — " If Jews 
sought for Easter lambs, even among the minors of 
their own people, how much more will they ritually 
slaughter the non-Jews (esteemed low as the 
beasts) ?" But in the whole passage there is no word 
about Jewish children as Easter lambs. As far as the 
words, "non-Jews (esteemed low as the beasts)," are 
concerned, the uncompromisingness of the utterance 
must be, and is intended to provoke in all, who are 
not professional experts in the subject, false ideas. 

The x\ustrian Reichsrat Deputy Schneider had 
this " newly discovered, amazingly important passage 
from the Talmud" photographed, according to the 
imprints of Venice, 1526 sq., and Amsterdam, 1644 
sq., and made it the subject of inflammatory dis- 
No. 190) and pamphlets. Moreover, too, he had the 
courses (v. e.g., Staatshilrger-Zeitung. 23 April, 1892, 
effrontery to say at the sitting of the Reichsrat, 10th 
November, 1899 : " Now there are quite a number of 
Jews who state that there is no written passage in the 
Talmud about the use of Christian blood. Well, I 
have here a photograph, which I have taken person- 
ally So no explaining away is possible 

There is no falsification in regard to this passage in 
the treatise Kethubboth." 

Be it observed in conclusion, that the passage in 
" Kethubboth," 102b, if it really meant what accord- 
ing to Rohling and Schneider it does, would have 
been deleted by the Christian censorship, or at any 
rate altered. All the impressions produced in Ger- 
many, however (e.g. the Berlin edition of 1862), give 
exactly the same text as those photographed by 


" Per Sonne ne la racontera sans que la plume 
n'hesite et que Vencre, en ecrivant, ne blanchisse de 
larmes.'' (J. Michelet, " Du Pretre, de la femme, 
de la famille," 3rd edition, Paris, 1845, on the 
history of the Waldenses). 

The first writer in recent times,* who busied him- 
self to prove, by instances from history, the actual 
existence of the doctrine of ritual murder among the 
Jews was, as far as I perceive, Konstantin Cholewa de 
Pawlihowski, " Der Talmud in der Theorie und 
Praxis," Regensburg, 1866. He enumerates 73 
"human sacrifices " (p. 245-308), which the Jews had 
brought about, or at least had tried to bring about, 
" in order to eat the blood in their unleavened bread." 
—Geza V. Onody, " Tisza-Eszlar in der Vergangenheit 
und Gegenwart," authorised translation by G. v. 
Marczianyi,Budapesth, 1883 (215) devotes a chapter 
of 91 pages to "Ritual murders and blood-sacrifices."- 
Rohling referred to the " verdict of history " in " Meine 
Antworten," 53 sq. in "Prof. Dr. Rohlingj, die Juden- 
frage u. die offentliche Meinung," 22-6, and further 
in the letter of 10th July, 1892 (v. supr. p. 114). He 

• Eisenmenger IT., 220-7, gives a long list of Christians (especially 
children), who are said to have been murdered by Jews. In relation 
to the use of blood, he says at the end : " Every one can guess that 
not everything is bound to be untrue. But I leare it undecided, 
whether the matter is so or not." 

170 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

copied out some articles that appeared in the Cimlta 
Cattolica in 1887 and 1882.—^. Desportes, " Le mystere 
du sang chez les Juifs de tons les temps," Paris, 1890, 
has devoted almost 200 pages to the " facts of the 
case."— Anonymous: "Die Juden und das Christen- 
blut," L., 1892 (46), a plagiarism, especially from 
Pawlikowski, Desportes, and Onody, superabound- 
ing in ignorance.— The book of Carl Mommert (a 
Catholic priest), " Der Eitual-Mord bei den Talmud- 
Juden," Leipsic, 1905 (127 p.), a contemptible 
mixture of malignancy and ignorance, is almost 
entirely stolen from the writings just mentioned.— 
Similar books about "ritual murders," not a single 
one of which rests on original work, have often been 
printed, cf., e .g., Athanasius Fern [pseudonym], " Die 
jiidische Moral und das Blut-Mysterium," L., 1893, 

In March and April, 1892 (Nos. 8438-8473) the 
Milan paper, Osservatore Cattolico published 44 
articles on " Certezza del ritualismo nelle uccisioni 
giudaiche " ("certainty of the ritual character of the 
murders practised by the Jews"), including lastly a 
comprehensive "list" of 154 cases "of perpetrated 
or attempted ritual murders." 

This long list has received attention among many 
people, partly because of the bold impudence shown 
by its author. But it was undeserved, because he 
is a/i ignorant plagiarist, who does not even observe the 
siinplest rules of historical criticism. 

First of all, a few examples of the disgraceful 
ignorance of the Osservatore Cattolico. Copying a 
printer's error of Desportes, it declares, case 106, 
Dublin to be the capital of a Russian government! 
Copying two other mistakes of Desportes, it believes 
*' Steyer-Marck " and " Karntey," case 96, to be towns! 
Eisenmenger II., 223, correctly has "in Steyermarck, 
Karnten." Likewise the town of "Thorn," in the 

Evidence of History 171 

"Belgian Province of Liittich," case 103, is merely a 
printer's error (for Theur?) copied from Desportes. 
The Emperor Joseph 11. died on 20th February, 1790, 
but the Osservatore Cattolico, case 102, makes out the 
Jews, condemned for a murder committed in 1791 in 
Transylvania, to have been pardoned by this " Free- 
mason!" Desportes, the Osservatore Cattolico' s 
authority, read perfunctorily Onody's account, and 
thereupon misunderstood it ! 

The Osservatore Cattolico conceals the fact that it 
is plagiarising, by very often naming not Desjjortes, 
but the authority mentioned by him, and in doing so 
not infrequently copies wrong numbers, and wrong or 
inaccurate quotations. In case 4, e.g., occurs the 
wrong number, 1071 (instead of 1171) as in Victor, 
Desportes, and the Leipsic anonymous writer.— Case 
22, "Florent de Worcester, p. 222." In an Italian 
paper the name ought to have been given either in 
Latin, according to the title of the book, or in English, 
according to the country of the author, or in Italian, 
but not in French. Desportes forgot to give the num- 
ber (II.) of the volume, so it is also missing in the 
Osservatore Cattolico. The page number is missing in 
both: in case 91 and 111.— In case 113, Desportes has 
the incorrect page number, "355 " instead of "356;" 
so also the Osservatore Cattolico.— Dq^^oxIq^ and the 
Osservatore Cattolico have wrongly: " Wizzens " in- 
stead of " Weissensee," case 36 ; " Zirgler " instead of 
" Ziegler," case 77: " Orkul " (in Hungary) instead of 
" Orkuta," case 102; " Pecho " instead of "Pico," case 
61.— In the name " Colmenares " the letters " en " are 
are not clear in Desportes' s book, which has been pro- 
duced by stereotyping. To this circumstance the 
author " Colmohares " owes his existence in the 
Osservatore Cattolico. The exact title of the book, 
which Desportes also did not look for, runs: 
"Historia de la insigne ciudad de Segovia," Madrid, 

172 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

1640, foL, v.p. 400, 1649 sq. ; the author, who is not 
named on the title page, is Diego de Colmenares. — 
Also the quotation taken from Desportes, " Onody, 
Tisza-Eszlar passim," in cases 132-5 betrays the 
plagiarist, because Onody, 137, mentions these four 
cases in two immediately successive lines. — The 
Osservatore Cattolico has also plagiarised from Rohling. 
Firstly in regard to his book, assumedly written by 
Victor, 25 sq., for in cases 22, 29, 42, 46, 47, 69, 73, 74, 
there are the same mistakes or inaccuracies in the 
quotations. Secondly, in regard to "Meine Antwor- 
ten," 55 sq. Both "authorities " have the following 
errors in common : Case one is attributed to the year 
425 under appeal to Baronius, whilst the "Annales 
Ecclesiastici " of that industrious compiler have 
"415;" for case 39 these annals are brought forward 
for the year 1325 instead of 1305 ; that the Jew Salomo 
killed the boy Konrad, case 66, is stated in the Annals 
for the year 1476 not in No. 20, but in No. 19. Inci- 
dentally, whoever looks closely into the matter, can 
easily recognise that Rohling did not derive informa- 
tion from the authorities themselves in the domain of 
history any more than in that of Jewish literature. 

Likewise those quotations of the Osservatore 
Cattolico, which are neither in Desportes nor in 
Rohling- Victor, so far, at any rate, as concerns dates 
up to 1840 inclusive, are copied without verification 
from other sources (mostly indeed from the Civilta 
Cattolico; cf. e.g. case 8: "Pagi n. 15," and case 17: 
" Blancas. Arag. Comment." with G. de Mousseaux, 
"Le Juif," Paris, 1869, 191). 

A large number of the cases are impossible of ex- 
amination because Desportes and his copier, the 
Osservatore Cattolico, neither adduce an authority nor 
give otherwise sufficiently precise information, e.g. case 
30: " 1289, Suabia, ritual murder." 

At least four times the same case is counted double. 

Evidence of History 173 

Case 23, "Northampton, 1279;" case 24, "London, 
1279." The chronicler Florence, of Worcester (" Flo- 
rentii Wigorniensis manochi ;Chronicon ex Chronicis," 
de. B. Thorpe, II., London, 1849), 222, whom Des- 
portes and the Osservatore Cattolico quote, but have 
not looked up, says quite distinctly : " Apud North- 
amtonam die Crucis adoratae [14 September] puer 
quidam a Judaeis crucifixus est; ipso tamen puero 
non tunc penitus interfecto. Cujus quidem rei 
praetextu multi de Judaeis statim post Pascha 
[2 April] Londoniae equis distracti et suspensi sunt." 
(Moreover let the word " praetextus " (a pretext) be 
taken into consideration).— Case 25 "Munich, 1282," 
is identical with case 27, "Munich, 1285," as 
Desportes and his copier must have seen, if they had 
not merely quoted but also read Matth. Rader's 
"Bavaria Sancta," 11. (Munich, 1624), 315 sq. The 
Leipsic anonymous writer uses the same passage in 
Rader even for a third case, "Munich, 1286."— Case 
74, "1503, Waltkirch," and case 75 are one and the 
same. The Osservatore Cattolico did not look up 
either the "Acta Sanctorum," which Desportes men- 
tioned as his authority, nor the work of J oh. Eck 
(" Echio !"), which he found quoted in an Italian book. 
—Also case 12, "1235, Norwich," is identical with 
case 15, " 1240, NorwiclT." It is true, Matthew Paris 
mentions in both years in his " Chronica Majora " 
(ed. H. P. Luard, London, 1876 sq.) the circumcision 
of a Christian boy; but the account of D'Blossiers 
Tovey, " Anglia judaica " (Oxford, 1738), 96-101, 
based upon the original documents, leaves no doubt 
that it concerns only one occurrence. 

Yet worse than these faults is that there is no 
criticism whatever exercised as regards the credibility of 
the reports. All accusations are regarded as correct, 
without consideration as to when and by whom they 

174 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

were made, and without testing the question, 
whether they are probable or even possible. 

Even were it assumed — but not admitted — that all 
the cases announced by the chroniclers and other 
reporters had actuallj^ happened, and indeed hap- 
pened just as they are said to have (followed by 
miracles, etc.), vei^y many cases would nevertheless not 
belong here, because they have no ritual character 
whatever even according to all these reporters. 

In several cases, always assuming the credibility 
of the tradition, it would be a matter of fofular -medical 
belief, and therefore hardly of anything ancient 
Jewish, and quite certainly not specifically Jewish. 
According to the Marbach annals, the Jews of Fulda 
(when tortured, of course), confess in December, 1235, 
that they had murdered the miller's children, " ut ex 
eis sanguinem ad suum remedium elicerent." Here 
should be placed the confession forced from the Jews 
at Tyrnau, in 1494, with which the statements of J. 
Pfefferkorn and F. A. Christiani (v. Ch. 19 B) should 
be compared. The case of Poesing, in 1529 (" at the 
marriage festival,") points perhaps to a popular 
belief of a similar kind. 

Thomas Cantipratanus (called after the monas- 
tery of Cantimpre, near Cambray, b. about 1201, d. 
between 1270 and 1272) believed that the Jews use 
Christian blood as a means of cure. (Note the words, 
"importune fluidam," and " verecundissimo cruci- 
atu.") In "Bonum universale de apibus," II., 29, 
§23 ed. Colverenius, Douay, 1627, 304 sq. ; cf. W. A. 
Van der Wet, " Het Bienboec van Thomas van Can- 
timpre," 's-Gravenhage, 1902, 221, 222), he examines 
the question, why the Jews annually shed Christian 
blood : " It is namely quite certain that they cast lots 
every year in every province, which community or 
city shall produce Christian blood for the other com- 
munities. When Pilate washed his hands and said : 

Evidence of History 175 

*I am innocent of the blood of this just person,' the 
excessively godless Jews cried out : ' His blood be upon 
us, and on our children!' (Matthev^ xxvii.) St. 
Augustine appears to allude to this in a discourse, 
which begins " In cruce;" that in consequence of the 
curses upon their fathers, the criminal disposition is 
even now transmitted to the children by the taint in 
the blood, so that the godless posterity suffers torment 
inexpiably through its violent coursing through their 
veins till they repentantly admit themselves guilty of 
the blood of Christ, and are healed.* Besides, I heard 
that a very learned Jew, who was converted to the 
faith of our times,f said that a man, who was rever- 
enced among them as a prophet, had prophesied to 
the Jews at the end of his life : ' You may be firmly 
convinced, that you can only be cured by Christian 
blood of this secret torment, with which you are pun- 
ished.' J This utterance was caught at by the 
ever-blind and godless Jews, and they hit upon the 
plan that every year Christian blood should be shed 
in every province, so that they might be healed by 
such blood. And he [the proselyte] added : They all 
interpreted the utterance by understanding the blood 
to be that of any Christian whatever ; whilst yet that 

• "Quod ex maledictioiie parentum currat adhuc in filios vena facino- 
ris per maculamsanguinis, ut per hanc importune fluidam proles 
impia inexpiabiliter crucietur, quousque se ream sanguinis Chriati 
recognoscat poenitens et sanetur." 

+ [Perhaps Nicholas Donin, of La Rochelle, who in 1239 presented 
Pope Gregory IX. with a complaint against the Talmud, containing 
a good many calumnies, which led in 1242 to the burning of a mass 
of Talmud MSS. which filled 24 waggons, Cf. Js. Loth in Btvut des 
Etudes juives I. (1880), 247-61 ; II. (1881), 248-70; III., 39-57, and 
I., 293-6. In 1240 a Disputation between N.D. and Jechiel, f 
Paris, and three other Rabbis about the Talmud. Thomas, of 
Cantimpre, was in Paris 1237-42, and relates in t>he " Bonum 
universale" I., 3 §6; van der Vet, "Bienboec," 230 about the 
Talmud-burning; so he was personally acquainted with Nicholas.] 

I " Certissime vos scitote nullo mode sanari vos posse ab illo, quo 
punimini verecundissimo cruciatu nisi solo sanguine Christiano." 

176 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

blood was meant, which is daily poured on the altar 
for the forgiveness of sins; everyone of our people 
who, converted to belief in Christ, receives this [the 
blood of Christ in Holy Communion], as is proper, is 
soon healed of the curse inherited from his fathers.'' 

It is a question how those cases should be judged, 
in which the desire for blood is mentioned without a 
statement of its object, e.g. Pforzheim (1261), Weissen- 
burg (1270), Krems (1293). The actual or presumable 
motive may either have been the above-mentioned 
(popular medicine or absolute superstition connected 
with folklore), or that which will presently be men- 

Numerous other murders might, if not be 
justified, at least be explained as a reaction against 
the far more numerous deeds of blood and violence prac- 
tised against Jews, especially in the Middle Ages, by 
Christians, and indeed not only by private but also 
by official individuals .* 

The first incident that is relevant here is that re- 
lated by the Ecclesiastical historian Sokrates, vii., 16. 
In the Syrian town of Inmestar the Jews, who had 
got drunk on the occasion of a festival, began to scoff 
at the Christians, and then at Christ Himself. They 
next tied a Christian child to a cross, and made mock 
of it. Finally they so ill-treated the child that it died. 
The Jews were severely punished for this outrage 
committed in their insolence. The Jewish festival was 
presumably the feast of Purim, and the child was 
supposed to represent Haman {H. Grdtz, " Geschichte 
der Juden," 2nd ed., iv., 393; J. G. Frazer, "The 
Golden Bough," 2nd ed., iii., 173 sq.) 

* No Christian will be able to read without pain and without shudder- 
ing the fifty-page chapter on "Sufferings" in Zunz's "Die Bynago- 
agle Poesie des Mittelalters " (Be. 1885). (Cf. also A. Neuhauer 
and M. Stern, " Hebraische Berichte iiber die Judenverfolgungeo 
wahrend der Kreuzziige," Be. 1892). 

Evidence of History 177 

The hatred of Jews for Christians, the Christian 
religion, and its founders, [odium Christi et Christia- 
norum] corresponded to the hatred of Christians for 
the Jews and the Jewish religion. The crucifixions 
of Christian children, more rarely of grown-up 
Christians, at Easter, frequently reported, especially 
in the 12th and 13th centuries, so far as they are really 
historical, would give expression to this hatred, e.g. 
William of Norwich,* 1144, Harold of Gloucester, 
1168, Blois, 1171, William of Paris, 1177, Richard of 
Paris, in Pontoise,t 1179, Robert, in Bury St. 
Edmunds, 1181, Winchester, 1182, Prague, 1305 (v. 
infr.) Christians were treated as Jesus was once 
treated, and as they would gladly have treated all 
those by whom they were hated, persecuted, and 
killed. Also, whoever assumes all these reports to be 
exact accounts of actual happenings, has no right to 
speak of ritual actions. Such ideas are simply con- 
tradicted by the fact that the reports referring to the 
more remote periods speak of the Christian, not of the 
Jewish Easter festival. — The combination of the cru- 
cifixions, and the other so-called " ritual murders " 
with the Jewish Easter I hold to be something quite 
secondary. It is utterly perverse to imagine these 
assumed or actual murders to be sacrifices of atone- 
ment. If they had that character, they would have 
frequently been mentioned about the time of the 
Jewish Day of Atonement, i.e. the end of September 
or in October. 

* This accusation is the oldest after 416 a.d., and appears to be an 
imitation of what happened at Inmestar. Cf. A. Jessop and M. R. 
James, " Life and Miracles of St. William of Norwich," Cambridge 
1896 (91 and 303 p.); S. Berger in "Melusine, Recueil de 
mythologie," etc., vol. viii. (Paris 1896-7), col. 169-74. 

i- Louis VII. of France (1137-80) subsequently admitted that the Jews 
were not guilty of the murders in Blois and Pontoise, v. A. Nevhauer 
and M. Stern. 34 (p. 149 of the German translation). — That false 
charges were often brought, can be seen by the Jewish ordinance of 
the Bohemian King, Ottokar II., in 1254 (v. Ch. 19 D). 


178 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

Again, it should be carefully noted, that even in 
the case of the twelfth century, the utilisation of 
Christian blood by the Jews is not mentioned by any 
ancient winters, much less its utilisation for ritual 
objects. According to the Marbach annals, it was in 
1236 the Emperor Frederick II. first inquired whether, 
as a wide-spread idea was current, the Jews needed 
Christian blood ("utrum. . . . Christianum san- 
guinem in parasceve necessarium haberent,") and he 
received a negative answer from the expert commis- 
sion appointed by him (v. Ch. 19 B). 

The long list of " ritual murders," which terrifies 
the ignorant, will shrink very much in size in the 
judgment of anybody who seriously weighs all the 
facts here presented. It is at once nullified, if one 
critically examines every single "case " which is de- 
scribed in sufficient detail. Whilst referring the 
reader to a series of articles called "Die Blutliige " 
(the blood-lie), published by Dr. H. Bildesheimer in the 
Oesterreichische Wochenschrift (Vienna), 1899, No. 44 
sq., I shall mention here at any rate the majority of 
those older cases which are often brought up, and a 
portion of the accusations belonging to the most re- 
cent times, and indeed in chronological order. Fulda, 
1235; Valreas, 1247; Trent, 1475; Tyrnau, 1494; 
Posing, 1529; Damascus, 1840; Tisza-Eszlar, 1882; 
Corfu, 1891; Xanten, 1891; Polna, 1899; and Konitz, 
1900 are the most "famous " cases. 

1235. Fulda, Cf. supr., p. 176 sq. It is related in 
the Erfurt Annals (" Monumenta Germaniae, Scrip- 
tores," xvi., 31) : " In this year [1235] on 28 December, 
at Fulda, 34 Jews of both sexes were put to the sword 
by crusaders, because two of the Jews had, on holy 
Christmas Day, cruelly killed the five sons of a miller 
who lived outside the city walls, and was at the time 
at church with his wife; they had collected their 
blood in bags smeared with wax, and had then, after 

Evidence of History 179 

they had set fire to them, gone away. When the 
truth of this occurrence was made known, and con- 
fessed to b}^ the guilty Jews themselves, they were 
punished, as stated above." Here, too, no witnesses; 
here, too, merely confession produced by torture, 
therefore valueless. At any rate, there can be no 
question here of a ritual murder ; because (1) the Jews' 
confession concerns only the use of blood for cura- 
tive purposes (Marbach Annals, v. supr. p. 176 sq.); 

(2) the expert commission appointed by the Emperor 
Frederick II. declared the untenableness of the accu- 
sation that the Jews were obliged to have human 
blood for any object whatever, and the Emperor in 
consequence "fully acquitted the Jews of Fulda of 
the crime attributed to them, and the rest of the Jews 
of Germany of such a serious charge " (v. Ch. 19 B); 

(3) on 25th' September, 1253 (v. Ch. 19 C), Pope Inno- 
cent IV. likewise declared against this accusation: 
"Since many Jews at Fulda and in several other 
places have been killed owing to a suspicion of the 
kind, we forbid," etc. — Cf. R. Honiger, " Zeitschrift fiir 
die Geschichte der Juden in Deutschland," I. (1877), 
136-51, and M. Stern, ibid. II. (1888), 194-9. The 
names of the victims are given in the Nuremberg 
Register, v. S. Salfeld, " Das Martyrologium des 
Niirnberger Memorbuches," Be., 1898, 13. 122 sq. 

1247. Valreas (a little town in the present depart- 
ment of Vaucluse). Meilla, a girl two years' old, dis- 
appears on 26th March, the Tuesday in Passion week. 
The following day she is found dead in the town ditch, 
with wounds on her forehead, hands, and feet. The 
child has been seen previously in the Jews' street ; for 
the rest, torture was employed here also as a substi- 
tute for all evidence. The confession ran to the effect 
that Christian blood was used as a kind of sacrifice 
("quasi sacrificium.") Cf. A. Molinier, " Enquete sur 
un meurtre impute aux Juif s de Valreas ' ' (in " Le 

180 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

Cabinet Historique. Nouvelle Serie," II., Paris, 
1884, 121-34), and M. Stern, "Beitrage," II., 46-62. 
This "case" gave rise to two bulls (not known to 
Molinier at the time) of Innocent IV. to the Arch- 
bishop of Vienne, 28 May, 1247. I translate the one 
which is most important here, according to the first 
impression in E. Berger, " Eegistres d'Innocent IV.," 
Vol. I., Paris, 1884. 

/., No. 2815 : " // the Christian religion were care- 
fully to weigh, how inhuman and contrary to fiety it 
is, to torment with divers oppressions, and exasperate 
with manifold grave injuries, the survivors of the 
Jews, to whom, as the remaining witnesses of His 
redemptory suffering, and His victorious death, the 
goodness of the Saviour has promised the grace of 
salvation, then woidd it not only keep its hands from 
doing them injustice, but would also, at least for the 
sake of the semblance of piety, and out of reverence 
for Christ, impai^t the consolation of humanity to 
those who to a certain extent pay tribute to it. Now 
a petition of the Jews of Vienne to us states that the 
nobleman Draconetus, after the Jews of Valreas had 
been accused of having crucified a girl who was found 
dead in a ditch, despoiled three Jews, without their 
having been convicted or having confessed, nay, with- 
out anyone having accused them, of all their property, 
and consigned them to terrible imprisonment, refused 
them legal redress and justification of their inno- 
cence, had some of them cut to pieces, others burnt. 
The genital organs were torn off the men, and the 
breasts off the women, and they were tortured with 
all manner of toi'tures until they admitted with their 
mouths what their conscience knew nothing about, be- 
cause they preferred to die once in agony than to live 
and be continually tortured.* In order to increase 

* " Donee ipsi id quod eorum conseientia non didicit ore, sicut dicitur, 
sunt confessi, uno uecari tormento potius eligentes quam vivere et 
penarum afflictionibus cruciari." 

Evidence of History 181 

the agonies oj the tortured, the Bishop of Trois- 
Chdteaux and some magnates of the province had 
seized this opportunity to rob all the Jews dwelling in 
their districts of their possessions, and to imprison 
and torture those whom the Apostolic See has taken 
under its protection, by various forcible methods and 
oppressions. They have therefore humbly en- 
treated us, mercifully to be solicitous for their inno- 
cence. As therefore, when there has been no 
antecedent crime, no one shall suffer punishment, and 
also no one may be punished for another's crime, we, 
filled with fatherly sympathy for them, command you, 
if things are so, to cause the Bishop and the others to 
restore to the aforesaid Jews their freedom and 
belongings, to give them compensation, and to allow 
them to live unhampered.'' 

II., No. £838 : ''It proves an unpraiseworthy zeal 
or a repulsive cruelty, lohen Christians, acting con- 
trary to the clemency of the Catholic 7^eligion, which 
permits Jews to dwell among them, and has ordained 
that they may live in their own rites, despoil, mutilate 
and kill the Jews out of avarice or blood-thirstiness, 
without a trial. The Jews of your province are now 
making bitter complaint to us, that some prelates and 
nobles of those parts, in order to have a cause for 
raging against them., charged them with the death 
of a girl, who is said to have been secretly murdered 
near Valreas, and on that account inhumanly de- 
livered some of them to the flames, without their 
having been legally convicted, or having confessed,"^ 
deprived several of all their property, and banished 
them, and that they are compelling their sons (con- 

" Quod quidam prelati et nobiles ut in ipsoa 

haberent materiam seviendi eis cuiusdam puelle, que apud Valri* 
furtim perempta dicitur, interitura imponentes quosdam ipsorum 
non convictos legitime nee confessos flammis ignium inhumaniter ere 

182 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

trary to the manner of the free mother, who hears her 
children to freedom) to become baptised. Since we 
do not intend to tolerate this, as indeed, under God, 
we cannot, we command that you restore everything 
again to legal conditions as regards these Jews, and 
do not allow them to be unjustly of pressed by anybody 
whomsoever henceforth, on account of these or similar 
accusations, by using the compulsion of ecclesiasti- 
cal punishment, without granting appeal, in the case 
of those who oppress them^ 

1261. Pforzheim. Thomas Cantipratanus (about 
him V. Ch. 20, ad init.), " Bonum Universale," Douay, 
1627, 303 sq., gives the story according to the accounts 
of two Dominicans, who are said to have been at 
Pforzheim three days after the incidents: A 
thoroughly bad woman, on friendly terms with the 
Jews, w^as said to have sold them a girl of seven years. 
The Jews inflicted many wounds on the child, and 
carefully collected the blood on a folded piece of linen 
placed under her. They then weighted the corpse 
with stones, and threw it into the river. A few days 
later some fishermen noticed a hand raised up to the 
skies, and find the dead child. The populace at 
once suspected the Jews. When these are brought to 
the corpse, the wounds begin again to bleed (v. supr. 
Ch. 3, p. 49. When they are brought before the dead 
fchild a second time, her face flushes, and her arms 
rise up, as had already happened before in the pre- 
sence of the Margrave of Baden, who had hastened to 
the spot. There were in addition statements by the 
woman's little daughter (" filia parvula,") and (" quia 
a puero et ebrio extorquetur Veritas,") because the 
truth is extracted from children and drunken people, 
the Jews were broken on the wheel after various tor- 

* " Non permittas, ipsos de cetero super his vel similibus ab aliquibus 
indebite molestari, molest atores hujusmodi per censurara ecclesia- 
sticam appellations postposita compescendo." 

Evidence of History 183 

turings; two of them strangled one the other. A 
proper judicial examination did not take place; the 
miracles taken together with the child's statements 
sufficed. It is curious that the same miracles are 
reported apropos also of other " ritual murders " 
(Werner, of Oberwesel, etc.). If proof were necessary 
that the Pforzheim "case" was also a judicial 
murder, it is forthcoming in the manner of its narra- 
tion in the Nuremberg Register (Salfeld, 15. 128), and 
in the synagogal poems. Cf. Osterreich. Wochenschr. 
1899, No. 45, p. 850 sq., where in my opinion it is justly 
assumed, that the woman should be regarded as the 

1270. Vyeissenhurg. The Leipsic anon, writer, 
Desportes and Osservatore Cattolico : " 1260. The Jews 
of Weissenburg kill a child," following the minor 
annals of Colmar, "Monum. Germ. Script." xvii., 191. 
But year and day of the death are established by 
the Jewish authorities and Hertzog's " Edelsasser 
Chronik"" (Strasburg, 1592, 198 sq.) : Peter and Paul 
Sunday, 29 June, 1270. Heinrich Menger, a boy of 
seven, was on that day left alone by his father in a 
field near the town. When the father returned, the 
child had vanished. His cap is found on the brink of 
the Lauter, which flows near at hand ; on Tuesday his 
mangled corpse in the river near a mill. There is no 
investigation as to whether the wounds have been 
caused by the mill-wheels, but the Jews are accused, 
because the wounds bleed afresh as soon as the corpse 
was carried into the town. Count Emicho IV. of Lein- 
inijen, who is summoned, postpones judgment till the 
following Friday. x\s the wounds bleed on that day 
also, although, according to the accusation, the Jews 

• (Salfeld, 128-30, holds the year to be 1267 : but Thomas's book, bo 
far as we know, was ready as early as 1261, and that date is given 
both in the above-mentioned edition of the Latin text and also in 
the Middle-Dutch translation, v. van der Vet, "Bienboec," 222. 

184 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

had hung up the child by the legs, and opened all hi& 
veins, in order to extract all the blood, any further 
examination into the actual circumstances was 
thought superfluous, the former torturing of the pro- 
testing Jews was even omitted, and they (seven of 
them) were brought by the wheel from life to death. 
Cf. Oesterr. Wochenschrift, 1899, No. 47, p. 888 sq. ; Sal- 
feld, 21 sq., 148-151. 

1283. Mainz. Leipsic anon. — " A child is de- 
livered over by its nurse to the Jews of Mainz, who 
killed it." In April, 1283, the body of a child was 
found near Mainz. Archbishop Werner, of Mainz, 
befriended to the best of his abilities the Jews who 
were accused without proof, but could not even 
accomplish the introduction of a regular trial; the 
rabble, exasperated by a relation of the child's, fell 
upon the Jews on the 7th Passover Day (19 April), 
slew ten of them, and then started plundering. Cf. K. 
A. Schaab, " Diplomatische Geschichte der Juden in 
Mainz," Mainz, 1855, 32 sq., Salfeld, 20. 144 sq., 
Oesterr. Wochenschr. 1899, No. 45, p. 851. 

1285. Munich (Cf. supr. page 173). An old 
woman, caught kidnapping, accused the Jews when 
tortured. The fury of the populace cannot in any 
way be restrained, either by the authority of the 
magistrate nor by the command of the prince (" nee 
magistratus auctoritate nee principis imperio ulla 
ratione cohiberi potest,") M. Rader, "Bavaria 
Sancta," II. (Munich, 1624), 315 sq. There was no 
waiting for judicial proceedings and pronouncement 
of sentence ("non expectato judicio vel sententia," 
Hermann von Altaich, " Mon. Germ. Hist., Scripto- 
res," xvii., 415), but on 12th October the mob storm 
the synagogue and burn it down, together with 180 
Jews who had taken refuge in it. Cf. also Salfeld 21. 
146 sq. 

1286. Oheinvesel. "The good Werner." Leipsic 

Evidence of History 185 

anon.: "At Oberwesel am Rhein, the fourteen-year- 
old Saint Werner is slowly tortured to death by the 
Jews for three days." Neither the brief Worms 
Annals ("Monum. Germ. Script." xvii., 77, for the 
year 1286), nor Baronius (for the year 1287, No. 18), 
say anything about blood, or even of a ritual purpose. 
The sole evidences against the Jews were the 
"miracles." The corpse swam upstream to Bacharach, 
gave forth a halo, healed sick people. And yet there 
were between 1286 and 1289 persecutions of Jews in 
Oberwesel, Bacharach, Siegburg, and numerous other 
places, V. Salfeld, 24 sq^, 155 sq. The Emperor 
Rudolph I. of Habsburg, to whom the oppressed Jews 
had turned with prayers for protection (would they 
have done so had they been really guilty?) com- 
manded Archbishop Heinrich to announce solemnly 
in his sermon that the Christians had done the Jews 
the greatest injustice, and that "the good Werner," 
who was commonly described as having been killed 
by the Jews, and was worshipped by some simple- 
minded Christians as a Saint, should be burnt, his 
ashes scattered to the wind, and brought to nothing 
(Colmar's " Chronik," for the year 1288, in "Monum. 
Germ. Script." xvii., 255. Cf. Oesterr. Wochenschr. 
1899, No. 44, p. 832 sq.) 

In spite of these being the actual circumstances, F. S. 
Hattler, "Katholischer Kindergarten oder Legende fur 
Kinder" (4th edition), Freiburg i. B., 1889 (606) ventures to 
inform Roman Catholic children in detail, that the Jews of 
Oberwesel first hung up the boy Werner by the legs, because 
they thought they wovild in that way get hold of the consecrated 
wafer [v. supr. p. 58 sq.j of which he had partaken beforehand, 
and then opened his veins and cut him with scissors, in order 
to collect his blood. Tales are told about Andreas, of Rinn 
(1462), and Simon, of Trent (1475) in a similarly mendacious 
manner ! Does this work rightly commence with the state- 
ment : "With approval of the right rev. vicarship of the Chapter 
of Freiburg?" 

1293. Krems (Lower Austria). " The Jews in 

186 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

Krems had a Christian sent from Briinn, and killed 
him in the most cruel way, in order to get his blood." 
Thus Zwettl's " Klosterchronik," the only original 
source, "Monum. Germ. hist. Script.," ix., 658. But 
it was written nearly three centuries after the occur- 
rence. Who believes that the Jews at that time were 
able to "send" each other living Christians, and in 
addition, over so long a distance ? Besides which, the 
chronicler adds that after two Jews had been already 
broken on the wheel, Duke Albert I. (as King of 
Germany, 1298-1308) and the nobility interfered in 
favour of the rest. 

1294. Rudolph of Berne. Leipsic anon, for the 
year 1287: "The Jews rob St. Rudolph at Easter, put 
him to fearful tortures, and finally cut the child's 
head off. The chief offenders were broken on the 
wheel, their accomplices banished." The best exam- 
ination of the actual facts has been made by the 
Bernese clergyman, J. Stammler, in " Katholische 
Schweizer-Blatter," Lucerne, 1888, 268-302, 376-90, 
which I follow here.* The Roman Ritual Congrega- 
tion had indeed in 1869 approved the mention of the 
boy Rudolph in the Diocesan Supplement (brieviary 
and missal), and in the Diocesan Calendar of the 
bishopric of Bale (17 April); "but that certainly did 
not imply any declaration of the truth of the whole 
contents of the story of his life, but merely a permis- 
sion of its use in the breviary or choir prayer. It is 
altogether not forbidden Catholic knowledge, to test 
the correctness of the historical part of the breviary " 
(269).— All later mentions go back to the Chronicles 
of Konrad Justinger, who died in 1426. The Jews 

• His predecessors in correctly judging the affair were J . E. Eopp^ 
" Geschichte der eidgenbssischen Biinde " II., 399; W. Fetscherin 
(in " Abhandlungen des histor. Vereins des Kantons Bern " II. 
(1851) 61 sq. ; G. Studer (in "Archiv des histor. Vereins von Bern" 
1863, 536) ; and 6'. v. Wattenwyl ("Geschichte der Stadt u. Lands- 
chaft Bern" I., 146, Schaffhausen 1867). 

Evidence of History 187 

were alleged to have horribly martyred and murdered 
the boy Kuof in the house and cellar of the rich Jew, 
Joli. "Die morder wurdent gevangen, ein Teil uf 
reder gesetzet, die andren usgeslagen und wart da 
einhellenklich von einer gemeiiide bern gelopt und 
verheissen, daz kein jude niemerme gan bern komen 
solte" ("The murderers were caught, some broken 
on the wheel, the others banished, and it was there 
unanimously sworn and proclaimed by a meeting of 
the Bernese community, that no Jew should ever 
again come to Berne.") King Rudolph of Habsburg 
is said to have waxed very wroth about it, and to have 
appeared before Berne with an army of 30,000 men at 
the end of May in the same year, 1288. But the real 
cause of the King's wrath was the refractoriness of 
the town, and the dealings of Berne with Savoy, 
which were dangerous to the kingdom. The King 
repeatedly besieged the town in 1288 without, how- 
ever, taking it; his son, Duke Rudolph, defeated the 
Bernese in 1289, and peace was concluded in the same 
year. "The Jewish persecution narrated by Just- 
inger " was " not even a complementary cause " of the 
fighting, " and indeed for the simple reason that the 
persecution can be proved to have taken place only 
later on " (284). The Bernese quarrel with the Jews, 
and the murdering of the child belong, according to 
the original documents, to the year 1294, i.e. to the 
time of King Adolphus of Nassau. A boy of the name 
of Rudolph was found dead in the year mentioned, 
and public opinion accused the Jews of having killed 
him out of hatred for Christians. The man Joli, 
described by Justinger as the chief criminal, appears 
alive in the original documents of June and Decem- 
ber, 1294, so he was not broken on the wheel; there is 
also nothing recorded about the execution of one or 
several other Jews. The words " ut dicitur " (as 
people say) in the quittance of the magistrate of 

188 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

December, 1294, prove " that no judicial finding of 
guilty took place, and accordingly also doubtless no 
breaking on the wheel" (293 sq.). Moreover, the 
contemporary annals of Kolmar for the year 1294 
merely announce : "As people say, the Jews of Berne 
killed a boy," and King Albert, in the year 1300, 
speaks only about "excesses which, as people say, 
have been perpetrated by the Jews." In 1294 the 
Jews were maltreated by the Bernese before 30th 
June. The Jews turned to their liege-lord. King 
Adolphus. The judgment of his ambassadors said 
nothing about the guilt of the Jews, did not especially 
mention the death of the boy, but levied a heavy 
money-bail on the Jews : they were obliged to remit 
all debts of all the inhabitants of Berne, and pay 
besides to the community 1,000 silver marks, to the 
magistrate 500 silver marks (according to the present 
value of money about £4,000 and £2,000). This can 
only be explained if it was not a question of blood- 
guiltiness, but bitterness prevailed owing to the fact 
that very many persons owed the Jews money (297). — 
Not before the 18th century comes the statement of 
/. R. V. Waldkirch, " Einleitung zu der eidgenossischen 
Bundes-und Staatshistorie " (Bale, 1721), I., 135, that 
the Jews "crucified" the child, and /. Lauffer, 
" Beschreibung helve tischer Geschichte " (Zurich, 
1736), TIL, 108, is the first to know that the Jews 
" distilled all his blood out of him, in order to practice 
their damnable superstition!" 

1303. Weissensee, in Thuringia. The contem- 
porary Presbyter, Siegfried von Klein-Balnhausen, 
"Monum. Germ. hist. Script.," xxv., 717 relates that 
the Jews before the Passover had drawn all the blood 
out of a schoolboy named Konrad, after opening all his 
veins, and put him to a cruel death. No further proof 
of the guilt of the Jews apart from the miracles (the 
Jews are supposed not to have been able to bury the 

Evidence of History 189 

corpse, etc.) is brought forward. There was no 
judicial investigation; but on the 14th March the 
Jews were nevertheless slaughtered in heaps (" tur- 
matim.") The Nuremberg Register has preserved 
the 120 names, v. Salfeld 59. 215-17. The Jews in 
other parts of Thuringia, with the exception of the 
town of Erfurt, were visited by the persecution of that 
period. Cf. Oesterr. Wochenschr. 1899, No. 49, p. 929 

1305. Prague (Osservatore Cattolico wrongly 
"1325.") Crucifixion of a Christian at Easter time. 
Oldest authority: Johannes Dubravius, who wrote 
two and a half centuries later, in his history of 
Bohemia. In this case, too, the rabble, without wait- 
ing for judicial proceedings on the King's part (" non 
expectato judicio regis ") put the Jews to death in a 
horrible fashion (" exquisitissimis suppliciis.") These 
hasty proceedings become comprehensible, when it is 
considered that Wenceslaus II. (1283-1305) had con- 
firmed Ottokar II. 's Jewish Ordinance a few years 
before, and therefore no condemnation of the Jews 
without proofs was to be expected from him. If the 
accusation was well-founded, it was a question of one 
of the crucifixions mentioned supr. p. 125 out of hatred 
against Christ ("odio Christ!.") 

1317. The Jews of Chinon (in Touraine) complained 
to the French Parliament that four of them had been 
arrested and tortured because of a suspicion they were 
guilty of a child's death. Two of them, under force of 
torture (" vi tormentorum,") had confessed, and been 
hung; two had resisted, and were still in prison. The 
Parliament named plenipotentiary commissaries of 
investigation {Boutaric, "Actes du Parlement," II., 
No. 4827, 5 May, 1317). The investigation quickly 
took place, and led to the arrest of a number of 
Christian men and women, who had come to be sus- 
pected of being the real murderers (ibid. No. 4936, 12 

190 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

July, 1317). " In order to determine the commissaries 
to these arrests they had to have very strong 
evidence ; above all the innocence of the Jews had to 
appear quite clear to them," Molinier, "Cabinet 
Historique," new series II. (Paris, 1884), 127. 

1329. Savoy. Children had disappeared in 
Geneva, Rumilly, Annecy, and elsewhere. A 
Christian, Jaquet, of Aiguebelle, was under suspi- 
cion ; when arrested he admitted the kidnapping, but 
declared that he had sold them to some Jews through 
the medium of a Jew called Acelin, of Tresselve. 
Acelin confessed voluntarily ("sponte,") i.e. accord- 
ing to the language of that period, "after the first 
degree of torture," he had resold five children to his 
co-believers, Jocetus (Jose) and Aquinetus (Isaac). 
These, he said, had killed the children, and com- 
pounded out of their heads and entrails a salve or 
food, " aharace,"* so as to give some of it to all the 
Jews ; " and the Jews eat of this food at every Pass- 
over instead of a sacrifice ("loco sacrificii,") and 
prepare it at least in every sixth year," because they 
believe they are saved thereby ("credunt se esse 
salvatos.") The accusation was soon levelled also 
against the Jews of other parts, in fact, throughout 
the whole of Savoy. Count Edward of Savoy there- 
upon set on foot a thorough investigation of the 
matter. This led to the result that the accusations 
were heaped upon the Jews by deliberate misrepre- 
sentations and deceptions on the part of some 
adversaries of theirs, so that they might be robbed 
of their property, contrary to God and justice," v. 
H. Hildesheimer in Jild. Presse, 1892, No. 18, p. 211, and 
Oesterreich. Wochenschrift, 1899, No. 51, p. 963, and 
Edward's whole original documents of 20 July, 1329, 
in Sterrt., " Beitrage," I., 7-14. 

• i.e., "haroseth," the sauce, in which the bitter herbs (endive, etc.) 
were dipped on the first Passover Evening. 

Evidence of History 191 

1332. Ueherlingen (in the present Grand-Duchy of 
Baden). A boy was found dead in a well. John of 
Winterthur relates in his Chronicles,* that the parents 
had "observed by definite surmises and clear proofs, 
especially by incisions in the bowels and veins, that 
he had been killed by the Jews." In addition to this 
proof occurred " the renewed flowing of wounds when 
he was carried in front of the Jews' houses." The 
Jews (as is said, more than 300), were enticed together 
into a house, and this was set fire to from below, with- 
out consulting the Emperor Ludwig [1314-47] and 
without paying attention to the judgment of his 
Imperial Governor." Cf., besides, Oesterr. Wochenschr. 
1899, No. 51, p. 964sq. 

1345. Munich. It can only be gathered from 
Rader's " Bavaria sancta " that the lacerated body of 
the boy Heinrich was found, and the guilt for the 
deed was laid on the Jews. Nothing is said about 
using the blood, and as little about a judicial investi- 
gation. Even John von AVinterthur (Wyss, 232; 
Freuler, 334), relates that Ludwig, the Bavarian, for- 
bade worship of the boy. 

1462. Rinn. The boy Andreas Oxner, of Rinn, 
near Innsbruck, is said to have been sold by his god- 
father to Jewish merchants, to have been cruelly 
killed by them on the "Jew-stone" (" Judenstein,") 
in the neighbouring birch-wood ; they had carefully, 
it is alleged, collected the blood in vessels. Adrian 
Kemhter, " Acta pro veritate martyrii corporis et cultus 
publici B. Andreae Rinnensis," Innsbruck, 1745; 
/. Deckert, " Vier Tiroler Kinder, Opfer des chassidi- 
schen Fanatismus," Vienna, 1893, 87-119; also a 

• "Johannis Vitodurani Chronicon," published by G. v. Wyss, 
Zurich 1856, 106sq. — "Die Chronik Johann's von Winterthur," done 
into German by B. Freuler, Winterthur 1866, 145-7. — In regard to 
the date (J. v. W. says "1331"), cf. M. Stern, "Die israelitische 
Bevolkerung der deutschen Stadte; I., Ueherlingen am Bodensee," 
Frankf. a. M. 1890, 3 eq. 

192 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

bibliography in Daumer II., 263. The tradition was 
not committed to writing before the beginning of the 
17th century, and then especially b}^ the physician 
Hippolyt Guarinoni, in Hall, who died in 1654. He 
also found beneath the wall decoration, dating from 
1575, near the pulpit in the Rinn Church, pieces of an 
older inscription, in which the Jews are indeed 
accused of the murder, but there is nothing said about 
the extracton of blood. That the inscription cannot 
be regarded as historic in the strict sense of the word, 
is clear from the two following statements contained 
in it : that the money given to the godfather changed 
into leaves, and a lily grew on the child's grave. 
There was no judicial examination into the facts of 
the case ; nothing is even said of an inspection of the 
corpse by the authorities. The Jews are said to 
bought the child on their return to their homes, on the 
pretext that one of them wanted to adopt him. But 
how, then, is it intelligible that they did not delay the 
sacrifice, which took up time on account of the col- 
lecting of the blood, till they had crossed the boundary 
which was near at hand? The careful reader may 
perceive even in Deckert's excessively biassed account 
that a " ritual murder " is nothing less than proved. 

lJj.68, Regenshurg, v. 1476. 

1474, Regensburg. C. Th. Gemeiner, " Regensbur- 
gische Chronik," III. (Regensburg, 1821), 532 
sq., narrates as follows, according to the official 
documents: "A master of the Jews [Judenmeister] 
living here, too, Israel, of Prunn [Briinn], was 
acquitted of such inhuman dealing. For a time there 
were only rumours about it in the community, till it 
was said aloud that Hans Veyol, a baptized Jew, had 
really asserted about the Judenmeister and himself 
given information that he had sold him a boy seven 
years old. Then nobody doubted any more that the 
lawless deed had truly been done." As King 

Evidence of History 193 

Wladislaus pronounced from Prague and the 
Emperor from Nuremberg a very decided prohibition 
of Israel's execution, the council resolved to try again 
the baptised Jew, about whom it was probable that 
he had only made such assertions through hatred of 
Israel, and who was destined to the death penalty on 
account of other crimes. This man, " in the certain 
expectation of death, confirmed his earlier statements 
[about his own crimes], and he only recalled the accu- 
sation brought against the master of the Jews, and 
declared him innocent. His recantation was the more 
readily believed, since, in spite of all searching, 
nobody had been able to discover the parents from 
whom the child Avas said to have been stolen." 

1475 Murder of Simon of Trent, a child of two 
and a half years, on Good Friday night. Biblio- 
graphy: "Acta Sanctorum, March IX," 24 March; 
Bonelli, " Dissertazione apologetica sul martirio del 
Beato Simone da Trento," Trent, 1747; Civilta 
Cattolica, 1881, sq. : Onody, 83-99; Rohling, " Meine 
Antworten," 58-80, 96-101; Desportes, 132-63; /. 
Deckert, " Ein Ritualmord. Aktenmassig nachgewie- 
sen, "5 Dresden, 1893(39); J. Deckert, " Vier Tiroler 
Kinder, Opfer des chassidischen Fanatismus. Ur- 
kundlich dargestellt," Vienna, 1893, 1-72.— I here use 
the results of the archival researches of Dr. Moritz 
Stern. Trent, 1475, and Damascus, 1840, are the two 
chief bulwarks of the blood-accusations, when it is a 
question of proof by adducing " historical facts." But 
unjustifiably, because both in Trent and in Damascus 
the confessions desired by the examiners, but untrue, 
were extorted by torture. All Jews were for several 
days subjected to inhuman torments, and only con- 
fessed after repeated torturing, increased in agony 
each time. Bishop Hinderbach, of Trent, admitted 
this himself in his letters to the Pope. 

The assertion that a ritual murder in the proper 

194 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

sense of the phrase, i.e. a murder for procuring 
Christian blood to be ritually used, took place, is 
proved impossible merely by the date of Simon's 
death. The Jewish Passover in 1475 fell on Maundy 
Thursday, 23rd March, so it began on the evening of 
22nd March. The partaking of the "mazza'' (the 
unleavened Easter bread) and the four cups of wine is 
prescribed by the religious law precisely for that 
initiating evening, the so-called "Seder'' evening. 
But the boy first disappeared on Maundy Thursday, 
and so the charge states, was murdered on Good 
Friday night. How on earth could the Jews on the 
22nd March bake into the Easter bread and put in the 
wine the blood of the boy who was staying in his 
parents' house, still hale and unharmed? And, after 
all, according to the accusation confirmed by "con- 
fession," they were obliged to have ''fresh Christian 
blood " precisely in that year as in a year of Jubilee! 
Incidentally : The year 1475 was celebrated with quite 
extraordinary pomp by Pope Sixtus IV. as " annus 
jubilei," but since the destruction of Jerusalem in 
587 B.C. the Jews have no longer commemorated the 
Year of Jubilee (Leviticus xxv.) Thus have the 
accusers made constructive charges arising out of 
their own peculiar point of view, and then had them 
confirmed by the Jews by means of torture ! 

About the kind of torture practised, the docu- 
ments, which Hinderbach sent to Rome for his 
justification, and therefore prepared for publication, 
afford even then more than sufficient revelation 
(Vienna, Codex, 5360) : 

On 30th March, Samuel, the most respected of the 
incarcerated T7'ent Jews, was ""tried" for the first 
time ; at the conclusion he was led hack to prison " in 
order to recover" ("" animum repetendi," i.e. in the 
judicial language of that age, he had fainted). The 
following day he is stripped naked, bound hand and 

Evidence of History 195 

foot, and drawn wp high by a rope, so that his limbs, 
drawn down by the weight of the body, were wrenched 
out of their sockets. As he protests his own and the 
other Jews' innocence, he gets '' una cavaleta," a 
''jump,'' i.e. he was quickly let drop, in order that 
he might be pulled up again equally quickly; they 
then "move," i.e. strike the tense- stretched ^ope on 
which he was hanging, and made him "jump" 
several times more. A swoon prevents the continua- 

Torture is resumed on 3rd April, and first of all, 
with the repetition of all the grades already applied. 
Ashe asseverates he can pledge his word for the 
innocence both of himself and of all Jews, the rope ^s 
''vigorously moved,"* and he is made to "jump" 
twice from twice the height of his arms. Run up 
again, the poor wretch cries: "Where has your 
Worship learnt that Christian blood has importance 
and use for usf ' The reply is, he had learnt it from 
other Jews like Samuelf The " jumping " procedure 
is then twice repeated, each time twice or thrice the 
height of his arms, and as even this martyrdom does 
not force any confession he is let float up aloft for 
two-thirds of an hour, till a swoon again overpowers 

his senses. 

The fourth day of torture (7th April) begins with 
a repetition of the previous grades. As Samuel not 
only disputed any guilt, but called out: " Were I to 

* " Corda f uit pluries squassata. ' ' Innsbruck " Akten " ; " also ruereb 
man das sail ettwas vill." (Lit. "then one moves the rope rather 
much."— Trlr.). 

t " Quod didicerat illud a Judaeis similibus sicut ipse Samuel, ' i.e., 
from the statements procured by torture in previous trials. Ihis 
answer of the city prefect, who was conducting the examination, 
confirms what is established by other documents (Cf. Archiv- tur 
katholisches Kirchenrecht," vol. 50, p. 46), that Bishop Hinderbach 
furnished the protocols connected with other trials. No wonder 
that the confessions of the Trent Jews partly tallied with those of 
their companions in suffering in other trials. 

196 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

confess I had done any evil, I should he lying," they 
tied to his leg as he floated in the ai?' a piece of wood 
(which ivrenched the limbs yet further apart and sub- 
stantially increased the pains); next they took an 
iron pan filled ivith burning material, on which sul- 
phur was thrown, and held it under his nose. In 
spite of the stinking sulphur gas, fatal to all breath- 
ing and feeling, and the pressure of interrogations 
("cum pluries inter r og ar etur, " ) he abides by his 
denial of any guilt. Accordingly they "move'' the 
rope several times, and thereupon tie the piece of 
wood between the shin bones (whereby the weight 
became yet heavier, and the pain greater), and let the 
poor wretch hang thus for a quai'ter of an hour. 
When the " jumping ' ' process was now again re- 
peated, Samuel's power of resistance was broken; 
he "confesses" that he and Tobias "put a pocket- 
handkerchief round the boy's neck and drew it tight, 
so that the boy was strangled." Apart from this 
"statement," which directly contradicts the accusa- 
tion of extracting blood, nothing could be got out of 
him. When the question is put to him, how and by 
whom the wounds were inflicted on the boy, he declares 
he knows nothing. 

There is now a pause of nearly two months in 
Samuel's "examination." During this interval 
occur the torturing s and " confessions ' ' of the rest of 
the Jews, which now form the basis for his further 
interrogation. About the 6th June the protocols 
concerning Samuel only report about the first degrees 
of the torture (stripping, binding, hoisting up) ; dut 
as they add that he was taken back into the prison 
" animum repetendi," the tortures must have been 
substantially greater. He probably recanted already 
on 6th June his " confession " of 8th April, as he 
did on 7th June. The protocols report verbatim as 
follows regarding the tortures on this day : — 

Evidence of History 197 

" In the torture chamber. When invited to tell the 
truth, since he did not need to hide what all his 


SPOKEN THE tRUTH. As the aforcsaid town-prefect 
had been told that the drinking of holy water brings 
to confession rogues who do not wish to confess, he 
gave Sainuel a spoonful of such luater. Then being 
invited to tell the truth, he said he had told it. Where- 
upon tivo BOILING HOT EGGS iverc taken and jmt under 
his armpits. Once more invited to tell the truth, he 
answered he was willing to tell it ; he wished that only 
the Hon. City Captain, and the Hon. City Prefect 
should be present at his confession. The captain 
and prefect then ordered all those present to leave the 
torture-chamber, and Samuel now declared, as the 
Captain afterwards informed me, the Notary, that 
he was willing to speak the truth, on condition that 
the captain and the prefect promised him to have 
him burnt, and not to put him to any other 


The re^wrt speaks a deeply-moving language: although 
Samuel learns that his companions in suffering have 
already confessed, he disjmtes any guilt till the 
abominable tortures force him to acknowledge the 
hopelessness of further resistance, the certainty of 
fresh, augmented martyrdom, and place him at the 
disposal of his tormentors. In dull resignation he 
has but one wish, to be liberated by the quickest death 
possible from his agonies, which had now lasted 
almost four months and a half : after all it had been 
promised him that he would only (I ) be burnt! 

A t first he only makes the " confession '' ' to the two officials 
named; he then, we assume, repeats it to a third party 
(Odoriciis de Brezio), whilst he only says to the other 
councillors, who have been recalled to the torture^ 
chamber,'' he WANTED to tell the truth." Since the 

198 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

Captain and the prefect, however, saw that he " was 
well disposed to tell the truth,''* they did not make 
him do so immediately on the spot, as he is said to 
have done a short time before ; but he is brought into 
the City Captain's house, and there he is said to have 
delivered his "confession," ''sitting on a kind of 
cathedra," f before a number of witnesses. In spite 
of his self -accusations his torturers were not yet satis- 
fied; because he is again " tried " on 11th June, again 
in the City Captain's house. He is invited " to tell 
the truth better, "J whilst he is threatened ivith a 
hoisting on the rope in case he does not tell the truth. 
Samuel answers he wants to tell the truth ; after con- 
fessing to the murder of the boy, he would also 
confess the rest. — Further denials would have been 
futile in the position of affairs, would only have 
resulted in a reneival and enhancing of the tortures, 
and accordingly he " confesses " everything they want 
to hear from him. On 21st June the poor wretch ivas 
Thus do the documents of the pi'oceedings, the documents 
PREPARED by Bishop Hinderbach for submission to 
Rome, describe the manner in which the " declara- 
tion " of Samuel, the chief accuser, ivas compassed! 
A nd ALL the other victims in this tragedy were treated 
likewise, even those who let themselves be baptized. 
Typical of it is what Israel, the son of the Mohar from 
Brandenburg , has certified. The latter was taken 
prisoner on 27th March, was tortured from 12th to 
21st April, desired baptism on 21st April, is set free 
in consequence and is now called Wolfkan (Wolf- 
gang). But on 26th October he is again imprisoned^ 
repeatedly tortured from then till 11th January, 
1^76, and on 19th January broken on the wheel. This 

* " Bene dispositus ad dicendum veritatem." 
f "Dura sederet super quadam cathedra." 
X "Quod melius dicat veritatem." 

Evidence of History 199 

subsequent punishment accrued to him because he bore 
witness at Roveredo before the Papal Legate, the 
Bishop of Ventimiglia, about the torturing of the 
accused Trent Jews. A t his " examination " at Trent, 
on 23rd l<lovember, 1475, Wolfgang says he answered 
the aforesaid bishop's inquiry: ''That fire with 
sulphur was held under his (Wolfgang's) nose, by 
which his face was burnt . . . and that the other 
Jews were tortured in many ways, that fire with 
sulphur was held under their noses, so that their 
faces and breasts were burned, and that boiling-hot 
eggs were placed under their armpits." 
The Jews had already in this first trial pointed to 
the Swiss Zanesus as the murderer. This man had 
lost a lawsuit against his neighbour Samuel, and was 
therefore a mortal enemy of the Jews. In the second 
trial, conducted at Sixtus IV.'s command, by G. B. 
dei Giudici, Bishop of Ventimiglia, at Trent and 
Roveredo, in 1476, Anzelinus, too, a citizen of Trent, 
accused Zanesus of the murder. It was besides 
established, firstly, that the "confessions " of the 
Jews were only forced from them by cruel torturings, 
secondly, that the clerks of the court of Bishop Hin- 
derbach in Trent had committed gross forgeries. At 
the third trial, which took place in Rome in 1477-8, 
the guilt of the Jews was not the point of issue, but 
only the question whether the first trial had been con- 
ducted with formal regularity. To save the face of 
Bishop Hinderbach the Pope, on a bed of sickness, 
allowed himself on 20th June, 1478, to be implored 
into giving the decision that " processum ipsum recte 
factum," i.e. the trial as such. In the same document, 
however, he ordered the bishop to take heed, that no 
Christian should venture, on account of the Trent 
episode, or for any other reason, to kill an}^ Jew with- 
out permission of the authorities, or to mutilate or to 
wound or unjustifiably to extort money from them, 

200 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

or to hinder them from continuing to observe their 
rites which were allowed by law (" ritus suos a jure 
permissos continuare.") The ritual of the Jews is 
here positively placed under Papal protection, which 
is again a proof that the Pope considered the Jews 
innocent who were done to death on account of the 
boy Simon. The careful reader can recognise that 
this was the state of the case, even in Deckert's 
biassed account. 

The fact that Pope Sixtus V., more than a century 
later, in 1588, allowed the Mass in honour of Saint 
Simon, proves nothing as to the guilt of the Jews; 
from the standpoint of the Roman Catholic Church 
this permission seems justified by the miracles which 
were admitted by the Church. Similar proceedings 
took place in respect of the boy Lorenzino of Marostica 
(ob. 1485), V. "Bullen," 113 (note by M. Stern). 

1476. Regensburg. Gemeiner III,, 567 sq. Pro- 
ceedings arising from the Trent "confessions," 
because of a murder which the Regensburg Jews are 
supposed to have committed eight years previously, 
i.e. 1468. New light is thrown upon it, and conse- 
quently upon the Trent occurrences, by A. Osiander, 
22 sq. (for title v. Ch. 19 E) : " So too, many years ago 
at Regenspurg, in the case of seventeen Jews, and 
among them the most respected and wealthy, it had 
to be acknowledged that they had never done [the 
deed], and when the commissaries of His Imperial 
Majesty had heard the evidence, they came to the 
conclusion that one of the Jews, namely Jossel Jud, 
on the day, on which he was said to have committed 
the murder at Regenspurg, had indisputably been at 
Landsshut, engaged in great and important business 
with, and in the presence of, the same commissaries, 
and so it was discovered, that everything the seven- 
teen Jews had confessed was untrue, and had simply 
been extorted by threats and violence." Jossel was 

Evidence of History 201 

the chief of the accused, and had described himself as 
a murderer, under torture. 

1490. The child at Guardia, near Toledo. Isidor 
Loeb, " Le saint enfant de la Guardia " (in " Revue des 
Etudes Juives," xv., Paris, 1887, 203-32) points out, 
that there was no search either for the remains of the 
iDody nor for the clothing of the child, nor for the 
instruments of the crime, also that neither the place 
nor the time of the crime have been established ; there 
was not even an inquiry whether a child had really 
disappeared. In the same sense Henry Charles Lea, 
"El santo nino de la Guardia" (in The English 
Historical Review, IV. [London, 1889] 239-50). Loeb 
and Lea follow the work of the Jesuit Father Fidel 
Fita, which is based on careful study, " El Proceso y 
Quema de Juce-Franco (in "Boletin de la Real 
Academia de la Historia," xi., July-September, 1887, 

1494. Tyrnau. Anton Bon fin, ''^QT\nn'H.\mg^r\- 
carum decades," Decad V., Book 4, Edition of C. A. 
Bel, Leipsic, 1771, 728: 

" In the same months several Jews of Tyrnau suffered the 
'penalty they deserved. Twelve men and two women 
strangled a Christian youth of high rank, whom they 
had secretly caught and brought into the nearest 
house, and dreio his hlood from him whilst he was 
dying, by opening his veins. This blood they partly 
drank at once, pai'tly kept for others; the body, ivhich 
was cut to pieces, they buried. As the youth did not 
make his appearance, and it luas sufficiently estab- 
lished that he was last seen on the previous day in the 
Jews street, a judicial examination is set on foot 
against the Jews. The servants of justice sent into 
the house find fresh traces of blood, and ari'est the 
master with his whole family. The women, dragged 
to judicial examination, confess, under compulsion 
of the fear of torture (" metu tormentorum adactae " ), 

202 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

the whole story of the extremely unworthy deed. 
Through their evidence the rest are convicted , and 
then they are all burnt, at the command of the Count 
Palatine, who was the chief authority of the town, 
after a big ivood-file had been raised for the furyose 
in the market- f lace ; others, who seemed less guilty, 
were mulcted in a large sum of money. When the 
reasons for the perpetration of such a horror were 
ascertained from the old men by the agony of tortures 
f"" per tormentorum cruciatum " ), it was found there 
were four reasons ivhy the Jews at Tyrnau at that 
time and elsewhere had often made themselves guilty 
in a criminal way. Firstly : They were convinced 
by the judgment of their ancestors that the blood of a 
Christian was a good remedy for the alleviation of 
the wound of circumcision. Secondly : They were of 
opinion that this blood, put into food, is very effica- 
cious for the awakening of mutual love. Thirdly: 
They had discovered, as men and women among them 
suffered equally from menstruation, that the blood 
of a Christian is a specific medicine for it, when 
drunk. Fourthly: That they had an ancient but 
secret ordinance by which they are under obligation 
to shed. Christian blood in honour of God in daily 
sacrifices in some spot or other; they said it had 
happened in this way that the lot for the present year 
had fallen on the Tyrnau Jews'" 
Bonfin is, so far as I know, the only Christian 
authority.* No examination of witnesses. The men 
in their prime and the youths confess nothing ; the 
fear of torture opens only the women's mouths, the 
torture itself opens the old men's mouths. And the 

• A Hebrew elegy on an empty sheet of a Hebrew MS. in Cracow be- 
wails the death of the innocent slain, cf . S. Eohn, " A Zsidok 
Tortenete Magyarorszagon " [History of the Jews in Hungary] I., 
Budapesth, 1884, 241-4. Had a ritual extraction of blood taken 
place, the poet, who was sure no Christian would read his verses, 
would have boasted of the fact. 

Evidence of History 203 

confessions thus extorted are so silly, contain 
partially such impossible stuff * that one recognises 
that the accused spoke what was expected to be heard 
from them ; they thought an end of terror was better 
than a terror without end. In a very large number of 
cases of "blood-accusation," the sequence of events, 
alas ! is simply as follows : A Christian child is mur- 
dered or has vanished ; no witness is in a position to 
state anything; suspicion is directed against the 
hated Jews ; the suspicion suffices to raise the accusa- 
tion; the accused are tortured, and at length confess, 
preferring any death, however, painful, to the agonies 
which are worse than death. Such judicial transac- 
tions yield no proofs of the jmsitive occurrence of ritual 

1504. Frankfort a. M. A shoemaker, Henrich 
Bry (also called Henrich Bry's son) beat his step-child 
with leather thongs, so that it died. Immediately at 
the first hearing he made a candid confession; also 
at the second he confessed, likewise without torture, 
that he was the murderer, but added that he had 
stabbed the child, gathered the blood in a vessel, and 
taken it to the Jew Gompchen (who had lent him 
money against security). The latter even under tor- 
ture asserted he knew naught of the deed, and 
begged, but in vain, to be conducted to the evil-doer, 
that he might confront him eye to eye. The latter' s 
guilt was then made evident by the statement of the 

♦ And yet the Bollandist, Gottfried Henschen (" Acta Sanctorum," 
April II., 501, Paris 1866) give these four confessions according to 
Bonfin, as the grounds why the infamous Jews commit murders of 
children ! What impossible and at the same time horrible state- 
ments have been wrung by torture, can be seen especially in the 
ghastly instances afforded by trials of witches (intercourse of female 
werewolves and witches with the devil, etc.); Cf. e.g., De I'Ancre, 
"Tableau de I'inconstance des Mauvais Anges," Paris 1613, 
and Bnqurf, "Tableau des Sorciers," Lyons 1608 (some extracts in 
W. Hertz, "Der Werwolf," Stuttgart 18'62, 100 sq.) ; W. Q. Soldan, 
"Geschichte der Hexenprozesse," Stuttgart 1843: Jakoh Sprenger 
and Heiiirich Institoru, "Malleus maleficarum," passim. 

204 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

servant; Gompchen acquitted. A few days before 
his sentence was pronounced, the criminal admitted 
having falsely accused the Jew, and repeated this 
again a short time before his execution. L. Neustadt, 
" Eine Blutbeschuldigung in Frankfurt a. M. im J. 
1504. Auf Grand der Prozess-Akten des Frankfur- 
ter Stadt-Archivs," Magdeburg, 1892 (26). 

1529. Posing in Hungary, ritual murder of a 
kidnapped boy. Osservatore Cattolico and Desp., 
following Eisenmenger, wrongly: "1509." Onody, 
103-7, relates the case in detail according to a very old 
printed sheet of eight pages: "Ain erschrockenlich 
geschicht vnd Mordt, so von den Juden : zu Posing, 
ain Marckt, in Hungern gelegen: an ainem Neiin- 
jarigen Knablin beganngen, wie sy das jamerlich 
gemarttert, geslagen, gestochen, geschnitten, vnd 
ermordt haben: Darumb dann bis in die Dreyssig 
juden, mann und weybs personen vmb jr misshannd- 
iung, auf Freytag nach Pfingsten, den xxi. tag May, 
des M.D.vndxxix. Jars, verbrenntwordenseind,"'and 
the StaatsMlrger-Zeitung, 1st July, 1892, No. 302, did 
the same.—" After enduring the agonies of torture [I 
quote from Onody verbatim], the tortured ones at last 
confessed," one "that they sucked such blood out of 
the little child with quills and small reeds," another 
that they " afterwards took the blood into the syna- 
gogue, whereupon they had great rejoicing," a third 
" that the Jews must have Christian blood, wherewith 
Jews of the highest rank besmear themselves for their 
wedding feasts, and the Jews term such in Hebrew 
' komandy (?) pentsche.' "—The fairly careful reader, 
on merely reading the above-mentioned account, 
must feel extremely doubtful as to the cred- 
ibility of the statements made. In this case, however, 
we do not require any internal evidence for the value- 
lessness of confessions extracted by torture: the child 
alleged to have been slaughtered by the Jews was stolen by 

Evidence of History 205 

the prosecutor himself, and later on was discovered alive. 
G. Wolf, " Historische Skizzen aus Osterreich-Ungarn," 
Vienna, 1883, 296-8, jixes the actual circumstance 
according to the documents f" Examen vnd Vrtel vber 
die Juden zu Basing in Ungarn") in the Imperial 
Finance Ministry at Vienna as follows : " Count 
Wolf of Bosing owed money to the Jew Esslein A usch 
of that place, and besides to several Jews at Marchegg 
in Loiver Austria. He wanted to free himself of 
those debts by getting his creditors out of the way. A 
pretext for doing the Jews an injury was soon found. 
Count Wolf induced an old, half-imbecile 
woman to leave B. with a Christian child not belong- 
ing to her. Whereupon . . . Count Wolf raised 
the charge against the J eivs. . . . Esslein A usch 
was taken in custody and tortured. . . . He 
declared everything they wanted him to say, among 
other things also, that the Jews in Marchegg were his 
accomplices. Thereupon all the Jews, who had not 
saved their lives by absconding , were burnt to death. 
Count Wolf then wanted to continue his work in 
Marchegg. The Jews then applied . . . to the 
Emperor Ferdinand, with the request that the matter 
should be looked into . . . Whilst the proceed- 
ings were going on, some Viennese Jews, who were 
travelling on business, discovered the woman and the 
boy who was alleged to have been murdered, whereupon 
the proceedings came to an end, as a matter of course. 
The fate that befel Count Wolf, even supposing 
anything happened to him, is not ascertainable from 
the documents here [in Vienna'] deposited." — Cf. also 
the work of Andreas Osiander mentioned in Ch. 
19 E. 

1764. Orcuta, in Hungary. The son of Joh. 
Balla, a boy of ten, is discovered dead in the brush- 
wood on 25th June, " with the sisfns of ritual murder " 
(Osservatore Cattolico.) Dr. S. Kohn, of Budapesth, who 

206 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

some time ago went through the legal documents in 
the provincial archives, writes in a letter that was 
before me: "I remember well, that the judges in this 
trial were at last condemned, and that lengthy legal 
proceedings were instituted because of the child, who 
was forcibly converted in prison/' Cf. also P. Nathan, 
"Tista-Eszlar," 29-31. 

1791. Tasnad, in Translyvania. February. 
Murder of a boy of thirteen, Andreas Takal. Des- 
portes and his copiers affirm that the guilty and 
condemned Jews were pardoned by Joseph II. [ob., 
20th February, 1790!] iVt the Tisza-Eszlar trial the 
anti-semites produced documents to prove that in 1791 
certain Jews were condemned to death, because they 
had murdered a Christian boy and extracted his 
blood. It resulted, however, from the findings of the 
courts of higher instance, that the Jews were finally 
acquitted, and the functionaries of the court of first 
instance were called to account for practising tortures* 
etc., V. P. Nathan, "Tisza-Eszlar," 266. 

1834. During the night of 13/14 July, a boy of six 
was murdered near Neuenhoven, in the Government 
district of Diisseldorf . " Circumstances came to light 
in connection therewith, which seduced a portion of 
the credulous mob with the delusion that the boy's 
blood had been drawn off in an outrageous manner, 
whence it was then further concluded that Jews and 
Jewish fanaticism had necessarily had something to 
do with it." In consequence of this, during the night 
of 20/21 July an attack was made by " a numerous 
crowd on the dwellings of two Jews living at Neuen- 
hoven, and they were almost entirely laid waste 
together with the furniture and goods in them, whilst 
at the same time the Synagogue at Bedburdyk was 
stormed and likewise completely destroyed" (Elber- 
f elder Zeitung, 26 July, No. 205). A few days after, on 
26 July, a decree of the Kgl. Ober-Procurator at 

Evidence of History 2U7 

Diisseldorf, proclaimed (AmtsUatt der Kgl. Regierung 
zu Diisseldorf, No. 48) : " The murder of a child of 
Christian parents in the Grevenbroich district has 
awakened a superstition sprung from the barbarism 
of centuries long past, and occasioned wild deeds of 
violence against Jews living in the neighbour- 
hood and the places of their religious gatherings. — 
The judicial establishment of the facts of the murder 
has completely banished any thought of the reality of 
the silly tale, and the ringleaders of the attacks 
directed against the Jews are in the hands of justice." 
Cf. the brochures of Binteri7n and Wiedenfeld (Ch. 19 

1840. Murder of the Capuchin Father Thomas 
and his servant in Damascus, February. Chief work : 
Achille Laurent, "Relation historique des affaires de 
Syrie, depuis 1840 jusqu'en 1842, et la procedure com- 
plete dirigee en 1840 contre les Juifs de Damas," 
Paris, 1846, 2 vols. (After this: Pawlikowski, 284 
sq. ; Onody, 116 sq.; Rohling, " Meine Antworten," 84 
sq. ; Desportes, 188 sq., etc.) Achille Laurent was 
never a Professor, and is not to be confounded with 
Professor Francois Laurent, of Ghent, the Jurist and 
Historian. He asserts, II., 399: "As all documents 
referring to the proceedings taken against the Jews of 
Damascus are deposited with the Ministry for Foreign 
Affairs, the [possible] inaccuracy of the protocols, etc., 
in this part can be easily established." This asser- 
tion is either untrue (because the 'aforesaid Ministry, 
when L. wrote, allowed nobody to look into its 
archives; it is only since 1874 that permission has 
gradually been granted to use documents extending 
to 1830), or Laurent used the documents illegally. In 
either case his credibility may be regarded as open to 
suspicion. But even if the words are correctly repro- 
duced, the correctness of the contents does not there- 
fore follow, because the prejudice of the then French 

208 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

Consul, Ratti-Menton, is universally admitted by 
those who have looked closely into the matter. — The 
confessions are forced from the accused by tortures 
equally barbaric and refined ; two of the accused died 
in prison of their maltreatment. I particularly allude 
to the reports of the missionary Pieritz, a convert, 
who was sent to Damascus by the great London Jew- 
ish Mission Society, and who, as he says himself, was 
"in no respect a friend or defender of Rabbinism." 
" Persecution of the Jews at Damascus. Statement of 
Mr. G. W. Pieritz," London, 1840 (21), and his work 
addressed to the Jews of Alexandria on 13th May, 
1840, in which it is said (v. Lowenstimm, " Damascia^" 
203 sq., in which book there is still further material 
for the confutation of Laurent) : 

** / will not here describe what my feelings were when at 
Damascus I found the whole charge against the Jews 
there a vile fabrication, that all means and right of 
legal defence was denied them, whilst the most cruel 
tortures were employed to extort from them false con- 
fessions of guilt, which some were cowards enough to 
make. . . . The tortures employed were — 1st, 
flogging. 2nd, soaking persons in large tanks of cold 
water in their clothes. 3rd, the head machine by 
which the eyes are pressed out of their sockets. 4th, 
tying up the tender parts, and ordering soldiers to 
twist and horribly dispose them into such contortions 
that the poor sufferers grew almost mad from pain. 
5th, standing upright for three days without being 
allowed any other posture, not even to lean against the 
walls, and when they would fall down, were aroused 
up by the sentinels with their bayonets. 6th, being 
dragged about in a large court by the ears until the 
blood gushed out. 7th, having thorns driven in 
between the nails and the flesh of fingers and toes. 
8th, having set fire to their beards till their faces are 

Evidence of History 209 

singed. 9th, having candles held under their noses 
so that the flame arises wp into their nostrils." 
It may incidentally be remarked that Desportes's 
assertion, which he made twice, and which was re- 
peated by others, to the effect that the documents 
disappeared during the time of the Cremieux Minis- 
try, is untrue. An official document of the Ministry 
of Foreign Affairs of 5th May, 1892, says verbatim: 
" Les pieces concernant le meurtre du P. Thomas a 
Damas en 1840 n'ont nullement ete derobees ou de- 
truites par Cremieux en 1870. Ces pieces se trouvent, 
en effet, completes au ministere." 

1844, On 17th April, the Jews of Tarnow 
addressed a petition to the Emperor Ferdinand of 
Austria, that he would oppose the blood-accusation 
w^hich was continually being levelled against the 
Jews in Galicia. Out of this petition I extract the 
following according to G. Wolf, in Wertheimer's 
"Jahrbuchfur Israeliten, 5623," Vienna, 1862, 30-9: 
" The first attempt of this kind was made by fanatics in 
1829 in the village of Boleslaw (in our district), on 
the river Weichsel. There came a girl and 
informed against the Jews dwelling there . . . 
that three iveeks before the Jewish Easter holidays 
they bought her child off her for a fixed paid price, 
for the purpose of killing it and using its blood for 
the Easter festival. On the basis of this . . . 
charge the magistrate, without further examination, 
arrested four of the Jews mentioned, and chained 
them to the walls of the prison, and thus they 
languished for several weeks." Then the accuser 
confessed " she had murdered her child with her own 
hands, through want of means to support it, and hid 
it in a pool, and by the advice of the provost of the 
place made her above-mentioned accusation. There- 
upon the Commission went with this murderess to B., 
where, in the presence of the magistrate of the place, 

210 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

the child was drawn out of the defths of the fool, 
without any external injury, with a stone tied to its 
neck. The murderess was then condemned to the 
penalty she deserved. . . . 

" The second attem'pt was maliciously made in 1839 in the 
village of Niezdow, in the Bochnia district, where 
similarly a girl called S., who drowned her child in 
March of the same year, accused the Jews of the "place 
. . . of a similar crime, the buying and murder- 
ing of the child for the Jewish Easter festival, before 
the magistrate, who, after undertaking a search 
through their houses, had them at once arrested and 
chained. The Govei^nment councillor at Bochnia 
being put in possession of the facts, at once appointed 
a criminal commission, whilst the innocently- suffer- 
ing Jeivs were set free. The traducer was convicted 
of the murder of her own child, concerning which the 
legal documents in possession of the ivorthy district 
officer of Bochnia as well as of the Royal Impeinal 
Court at Wisznia can give the authoritative proofs. 

" On 25th March, 1844, W. Ritter von D., barrister of the 
Royal-Imperial District Court in these parts, 
brought the charge before the ivorthy magistrate here 
that he had gone from the village of Gtobikowka in 
the district into the Jews' street with an orphan boy, 
called J. G., who was in his service and was eight 
years old, and when he made the same wait for him 
there till he had made his purchase, this boy had dis- 
appeared in the Jews' street, and luas already two 
days missing, whom the Jews had kidnapped in order 
to get blood from the same for their approaching 
Easter festival. In consequence of his information 
an official inquiry was ordered, which was under- 
taken on the evening of the same day at about 7 o'clock 
by many officials appointed for the purpose, the 
entrances and exits of the Jews' street being barred^ 
in all the Jewish houses in the toivn and the nearest 

Evidence of History 211 

neighbourhoods, with the help of 80 men of the mili- 
tary provided with loaded arms, besides the finance 
and police watches . . . in the course of which 
all rooms, chambers, cellars, chests and drawers were 
most strictly examined, and in several cellars even 
the earth was dug up. D., however, not yet satisfied 
with this, made charges in this connection also before 
the Imperial- Royal cririiinal court at Rzeszow, when 
he adduced as proof the bloody stories of the Damascus 
and other murders. This worthy penal court at once 
ordered an investigation. Ten days went by, and 
the boy had not yet been found. Hatred and demand 
for revenge became continually louder among the 
Christian public. We lived through an anxious 
time; disgrace and shame, fear and despair lay 
heavy upon us ; full of care and anxiety we saw each 
day dawn, which showed us again there was no trace 
of the missing lad. We were scoffed at, and could 
not encounter a single Christian, however good 
friends he might be, without hearing reproaches about 
our cannibalistic methods. It was simply with a 
shudder that we looked forward to the approaching 
Easter Festival.'' 
At last it was found possible to ascertain beyond doubt 
that the boy (who ivas, by the way, 12 not 8) had run 
away from D. owing to ill-treatment and bad food, 
and is bringing him back alive to Tarnoiv. 
1873. Enniger. The (then) Berlin paper Das 
Volk, 13 March, 1892, No. 62, has the following infor- 
mation from Ravensberg : " So far as I know, a Jewish 
ritual murder or blood-murder has not hitherto been 
reported from Westphalia. But there has* already 
been such a one here. About 1860 or 1870 a young 
girl was murdered in the village of Enniger, near 
Ahlen. The Jews, of whom there was a large num- 

• The word "has" should be noticed, in contradiction of the follow- 
ing " no proofs." 

212 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

ber there, were universally accused of the deed. It 
was asserted the Jews wanted to use the blood of the 
girl, who had a reputation for genuine piety, for the 
consecration of the new synagogue [building sacrifice, 
V. supr. p. 31]. The judicial inquiry certainly pro- 
duced no proofs of the charge ; but public opinion 
spoke vigorously enough to drive all the Jewish 
families out of Enniger. The synagogue has never 
been used, and not only time, but also the hatred of 
the inhabitants, has treated it ill, as is related: horror 
dwells in the empty window-holes." — Attorney- 
General Ii^gahn, of Hamm, said in reply to my request 
for information about it, " that certainly an investi- 
gation was carried out on the part of the Royal Court 
at Munster on account of the murder of an unmarried 
person, Elizabeth Schiitte, which was committed near 
Enniger on 23rd April, 1873. The person who did it 
was not discovered. The motive of the deed, how- 
ever, is from the beginning not doubtful to the 
persons entrusted with the enquiry, and is exclusively 
to be found in the satisfaction of the sexual appetite.'' 

1881. Franciska Mnich, alleged to have been 
murdered by the Jewish publican, Moses Ritter, and 
his wife in Lutscha (Galicia). The accused were 
acquitted by the supreme Court of Judicature. Cf. 
J. Rosenblatt, " Prozess Ritter" (in Das Tribunal. 
Zeitschrift filr praktische Strafrechtspflege, Vol. I. and 
II., Hamburg, 1885 and 1886). 

1882. Tisza-Eszldr. On 14th April [Friday] 
there disappeared at Tisza-Eszlar, on the Theiss 
(Hungary), the young servant, Esther Solymosi. 
Suspicion turns against the Jews, several of whom 
are arrested by Bary, the investigating judge, who 
was only twenty years old. Moritz Scharf , the son of 
the temple servant, Joseph Scharf, declared at the 
first hearing that he did not know Esther, and like- 
wise knew nothing about her disappearance; 

Evidence of History ^13 

ni the second hearing he made precise 
statements about the alleged " religious butch- 
<ering " of E. S. in the Synagogue, which 
he said he had observed through the keyhole, 
and this declaration he repeated on the first day of 
the trial, 19th June, 1883. But on the 17th July it 
vv^as established by an inspection on the part of the 
court of the premises, that Moritz could not possibly 
have seen what he said he had. One of the judges 
said : " We ought to have begun with this inspection of 
the place of the deed ; we should not then have needed 
to deal with the matter for five weeks." The verdict, 
which corresponded with the pleadings of the State 
Attorney and the defence was to the effect "that 
there was not the least ground for the assumption 
that E. S. had been murdered, and all the accused 
would be acquitted." This sentence was confirmed 
by both the courts of higher instance. A body which 
floated to the bank on 18th June, 1882, some twenty 
kils. below Tisza-Eszlar was in all probability that of 
E. S. Cf. Paul Nathan, " Der Prozess von Tisza- 
Eszlar," Be., 1892 (416). Onody and Desportes, 
212-43, wrote on the racial anti-semitic side. 

1891. Corfu. In the night, between 12th and 
13th April, a girl of eight was murdered. The magis- 
trates have unfortunately omitted to publish an 
official report on the inquiry. It is usually asserted 
it was a Christian woman, Maria Desylla, who was 
murdered by Jews and deprived of her blood. It is 
in reality as good as certain that the murdered woman 
was called Ru])ina Sarda, and was a Jewess, the 
daughter of the Jewish tailor. Vita Chajim Sarda de 
Salomon ; Cf. particularly the following document, 
which has lain before me in the original : 
■" Certificat.- Je, sonssignee, religieuse institiitrice de 
VOrdredes Soeurs de l^otre Dame de la Comj)assion 
de Marseille, actuellement au Convent et Orphelinat 

214 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

de eel ordre etahli a Corfou, cert i fie : Que la petite 
Rubina Sarda, Israelite, afres autorisation preal- 
ahle de sa Grandeur Monseigneur Boni, Archeveque 
latin de Corfou, a ete admise dans la classe gratuite 
que je dirige, au commencement du mois de Juillet de 
Vannee mil huit cent quatre-vingt-neuf (1889); 
qu'elle a quitte noire ecole au mois d'octohre de la 
m,eme annee, four suivre, m'a t'on dit, les classes 
d'une ecole fondee vers cette epoque, a Corfou, pjar le 
Gouvernement italien. Je declare e7i outre: 1° que 
cette enfant, fille de pere et de mere israelites, pro- 
fessait, a ma connaissance, la meme religion que ses 
parents; !2° qu'elle a toujours ete connue a V ecole sous 
le nom de Rubina Sarda, et que, jamais je nai 
entendu parler d'une nommee Marie Desylla ; 3° que 
ladite petite fille a toujours ete t7'es douce et tres sage 
tout le temps qu'elle a frequente ina classe, et qu'enfin, 
elle n'a nidlement manifests le desir de changer de 
religion. — Et a la dem.ande du Consul de France en 
cette ville, je signe le prescrit que j'affirme sincere et 
veritable. Corfou le 22 Juin, 1891. Signe: 
Josephina Martin, en religion Soeur Marie Loetitia. 

Le consul de France a Corfou certifie veritable et 
bien con forme a V original depose aux archives de la 
Chancellerie, la copie de la declaration ci-dessus. 

Corfou, le 22nd Juin, 1891. 

Le Consul de France, 
(L. S.) (Signed) A. DAN LOU X. 

In a communication of M. Danlousc to M. Pariente, the 
Director of the Israelite Schools in the Orient (Cor-fu, 
23rd June, 1891), the murdered woman is expressly 
called Rubina Sai^da, and the sentence occurs: 
"Nobody can tell me whence the name of Marie 
Desylla comes, about which it is asserted it was the 
victim's name.'' — On the respective side (known to 
me by a photograph) of the register, ichichis keptby 
the Rabbi in Corfu, there are nine entries, Nos. 

Evidence of History 215 

28-36, in the period between 29 March till 18 April, 
1883. No. 35, of 16th A'pril, runs : " Ruhina di Vita 
Sarda e Lucie Eliezer," i.e. Ruhina, daughter of the 
[Chajjim] Vita Sarda and Lucie Eliezer. — Cf., too, 
M. HoROViTZ, " Corfu," Frankf. a. M., 1891 (15). 

1891. Nagy-Szokol, Tolna County, Hungary. 
Esther Fejes, a young servant of an Israelite, Jonas 
Griinfeld, disappeared in June. The charge of ritual 
butchery was raised, and as the father and the autho- 
rities searched for the girl in vain, Griinfeld was put 
under police supervision. Half-a-year later Esther 
was seen at Buda-Pesth by another girl from Nagy- 
Szokol, and told her she had left her home secretly 
because her parents did not live at peace and her 
mother had taken all her money away. Besides, a 
strange gentleman had persuaded her she should not 
remain at the Jew's, else it would happen to her as it 
did to Esther Solymosi; and he had given her ten 
gulden for travelling expenses. She was now in 
service at Moritz Fischl's, Karls-Ring 17. Oesterr. 
Wochenschrift, 1892, No. 3, p. 40, following the Magyar 
Hirlaf of 7th January. 

1891. Xanten (Rhine province). Cf. " Der Xan- 
tener Knabenmord vor dem Schwurgericht zu Cleve, 
4-14 July, 1892. Vollstandiger stenographischer 
Bericht,"' Be., 1893 (509).* On the evening of Mon- 
day, 29th June, the corpse of a boy of five and a half 
years, Johann Hegmann, was found with a gaping 
wound in his neck on loose-lying chafT in the barn 
belonging to a publican, Kiippers. In connection 
with the fact ("Report," 384) that the medical 
practitioner. Dr. Jos. Steiner, in the protocol of the 
inspection of the corpse, which was drawn up on the 

• The three defending barristers corroborate the trustworthiness of 
this report in prefatory autographic writing, and the three short- 
hand writers similarly give assurance that thoy have worked reliablj 
to the best of their ability. 

216 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

evening of 29 June, had written, " The trace of blood 
appears as an after-bleeding," it was declared in wide 
circles that undoubtedly a Jewish ritual murder had 
been perpetrated for the sake of obtaining blood, and 
people soon talked also about a Jewish butcher's cut 
("Schachterschnitt," Cf. supr. p. 108). Some of the 
inhabitants threw suspicion on the butcher and 
former " Schachter " of the Jewish community, 
Adolf Buschhoff. Firstly, as far as concerns the 
species of the neck- wound, it was irrefutably estab- 
lished that there could be no serious question of a 
" Schachterschnitt," by the protocol of the dissection 
("Report," 461 seq.) prepared on 30th June by the 
district physician, Dr. Bauer (Mors), and the district 
surgeon, Dr. Niinninghoff (Orsow), and by the expert 
report (478 sq.) drawn up by the medical college at 
Coblenz on 4th April, 1892: "The cut was not pro- 
longed below the Adam's apple, the knife was applied 
much higher up — namely, in the region of the upper 
margin of the Adam's apple. Thus the air-pipe was 
not only divided, but the cut went also — which is 
express^ forbidden under penalty in the " Schachter- 
schnitt " — through the gullet instead of through the 
oesophagus. . . . Further, whilst the "Schachter" so 
conducts his cut as to cut evenly through the soft parts 
on both sides of the neck, we see that in the case before 
us all the soft parts on the right side were divided up 
to the spinal column; whilst on the left side, on the 
other hand, not even the sterno-cleido-mastoid muscle 
and the big blood-vessels were touched. Next, 
the "Schachter" carefully avoids penetrating with 
his knife into the spine, so as not to injure the spinal 
marrow. Here the cut had pierced two centimetres 
deep into the spine ("Report," 488, cf. 48). Cf. also 
the declaration of the Prussian Minister of Justice in 
the Chamber of Deputies in Berlin on 9th February, 
1892 : " The manner of the cutting of the throat [was] 

Evidence of History 217 

not such as is observed in the butchering of animals 
according to Jewish ritual." It was further proved 
beyond doubt that the place of discovery (Kuppers' 
barn) was also the place of the deed (" Report " 40, 45), 
so that the child could not have been killed in 
Buschhoff's house. Thirdly, it was settled beyond 
any doubt that so much blood was found in the chaff 
under the body, on and in the body of the murdered 
boy, and in his clothes, that there was not the very 
least orround for assuming that any blood had been 
removed.* Cf. "Report" 39-48, 388, 478 sq. The 
Attorney-General Hamm declared: "It is therefore 
beyond dispute that the deed took place in the barn. 
That is established beyond the possibility of doubt. I 
shall lose no words about the initiatory and repeated 
remarks that a large amount of blood was missing, 
that there was only a little blood there, whereas there 
ought to have been a great deal more. Such remarks 
are all utterly confuted." Prof. Koster ("Report" 
374) stated besides that the murderer would have 
plied his knife deeper if he had been concerned about 
obtaining blood. It seems to me Dr. Steiner's state- 
ment before the Court on 91h Only was especially 
important. "' On 29th June [1891] I was . . asked 
to take up the case of the finding of the corpse. I 
could not then touch the wounds more particularly; 
I could only look at them. I could also not undress 
the body, etc. It was dark at that time, 9 o'clock at 
night, and the inspection of the corpse took place by 
the light of a petroleum lamp. . . . The experts 
have now . . . explained to me how much blood 
a man has altogether, and how much he can lose so 
as to bleed to death ; I have also learnt the opinion of 
the experts about the chaff and earth, and have, for 
the first time, been able to inspect the clothes, as you 

*J. Marcus, "Etude medico-legale du nieurtre rituel." Paris 1900 
(107 p.), pp. 22-48; Xanten; p. 49-76: Polna. 

218 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

have here seen them. 'At that time I did not dare to 
take the clothes away. I have now come to the con- 
viction that all the blood which the child could lose 
has been discovered, and . . . so it is a matter of 
course that the place of the discovery is also the place 
of the deed" ("Report" 297). 

The Attorney-General fiamm, moreover, said in 
his pleading ("Report" 399): ''It is proved that 
Buschhoff could not have done the deed, and the court 
must come to the conclusion to pronounce a sentence 
of 'not guilty' with regard to the accused." And 
the Chief Attorney Baumgard (" Report " 417) : "I 
must observe that in my long experience of criminal 
cases no single instance has yet come to my notice in 
which there has been brought forward such clear, 
circumstantial proof that the accused cannot have 
perpetrated the deed as in this case." The Editor-in- 
Chief of the Staatshiirger-Zeitung (Berlin), O. Bachler, 
again disseminated at least four deliberate untruths 
when he allowed it to be stated on the 19th Septem- 
ber, 1899, in No. 438 of his paper : " On 22 [read " 29 "] 
June, 1891, the bloodless [1] corpse of the boy Johann 
Hegemann [read " Hegmann "], of Xanten, was 
found behind the ground -property of the Jewish 
'Schachter " [2], Buschoff [read "Buschhoff"], with a 
' Schachtschnitt " [3] in his neck, whilst the ])lood, 
which had streamed away from the small body, was 
nowhere to be found [4]." 

1892. Eislelen. As this case seems especially 
valuable to the Osservatore Cattolico, No. 8,454, and 
also the Leipsic anon, and others have made a fuss 
about it, I will, as far as possible, make the matter 

On 1st February/, 1892, Herr G. Kriiger, President of tJi^ 
Reform A ssociation at Eisleben, held a discourse on 
" Rituelle Morde der Juden und der Knabenmord in 
Xanten." The Eislebener Zeitung of 7th Febru- 

Evidence of History 219 

ary, 1892, No. 32, reported in regard to the 
discussion: "J citizen of our town, who had 
appeared as a guest, and well deserves his claim to 
credibility, stated. . . . that he had opportunity for 
keeping top intercourse with Jews during his sixteen 
years as a handicraftsman in a small town iii Posen. 
The friendship) between him and them became so inti- 
mate owing to their meeting every night, that he gladly 
and repeatedly accepted the Jews' invitations to 
accomimny them into the temple. He was there 
handed by the Jews all kinds of dainties and sweet 
drinks. When he had visited the temple several times 
he received one Friday evening— it ivas the time before 
the Jewish festival— an invitation to accompany them 
again into the temple. The Jews ivho accompanied 
him there, first of all left him standing at the outer 
door, with a view to bringing him in later on. Scarcely 
had he approached nearer when he was informed that 
he woidd only then be allowed to stop in the temple any 
longer, if he was ' pure,' and that he must be subjected 
to a testing for the confirmation of the assumption. 
Then there immediately appeared an older Jew, who 
was hung round ivith a big ivhite cloth, and wore a 
black head-gear, and he bade him strip his left arm. 
Ashe dreamt of no ill befalling him, he did what was 
desired of him. Herewpon the same Jew made a cut 
with a small sharp knife into the inner elbow joint of 
the guest, luho is an Evangelical Christian, and collec- 
ted the blood flowing from the wound in a vessel which 
already stood prepared, whilst during the operation 
the other Jews sang songs (certainly Hebreiv) which 
were unintelligible to him. The wound caused was 
bound up, and healing followed in about eight to four- 
teen days. The scar can even noiv be seen[/J\ 
As early as the next number (33, 9th February) there 
appeared a declaration signed " Walther Simon, Max 
Zweig,"' that these statements ''rest upon lies. At 

220 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

any rate they may he referred to a morbid desire for 
bragging on the part of the persoii in question. We 
do not hesitate to pronounce the supporter of the 
Reform Association to be simply a malignant 
slanderer."— The Staatsburger-Zeitung, No. 68 
(10th February) introduced its report of the meeting 
with the words: " We are able in the following to 
bring forward a fresh example . ... as regards the 
question of ritual extraction of blood,'' and it re- 
marked at the conclusion : " That was an occasion for 
two genuine Jews of those parts . ... to publish a 
notice in which they represented the honourable citizen 
with truly Jewish shamelessness as ' a liar and malig- 
nant slanderer.'' As the man ivho has been so grossly 
insidted will not let the matter rest as it is, it is good 
news that the affair will be decided before a court 
OF LAW." But the ''honourable citizen,'' W. 
Schneider, the miner, did not bring an action! 
The Staatsburger-Zeitung, so far as I know,^ has 
not robbed its readers of the expectation that W. Simon 
and M. Zweig would have to atone for their crime in 
1892. Ingrandes [department of Vienne, F?'ance). The 
(clerical) paper that appears in Tours, the Journal 
d'Indre et Loire, published on 27th March, No. 74, 
an article lieaded, " IJn meurtre rituel," which treats 
of the discovery of a child's shockingly-mangled 
corpse. ''Justice has set on foot the customary in- 
vestigations, but has reached, no 7'esult up to now. 
That is perhaps beca,use a wrong road has been taken, 
although the mutilation whichthe victim has endured 
points sufficiently to the real criminals. . . . A 
murder for motive of gain or out of revenge does not 
bear that stamp. That the murderer cuts off his 
victim's head so that it may not be recognised is not 
out of the way. But why the other mutilations? [The 
genital organs a,nd the limbs were also cut off]. . . . 

Evidence of History 221 

We find ourselves in the presence of a ritual murder 
achieved by the Jews ; everything proves it. . . . The 
body was found in a new sack, therefore the blood was 
drawn off from it beforehand. . . The murder coidd 
not have been committed at the 2)lace of discovery, but 
in a perhaps distant part, certainly at a place, ivhere 
it was quite convenient to draw off the blood from the 
yet livimj victim, and to cut the body in pieces, which 
could readily be made to disappear. . . . It is easy 
to understand the interest of the murderers in the dis- 
appearance of the limbs: the ^Joint was to get rid of 
the marks on the neck, on the arms, on the femoral 
artery, on the limbs which were finally crucified, of 
the extraction of blood, which would have been 
terrible and irrefutable accusers on the count of 
ritual murder. And if there had been found on the 
body the marks of circumcision, which is ordained for 
the obtaining of the circumcision blood, a panacea in 
the eyes of the Jew— who then does not understand the 
interest of the sacrificers in the disappearance of the 
traces?"— The Paris paper Le Temps, of 5th August 
No. 11,397, reports about the re sidt of the affair : 
" The investigation showed that the child was the son 
on an unmarried woman named Marquet, who let 
herself be called by the name of a former lover. Widow 
Joul)ert. During the searching of the house there 
were found in the privy the entrails and the half- 
burnt cap of the poor little boy. The mother was 
arrested. She declared in her own defence that she 
wanted to suffocate herself with her son, ivhen she was 
awakened by violent pains; the child lay on the 
ground, and one of his legs had been half-charred by 
the overturned coal-pan. She had then made up her 
mind to cut the corpse to pieces, and to throw the 
larger portion into the water in a sack. The pro- 
secution, however, is of opinion that she only 
proceeded to this mournful operation after she had 

222 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

strangled her oivn son, and had attempted to hnrn him. 
The jury of Vienne^has just condemned the unnatural 
mother to 20 years' hard labour." 

1892. Bacau (Roumania). An Israelite, Eisik 
Suler, had a young gipsy girl, Florea, in his service. 
The girl's parents, who knew of the accusation that 
Jews used Christian blood for their unleavened Easter 
cakes, made her secretly leave her master, and hide 
in their hut. They then, accompanied by a crowd of 
half -drunk gipsies, demanded their child back with 
great outcry ; Eisik had killed their child in order to 
get its blood. The chief of police quickly ascertained 
the baselessness of the charge. He therefore arrested 
the parents, and threatened them with severe punish- 
ment if they did not point out where their daughter 
was staying. Next day they confessed where the girl 
was, and that their sole intention was to extort money 
from the Jew. Monthly Report of the "Alliance 
Israelite Universelle," 1892 (Cologne), p. 84 sq. 

1893. Kolin (Bohemia). At the beginning of 
March, Marie Havlin, a girl in whom melancholy had 
shown itself for a considerable time, and who was in 
service with the Jewish family of Brett, was missed. 
Not until over a month had elapsed was the dead 
body found in the Elbe, whilst sand was being drawn 
up from the river. The Young-Czech, anti-semitic 
journal, Polaban, announced in leaded type, that 
stabbing wounds had been noticed on her body, so 
that suicide was out of the question. The accusation 
that a ritual murder had been committed was bruited 
through the town, and led to serious excesses against 
the Jews, so that the military were summoned from 
Kuttenberg. On the 15th of April, the burgomaster, A. 
Civin, issued the following proclamation, in the sec- 
tion of the Royal Imperial County District in his 
charge: "At the dissection of the body of Marie 
Havlin, which was held by the Commission of the 

Evidence of History 223 

Royal Imperial District Court, consisting of the judge 
and the official physicians, Dr. Sil and Dr. Stappan, 
it was confirmed that there were no marks of an in- 
jury or assault found on the corpse. It was on the 
contrary established that Havlin came to her death 
by drowning, and in fact by suicide, and that the 
body must have lain already five weeks in the water, 
because remains of red clay, such as the then high 
water carried with it, were found on the clothes. . . . 
All rumours which were set afloat about the girl's 
murder are untrue and without any foundation. There- 
fore the further dissemination of these rumours is to 
be punished as a malicious deception of the people." 
Cf. Jiidische Presse, 20 April, 1893, No. 16. Also in the 
Bohemian Landtag, the Statthalter, Count Thun, 
declared on 3rd May, in consequence of an interpella- 
tion : The judicial inspection of the corpse had proved, 
that there were not the slightest tra-.-es of violence 
found on the corpse, but that it was rather a case of 
suicide. On the grave a memorial tablet was placed 
with the following inscription : " Here rests Maria 
Havlin, who died a martyr's death before the Jews' 
Easter. May God reward them for it!" Owing to 
complaints from the Israelite religious community it 
had to be removed. Otherwise the tablet would cer- 
tainly in a few years have been used as an original, 
monumental proof of the reality of ritual murder. 
Jiid. Presse, 12th October, 1894, Nos. 41-42. 

1893. Holleschau. On 9th, or on 15th June, 1893, 
the servant Karoline Schnula and the peasant- w^oman 
Katharina Schonbaum were condemned by the Court 
at Ungarisch-Hradisch to 13 or 15 months' imprison- 
ment with hard labour, because they had made the 
accusation against David Tandler, and also two other 
Jewish inhabitants of Holleschau, that these had 
wanted to slaughter them for ritual purposes. The 
barrister asked for severe punishment, so that cases 

224 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

might not recur in the future, by which honourable 
citizens of the state would, in consequence of an abso- 
lutely stupid fairy-tale, be menaced in their honour, 
life, and property. The actual authorship of the libel 
was alleged to be due' to an unknown third person ; 
that person must be very powerful, since both of the 
condemned w^omen shrank from giving him up. Jiid. 
Presse, 22nd June, 1893. 

1893, Prague. Jaromir Huschek, the editor of 
the Czechish journal, Nove T^ajmy, had announced 
that in August, 1893, the "Schachter," Hermann 
Lowy, of Chotzen, had for ritual purposes extracted 
blood from a worthy, industrious Christian named 
Joseph Horky, and then given him two gulden, that 
he might recover from the loss of blood. Inquiry 
showed that Horky, a toper, suffering from hallucina- 
tions, had invented the whole story. He was pun- 
ished by the Court at Hohenmauth for spreading 
agitating news; Huschek was condemned by the 
Prague Penal Court on 3rd April, " in contumaciam," 
to 14 days' imprisonment, emphasised by two days' 
fasting. (Neue Freie Pt^esse, Vienna, telegram from 
Prague, v. 4 April). 

1893. The trio, Paulus Meyer, Josef Deckert, 
Franz Doll. Paulus Meyer (born 1862, at Wlozlawek, 
Eussian Poland; baptised, alas! in 1887), was ex- 
pelled from Berlin by the police in September, 1892, 
because he had made himself " troublesome." Next 
he produced in Leipsic the material for the libel men- 
tioned supr. p. 148. He was on that account arrested 
on 25th May, 1893, at the request of the Leipsic Assize 
Court, in Vienna, where he was in the pay of the 
Catholic Priest, Josef Deckert, in order to collect from 
Jewish literature proofs of Jewish ritual murders. 
Aug. Rohling had recommended him! He had 
already written a letter to Deckert on 20th April 
(Leipsic is named as the place of composition), in 

Evidence of History 225 

which he asserted that in 1875, before the Jewish 
Easter festival in Ostrowo, Government of Lublin, he 
had been the witness of the ritual slaughter of a 
Christian boy. Ten Israelites were said to have been 
present at this holy transaction, of whom the names 
were given of the Rabbi "Jehoschua Ben h'Rab 
Schlohme Leb m'Lentschna " [son of the Rabbi Salo- 
mo Leb at Lentschna], and the Synagogue servants, 
Moische Berriches and Srul [Israel] Partzewar. A 
portion of the blood is said to have been poured into 
flasks, and to have been sent to the parishes subject 
to the Rabbi named ; another portion was kept in a 
silver goblet for baking into the unleavened Easter 
loaves. A Jewish landed proprietor, Schmiel 
[Samuel] Tarler, was said to have procured the victim 
from Levertof , a place three miles distant. Deckert had 
already triumphantly referred to this letter on 5th, 
7th and 10th May in the Viennese journal Das Vater- 
land: on 11th May its publication followed in No. 129. 
Numerous anti-semitical papers copied it with 
delight. But the joy was premature. Three of the 
persons accused by name of ritual murder were still 
alive ; the fourth, Rabbi Jehoschua, had been dead 
more than two years lefore the crime falsely imputed 
to him, but his daughter Rahel and her husband, the 
Rabbi Jankiel (Jacob) Rabinowitz of Biala (Russian 
Poland), were still alive. They brought an action, 
with the result that on 15th September Meyer was 
condemned to four months' arrest (in which the long 
remand in custodj^ during the inquiry was taken into 
consideration), Deckert to a fine of four hundred 
gulden, and the Editor of the Vaterland to two hun- 
dred gulden. The whole contents of the letter were a 
lie. But also in the case of Jos. Deckert two deliberate 
untruths were pointed out (by Meyer's ofldcial 
defender); Cf. Neue Freie Presse (Vienna), Nos. 
10,040 and 10,041 (15th September evening and 16th 

226 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

September) ; Oesterreich. Woclienschrift, Vienna, No. 
38, pp. 731-65 (shorthand report). The well-known 
Pastor F. v. Bodelschwingh of Bielefeld gave his 
opinion of Meyer on 27th Sept., 1892: "A limitless 
amount of cynical ingratitude towards all his bene- 
factors, who finally perceived his true character and 
did not desire to gratify his immoderate pretensions ! 
About his behaviour here I need not tell you any- 
thing, and compress it briefly when I say that in my 
whole life I have never known such an example of 
deep degradation, malice, mendacity and arrogance, 
altogether of bottomless sordidness, as this fellow!" 

1894. Berent (West Prussia). On the 5th of 
April the town was excited by the rumour that a girl 
of nine had been kidnapped by the Jews for purposes 
of ritual. It was due to the following circumstances: 
— A Jewish butcher, Werner, had bought a small she- 
goat from a Roman Catholic widow, Hermann. The 
mother sent her daughter to deliver the animal and 
receive the rest of the money. The child, however, 
sold the goat otherwise, and did not return home. So 
when Werner came to ask about the goat, Mrs. H. 
began to scream out : " My child has gone ; the Jews 
have put her to death." She then hastened to W.'s 
house in order to demand her child back. A crowd of 
people soon assembled there with menacing gestures, 
and, in particular, some witnesses turned up who 
alleged they had seen that the child went into W.'s 
house in the morning. The woman at length ran off 
to the Burgomaster, and asked that her child should 
be released. Soon after the girl turned up again. 
The woman declared that she had often read in the 
newspapers that the Jews were obliged to have Chris- 
tian blood. Jild. Presse, 12th April, 1894, No. 15.— 
Mrs. H. was condemned to two weeks' imprisonment 
for gross contumacy. 

1896. Mdhrisch-Triibau. As a "contribution to 

Evidence of History 227 

the use of blood by the Jews," a story went the round 
of the papers, especially the Austrian, at the begin- 
ning of 1896, that the merchant Moriz Moller had 
extracted blood at the joints of the arms and legs of 
his former servant, Philomena Waclawek, at night, 
by pricking them with needles. The gossip had pro- 
ceeded from the two present servants of M., Emilie 
Schwab and Sophie Nemluwil, who appealed to the 
utterances made them by Waclawek. The preliminary 
examination conducted against M. was stopped after 
a short time for want of any details or facts. There- 
upon M., who had had to suffer under the false 
accusation, brought an action against the mendacious 
servant for insult to honour. The affair was decided 
on 22nd May before the Assize Court of Briinn. On 
the proposition of the Public Prosecutor, the woman 
W. was condemned for libel to three months' strict 
imprisonment, which was to be rendered more severe 
every fortnight by a day of fasting. Oesterr. Wochen- 
schr., 1896, No. 18, p. 357, and No. 22, p. 436; Cf. also 
Gemeinde-Zeitung (Prague), 15th April, 1896. 
1898. Skaisgirren (Niederung District, East Prussia). 
Staatsburger-Zeitung, 16th February, 1898: "The 
rumour of a ritual murder set the inhabitants here 
in excitement, and causes a great deal of talk even 
now. Some time ago the servant girl of a Jewish 


LEAVING A TRACE ; the search inaugurated has so far 
resulted in no explanation of the girl's mysterious 
disappearance, but certainly given rise to the above- 
mentioned black rumour. We hope the matter will 
soon be cleared up."— According to the official 
material lying before me, the police authorities had 
no cause whatever to make enquiries. The servant 
girl, Wilh. Picklapp, had illegally left other places 
previously, and had done the same thing in the case 
of the merchant Markus Grodszinsky ; and she had 

228 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

first gone to her sweetheart, and then to the foster- 
mother of her illegitimate child at Plicken near 

1899. Polna (Bohemia). On 1st April, on the 
Saturday in Passion Week, the corpse of the nineteen- 
year-old sempstress, Agnes Hruza, who had been 
missing from Klein- Wieznitz since Wednesday, the 
night of 29th March, was found in the Brezina forest 
between Polna and Klein- Wieznitz. Suspicion of 
having committed the murder fell upon Leopold 
Hilsner, a Jewish cobbler's apprentice of twenty-two, 
who had often roamed about in the aforesaid forest. 
On 12th September the affair came before the District 
Court at Kuttenberg for trial. To the first question 
put to the jury, " Is Hilsner guilty of having, in 
association with others, murdered Hruza? " they 
answered, on the 5th day, 16th September, "No,** 
with eleven votes. On the other hand, the second 
question, " Is Hilsner an accomplice in the murder? '* 
was answered in the affirmative with all the twelve 
votes. The Court of Justice consequently pro- 
nounced judgment for H.'s condemnation to death 
by the rope. The Assize Court at Pisek, on 14th 
November, 1900, convicted him also of the murder of 
Marie Klima, who had disappeared on the 17th July, 

It is universally admitted that H. ivas a man who shrank 
from work, and was not on good terms ivith the truth. 
He rebelled the offer that on the day of Atonement 
(10 Tishri=14th Septernher) i.e., on a day which 
even Jews, who care almost nothing at all about their 
religion, hold sacred, the trial should he postponed. 
A nd he contrived after his condemnation to point out 
as accomplices two innocent men, Josua Ei'hnann and 
Salomo Wassermann. Both were speedily found and 
ai'rested, hut had to he set free after a short time, as 
they were ahle pierfectly to prove an alihi. At the 

Evidence of History 229 

recantation of his "confession** Hilsner asserted 
that in spite of his innocence he had been dreadfully 
frightened by the news that the gallows ivere already 
being erected for him, and he had given the false 
information in order to get a postponment. 
The unsympathetic nature of his personality, however, 
should not seduce us into declaring H. to be the 
murderer or an accomplice without convincing proof. 
Still less should " ritual murder " be asserted without 
convincing proof. And yet the public prosecutor, 
Schneider- Swoboda, put forivard this assertion, 
in veiled words it 'is true, and the barrister, Dr. Baxa, 
representing the " A nti- Semites," after describing 
desire for revenge, jealousy, lust as motives to be 
excluded, even said (Viennese Neue Freie Presse, 
17th September, No. 12,597): "But we demand to 
know why Agnes Hruza was murdered! (Stormy 
cries of " Viborne " in the audience.) The body of 
the murdered woman tells why she was murdered. 
The body speaks to the whole world; it shrieks out 
why a poor, innocent Christian girl had to die. 
(Storm of applause in the auditorium.) The circum- 
stance that Agnes Hruza was first caught with a 
noose shows jylainly the motive of the deed, shows 
plainly ichy she was butchered. Up till now we knew 
the most diverse motives for murder, even political 
murder; but this motive, as it is exposed here, was 
unfortunately till now not yet believed in by every- 
body. Hruza was murdered for the sole reason that 
a Christian virgin had to be murdered. . . . 
The highest circles in the State will have to take heed 
of the fact that there is a society of human beings 
among us who only murder our Christian fellows in 
order to get our blood. The State must rise up against 
this class of persons, who want our blood, who want 
the blood of Christian girls; that is an inevitable 
duty, whether it is a sect of this people or the whole 

230 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

race. We do not know where the blood went. That 
will have to be cleared up presently. But Hruza was 
murdered by a society that lives among us with the 
sole object of taking our blood from us. . . . 
Hilsner, with two other persons, tried to eostr'act as 
much blood as j^ossible from this girl, this Christian 
virgin. (Great sensation.) It is quite certain that 
everything was prepared beforehand for the murder 
in that synagogue where the blood-stained breeches 
were found; there the actual proof of the ensuing 
murder, the grey, blood-stained breeches, was actually 
taken. This synagogue is both the beginning -p>oint 
and the ending-point of the Polna murder. No blood 
was found. That means everything. . . . The 
murderer wanted the blood. Therefore — according 
to the opinion of the experts — the blood, ivas not found. 
(Prolonged sensation y And after that Baxa said: If 
the defender declared he had proofs contradicto7'y of a 
ritual murder, " / have proofs in favour of it. Per- 
haps the defender knows the books of the 
Rabbi Eleasar, perhaps also that of the Rahbi 
Mendel" fSTAATSBURGER-ZEiTUNG, Berlin, 19th 
September, No. 438.*) 

And both before the legal proceedings and after them 
the " anti-semite'' newspapers spoke in the same sense. 
Das Bayerische Vaterland, Munich, 20th Sep- 
tember : " The Court of Justice . . . has answered 
in the affirmative [the question if it was a Jewish 

* The mentioning of Rabbi Mendel is based upon a gross falsification 
of A. Rohling's, as I, as early as August, 1883, pointed out in a 
letter to Prof. W. Bacher, of Budapesth v. Jtidischcx lAtteratur- 
Blatt, Magdeburg 1883, no. 34). Cf. also /. Eopp. " Zur Juden- 
f rage, "35-7, and J. Block, " Acten "I., 157-60. There is certainly, 
apart from Hartwig Wessely's Hebrew book of synonyms " gan 
naul " ["closed garden," v. Song of Songs, iv., 12] another book of 
this name; but it is not by Rabbi Mendel, but by Abraham Abul- 
afia, and it is not " in some twenty editions " (as Rohling lies), but 
a not even yet printed commentary on the Book Je9ira (Cod. Hebr. 
fol. 58 of the Royal Library at Munich). 

Evidence of History 231 

ritual murder]; it implicitly assumed that it was a 


blood of Jewishly butchered Christian persons. 

. . . A una Hruza was therefore simply butchered 

like any cattle, in order to draw off her blood! . . . 

Hilsner filled the position of a Jewish slaughterer 

[untrue! — H. Str.\ which is among Jeivs a kind of 

religious office, and into which the Rabbi initiates 

the candidate after severe testing. . . . All 

the facts point to a ritual murder, in connection 

with which it has also to be considered that Hruza 

was slaughtered immediately before [untrue! — H. 

Str.] the Jewish Easter festival, at which, as is 

asserted, the Talmud prescribes the consumption of 

Christian Blood [untrue! — H. Str.]'' 

The assumption of an actual "ritual murder" 

(for using the blood at the Jewish Passover) is deci- 

sivety disproved by the simple fact that Agnes Hruza 

was, till the evening of 29th March, still in Polna 

with the sempstress Prchal, whilst the Jewish Easter 

began on 26th March. Furthermore, the accusation 

and condemnation are essentially based on the 

opinion that Hruza was murdered in the forest in 

which her corpse was found. This view, however, is 

false. Cf. the works of the Prague Professor Th. G. 

Masaryk, " Die Nothwendigkeit der Revision des 

Polnaer Prozesses," Vienna, 1899 (31), and "Die 

Bedeutung des Polnaer Verbrechens fiir den Ritual- 

aberglauben," Be., 1900 (94). 

I take the following from him : — The corpse was 
found lying in such a way on the belly that the lower 
portion of both legs were bent upwards in an acute 
angle, and the trunk was somewhat curved to the 
right. This bending of the legs and this curving of 
the body could only have been effected after the set- 
ting-in of the rigor mortis, or otherwise the body would 
not have remained curved and the legs would have 

232 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

sunk down again. But rigor mortis only begins some 
hours after death. Therefore the corpse was brought 
where it was found, only after the appearance of 
rigor mortis. One alternative is that it was carried 
so that the legs were bent over the right shoulder of 
the carrier and held by one of his hands, whilst the 
other hand drew the trunk of the dead body to him by 
means of a rope placed round her neck. It would 
also be explained in this way wh}^ only the right side 
of the neck showed a strangulation furrow. Had the 
girl been strangled with the cord before death, the 
furrow would have been visible right round her neck. 
The other alternative is that the corpse was brought 
into the forest in a wheelbarrow. In that case the 
legs would have been bent, otherwise the wheel- 
barrow would have been hampered by the length of 
the body. It was important to the murderer or 
murderers that no blood should drip on the ground 
during transport. That explains why the head was 
wrapped up in the shift and petticoat. The murder 
probably happened in a house, and, indeed, at a late 
hour of the night, when Hruza was already partially 
undressed. The following circumstances point to it : 
Firstly, the body was clothed only with gaiters, stock- 
ings, and the remainder of a shift (the statement 
about the breeches are contradictory) ; secondly, her 
hair was undone; thirdly, there was only blood, not 
dirt, on the palms of the hands and behind the nails 
of both hands, although, according to the charge, the 
murder took place in the forest on ground soaked 
with rain; fourthly, the cleanness of the corpse, no 
blood-stains on breast or stomach (the murdered 
woman was perhaps washed); fifthly, on dissection 
numerous remains of food, especially milk, were 
found in the stomach (A. H., who began her return 
home after 5 o'clock, seems, before she was murdered, 
to have had an evening meal). Six metres from the 

Evidence of History 233 

place of the crime two cloths belonging to A. H. were 
found, "folded together." Had the murderers, who, 
according to the charge, did the deed in the greatest 
haste, time to fold up these cloths? Hilsner was seen 
in Polna a short while before the time of the murder 
(about 6 p.m.), as fixed by the charge, in the evening 
he was at home. The Viennese Juristische Blatter, 
September, 1899, also pronounced a new trial neces- 
sary : *' He was accused without proofs, condemned 
without proofs, and that is a judicial murder in the 
eyes of lawyers. . . . An important piece of 
counter-evidence, that the criminal alone would not 
have been able to overpower the strong girl, led to the 
accusation and condemnation for being an accom- 
plice, without any intelligible reasons for thinking 
there were accomplices being given." It observes 
about Hilsner's denials : " It is well known to every 
practical man that persons belonging to the populace 
deny everything, even the most harmless, as soon as 
they are aware they are under accusation." 

Dr. A rthur Nussbaum (" Der Polnaer Ritualmord- 
process. Eine kriminalpsychologische Untersuch- 
ung auf aktenmassiger Grundlage." Be., 1906, 259 
pp.) has now convincingly shown: (1) That Agnes 
Hruza's neck-wound was not a Jewish butcher's cut, 
but more probably inflicted after death in order to 
remove the rope tied round the neck; (2) that the 
amount of blood to be expected under the circum- 
stances was present; (3) that the reasons given for 
Hilsner's guilt are entirely null, that the statements 
of the witnesses for the prosecution not merely became 
definite only gradually and in the course of time, but 
that they also contradict each other, i.e., are in them- 
selves unworthy of belief; (4) that throughout no 
probable motive was adduced by which Hilsner could 
have been impelled to murder A. Hruza (either as the 

234 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

result of blood-thirstiness, or as a deed of perverse 
sexuality, or for the purpose of robbery). 

In regard to the Klima case Hilsner's alibi is 
proved to be credible ; concerning the manner in 
which Marie K. met her death, the inspection of the 
skeleton found on the 27th of October, 1898, in the 
forest north of Polna, no longer afforded a solution. 
The identity of the perpetrator, or, as the Public Pro- 
secutor asserted, of the perpetrators, was not proved 
in any way in either case. 

The Court of Justice did not allow the execution 
of Hilsner, who had been condemned for the double 
murder, but changed the punishment to life-long 
imprisonment. That is a clear sign that they did not 
trust in the truthfulness of the sworn witnesses. 

1900. Konitz (West Prussia). On 11th March, 
1900, Ernest Winter, a public school youth (" gym- 
nasiast ") of eighteen and a half, left his lodgings in 
the house of Lange, a master-baker. In the afternoon 
he was seen by several people. In the afternoon of 
the 13th of March Winter's father (a builder in 
Prechlau) and the master-baker found in the water by 
the bank of the Monchsee a parcel, the wrapper of 
which consisted of packing-paper; it contained in a 
sack the upper part of Winter's body, without head 
or arms. Quite close by they found the lower portion 
of the trunk. On 15th March the right arm was found 
in the Evangelical Churchyard ; on the 20th of March 
the left upper leg in the Monchsee; and, lastly, on 
15th April, in a pit two kilometres from Konitz, the 
head wrapped in paper. — The anti-semites again 
raised the charge that here was a case of ritual murder 
committed by the Jews. Not even the shadow of a 
proof of this could be adduced. The Royal Medical 
College of the province of West Prussia and the 
Royal Scientific Medical Committee (in Berlin) 
who carefully examined the parts of the body and the 

Evidence of History 235 

articles of dress which were found, arrived, in two 
detailed expert reports, at the following conclusion 
(which was indeed very painful to the feelings of those 
who had celebrated Ernst W. as a hero in virtue, 
especially at the funeral of the parts of his body) :— 
*' (1) The death of Ernst Winter was the result of suffo- 
cation. (2) There is no scientific foundation for the 
assumption that the cut in the neck discovered on the 
mutilated corpse of Winter was perpetrated during 
his lifetime, and thus caused death from bleeding. 
(3) The death took place on 11th March, 1900, within 
the first six hours after he had enjoyed a meal. (4) 
The evidence of seminal spots on the outside of his 
trousers and shirt renders it probable that Winter was 
performing the act of coitus, or was trying to do so, 
shortly before his death." Cf. "Die Gutachten der 
Sachverstandigen liber den Konitzer Mord," Be., 
1903 (87). 


My intention has been to collect not as many 
testimonies as possible, but those that really carry 


IsAAK Abravanel, « well-knowu Bible exegetist (horn 
in Poi'tugal 1437, died in Italy 1508), on Ezekiel 
ooxxvi., 13. 

Samuel Usque, in his Portuguese hook printed in 1553, 
''Consolations for the oppressed among Israel" 
(" Consolagam," etc., v. Wolf, '' Bihliotheca He- 
hraea," IIL, 1071-5.) 

Jehuda Karmi, ''Be charitate," Amsterdam, 1643, v. 
Wolf, Bihl. Hehr., II., 1131-5. 

Manasse ben Israel (horn in Lishon 1604, lived later in 
Amsterdam; intercourse with Queen Christina of 
Sweden; hrought ahout permission for the Jeivs to 
return to England), " Vindiciae Judaeorum" [in 
English'], originally London, 1656, then in the com- 
pilation " Phenix," London 1708; in German, " Ret- 
tung der Juden," by Marcus Herz, with a preface hy 
Moses Mendelssohn, as supplement to Chr. W. D ohm's 
" Uher die hilrgerliche Verbesserung der Juden," 
Berlin and Stettin, 1781.— The oath of purification 
taken by him in the volume mentioned, runs : " // all 
that has been hitherto said is not even then sufficient 
to mdlify this accusation, I am forced, since the 

Contradictions 237 

matter on our side is sim2)ly one of negation, and 
therefore is incapable of elucidation by witnesses, to 
use another kind of proof, which the Eternal has 
ordained (Exodus xxii.), that of an oath. I there- 
fore swear, without any deception or trickery 
whatever, by the highest God, the Creator of heaven 
and earth, who revealed His law to the people of 
Israel on Mount Sinai, that I have never, even to this 
day, seen such a practice among the people of Israel, 
that they have never regarded such a practice as a 
lawful, divine ordinance, nor as a command or in- 
stitution of their wise men, and that they have never 
(as far as I knoiv, as far as I have heard in a credible 
way, or read in any Jewish author) practised or 
attempted such a villainy! And if I lie in this, may 
all the curses mentioned in the books of the Law 
(Leviticus and Deuteronomy) visit me; may I never 
see the blessing and the solace of Zion, nor take jmrt 
in the resurrection of the dead/" — Moses Men- 
delssohn declares himself ready to repeat this oath 
verbatim; this oath has been uttered by Salomon 
HiRSCHELL, the London Chief Rabbi, and by David 
Meldola, the Chakam of the Portuguese-Israelite 
community in London, on 30th June, 1840; in the 
same year the mAssionary G. W. Pieritz (a Jewish 
Christian) did the same thing (v. Lbwenstein, 
" Damascia,"^ 203, 237 sq.). 

IsAAK Cantarini, " Viudcx sanguinis," Amsterdam, 
1680; reprinted as supplement to Wiilfer's " The- 
riaca judaica," Nuremberg, 1681. 

Jakob Emden (1698-1776, at Alto'na and Amsterdam) 
in a missive, which is attached to his edition of the 
"Seder olam I'abba wezutta," Hamburg, 1757; v. D. 
Hoffmann, " Schulchan-Aruch,"^ Be., 1894, 26. 

Jonathan Eibeschutz (1690-1764), 'v. supr. p. 151. 

J. Tugendhold (Censor in Warsaw), " Der alte Wahn 
vom Blutgebrauch der Israeliten am Osterfeste" 

238 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

[written in 1S31~\. Translated from the Polish. Be.y 
1858 (90). 

IsAAK Baer LEYmso^'i^/^'Ephes Damim'' [in Hebrew'], 
Wilna, 1837 ; Englished by L. Loewe; '' Efes Dam- 
mim. A series of conversations at Jerusalem 
between a Patriarch of the Greek Church and a Chief 
Rabbi of the Jews,'' Loridon, 1841; German by A. 
Katz: " Die Blutliige," Be., 1892(102). 

L. ZuNZ, " Damaskus. Ein Wort zur Abwehr,'' Be., 1840 
(reprinted in " Gesammelte Schriften," II., 160-70). 

L. H. LowENSTEiN, " Damascia. Die Judenverfolgung zu 
Damaskus und ihre Wirkungen auf die bffentliche 
Meinung." Second revised edition. Rodelheim, 
1841 (416). — Supplement to it by the same author: 
" Stimmen beriihmter Christen [J. F. v. Meyer, F. J. 
Molitor~\ uber den Damaszener Blutprozess,'' Rodel- 
heim, 1843 (46). 

M. Schlesinger, '' Neki Kapajim.'' "Clean hands.** 
Refutes the accusations levelled against the Jews. 
(from the Hebrew). Budapesth, 1882 (30). 

M. L. RoDKiNSSOHN, D^H ^b^hv^ nv^p-niip. " Das unge- 
sduerte Brot und Die Anklage des Blutgebrauchs am 
Passah-Feste." [Hebrew with German preface]. 
Pressburg and Vienna, 1883. (VIII., 32). 

M. H. Friedlander" Z^r Geschichte der Blutbeschiddi- 
gungen gegen die Juden im Mittelalter und in der 
Netizeit." Briinn, 1883 (32). 

M. DuscHAK, "Tor Ester'* [v. Esther ii., 15] '' Mittel 
gegen die falschen Blutbeschiddigungen." Cracow, 
1883 (66). 

CoRRADO Guidetti, " Pro Judaeis. Riflessione e docu- 
menti. Turin, 1884 (386). 

Giorgio A. Zaviziani, " tin raggio di luce. La per- 
secuzione degli Ebrei nella storia," Corfu, 1891, 
Tipografia " Corai " (356). 

The statements which occur in poetry, which is 

Contradictions 239 

only intended for Jewish readers, seem to me of a 
epecial importance.* Violent outbursts of bitter 
rancour against their merciless persecutors are not 
rare, but nowhere is there even a single word which 
could be applied to the charge here in question ; the 
"blood accusation" is much rather regarded as an 
abominable slander, as, for instance, in a " Selicha " 
(prayer of penitents) by Salomo ben Abraham (about 
1220), V. Zunz, " Die synagogale Poesie des Mittelal- 
ters," Be., 1855, 27.— The Jews, as they say them- 
selves, in the last five hundred years of the Middle 
Ages, slaughtered, sacrificed children — but their own 
children, in order to save them from baptism, cf. 
Zunz 16, 20, 22 sq., and likewise the moving report of 
Salomo bar Simeon about the persecution of the Jews 
in Mainz in 1096, v. "QuellenzurGeschichte der Juden 
in Deutschland," II. (Be., 1892), 9, 12, or 101, 107. Cf. 
also Salfeld, 105 (note 3), 143, 202.— In recent times cf. 
G. Dalman, " Jlidischdeutsche Volkslieder aus Gali- 
zien und Russland," 2nd edition, L., 1891, 49. 


Owing to what happened in Fulda (v. supr. p. 178 
sq.), the German Emperor Frederick 11. set on foot a 
thorough investigation of the question, whether the 
Jews used human blood. R. Honiger (" Zeitschrift 
fiir die Geschichte der Juden in Deutschland," I. 
[1887], 137-44) has published the golden Bull of July, 
1236, from the Cologne municipal archives, in whose 
second part the Emperor reports as to the result of his 
researches : 


The contradiction in "Ni99ah6n jashan" (p. 257 of Wagenseil's 
edition in "Tela ignea Satanae "), was also not intended for Chris- 
tian readers. 

240 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

** Moreover all men now living and going to live should 
know : As, in consequence of the murder of some hoys 
at Fulda, a grievous accusation was hr ought against 
the Jews then living there, and hence a menacing 
public opinion arose generally against the rest of the 
Jews in Germany, on account of the sad event, 
although the traffic in secret crime ivas not revealed, 
we, in order to clear up the truth in respect of the 
he fore-mentioned accusation, resolved to summon 
before us from every quarter princes, magnates, and 
nobles of the Empire, as well as abbots and ecclesi- 
astics, and to question them. Now as these were of 
divers opinions about the matter, and could not arrive 
at a satisfactory issue in relation thereto, we came 
to the conclusion that oiving to the secret action taken 
against the Jews accused of the aforesaid ci'ime, the 
matter coidd not be more suitably dealt with than by 
those who had been Jews, and had been converted to 
the Christian faith, since these as adversaries would 
conceal nothing of what they know against those other 
Jews, or against the Mosaic books, or the whole series 
of the Old Testament. And although our conscience 
regarded the innocence of the aforesaid Jews as 
adequately proved on the ground of several writings, 
which had been brought to the knowledge of our 
Majesty, yet for the satisfaction no less of the un- 
educated populace than of the feeling of justice, 
according to our sound decision, and with the unani- 
mous consent of the princes, magnates, nobles, abbots, 
and ecclesiastics, we sent extraordinary ambassadors 
to all the Kings of the West, by whom accordingly 
many converts experienced in the Jewish law were 
sent to our presence from the various kingdoms. We 
commanded these, who sojourned no short time at our 
Court, to trace out the truth, so that they might in- 
dustriously investigate and inform us, whether there 
was any opinion existing among them [the Jews] 

Contradictions 241 

which would induce them ^perchance to commit another 
crime, and which might have induced the Jews them- 
selves to commit the aforesaid crime. Their answer 
ran : ' Neither in the Old nor in the New Testament 
is it found that the Jews are greedy for human hlood. 
Rather it is expressly stated in complete opposition to 
such an assertion in the Bible, which is called in 
Hebrew " Bereschith,"* in the laws given to Moses, in 
the Jewish ordinances, which are called in Hebrew 
Talmud, that they must altogether beware of pollution 
with any blood whatever. We add, and it is an 
addition which concerns us very closely, that those 
who are forbidden the blood, even of the animals 
allowed them, cannot have any thirst for human 
blood, because of the horror of the thing, because 
nature forbids it, and because of the relationship of 
species which connects them also ivith the Christians 
. . and. that they woidd not expose their property and 
life of pteril.' We have therefore with the agreement 
of the Princes declared the Jews of the before- 
mentioned place to be entirely acquitted of the crime 
attributed to them, and the rest of the Jews in 
Germany of so grave an accusation.'' . . . t 
Paulus, de Santa Maria, 1351-1435 (as a Jew, 

* [Bereshith, "In the beginning," the first word of the Hebrew 
Bible among the Jews, the ordinary name of Genesis, here signifies 
the whole Hebrew Bible.] 

+ The sentence that contains the judgment of the Commission runs 
verbatim as follows in the copy of the Bull which belongs to the 
14th century, but is unhappily not free from mistakes : " Quorum 
super hoc assercionibus publicatis, quia compertum no^n est in 
testamento veteri vel in novo, Judeos avidos esse humani sanguinis 
hauriendi, immo [add. : quia], quod est predicto prorsus contrarium, 
quod ab omnis omnino sanguinis fedacione caveant in biblia que 
dicitur abraice berechet, preceptis Moysi datis, decretis iudaicis que 
dicuntur ebrayce talmilloht, expressius habeamus, presumenteseciam 
presumpcione non modica, hiis quibus sanguis prohibitus est 
et animalium permissorum sitim non posse humani sanguinis super- 
esse, rei horribilitate, nature prohibicione ac speciei comoditate qua 
Christianos eciam amplectuntur, et quod pro eo quod expositum de 
animalibus de virorum municionibus [?] habere possent pro nichilo, 


242 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

Salomo Levi), Bishop of Burgos, who was by no means 
friendly inclined to the Jews, nevertheless writes in 
his additions to the commentary of Nikolaus von 
Lyra on Genesis I. : " It is therefore not useful for the 
conversion of the Jews to ascribe this aberration to 
them. For they believe that we are inventing lies 
against them, and that affords us no small impedi- 
ment in being believed by them." (Ganganelli has 
already referred to this passage). 

Many persons will be influenced less by actual 
reasons given than by the testimony of Johannes 
Pfefferkorn, the enemy of the Talmud and the Jews, 
well known through his dispute with Reuchlin (cf. 
Wolf, " Bibl. Hebr.," No. 1845, in Vols. I. and IV.). In 
his pamphlet about the Jewish Passover, which 
appeared in 1509, he says nothing about the Jewish 
use of Christian blood. And in " Speculum Adhorta- 
tionis Judaicae ad Christum," Cologne, 1507, he 
writes : " I should here like to refute a wide-spread, 
but worthless piece of gossip against the Jews, in 
order that we Christians may not in consequence be- 
come ridiculous. It is commonly said among 
Christians, that the Jews have need to use Christian 
blood as a means of cure, and therefore kill little 
Christian children. Dear Christians! Believe it 
not! It is contrary to the Holy Scriptures and the 
law of Nature and reason. Therefore I must defend 
the Jews in this matter, but with one limitation. It 
is conceivable that Jews are found, and perhaps may 
hereafter be found, who secretly persecute Christian 
children even to their death, nevertheless not on 
account of any necessity for having their blood, but 
out of hatred, and in order to revenge themselves on 

non esponerent pericalo substancias et personas, Judeos loci predict! 
ab obiecto crimine ac alios Judeos Aleniannie a tam gravi infamia 
dictante sentencia principum pronunciavit [read: "-avimus"] 
penitus absolutes." 

Contradictions 243 

the Christitans, even as they once, when they had more 
power than they have now, publicly persecuted 
Christ, the Apostles and his pupils, and followers. 
Therefore do not be disquieted about it! ... . Flee 
from and avoid accordingly this ludicrous, menda- 
cious talk which, if you wish to consider it closely, 
contributes no little to casting contempt on the 
Christians. Abide by the truth, whilst abandoning 
such delusions, oh Christians! We do not want to 
invent anything that is false and brings us no 

Ant. Margaritha, once lecturer in Hebrew in 
Augsburg, Leipsic, and Vienna, says in " Der gantze 
Jiidische Glaube" (Augsburg, 1530; I possess the 
edition of Reineccius, L., 1705), much wicked stuff 
about the Jews and their blindness, but not a word 
about the utilisation of Christian, or generally speak- 
ing, human blood for superstitious or even ritual 

Julius Morosini (ob. 1687, as Reader of the 
Hebrew language in Rome), author of the anti-Jew 
book, "Via della fede nostra mostrata agli Ebrei," 
Rome, 1683, characterised the assertion of the use of 
blood as a fiction. 

Also the physician, Paolo Medici, " Riti e costumi 
degli Ebrei confutati," Madrid, 1727, and often, said 
not a word about the blood-accusation. Against the 
contrary declarations of Rohling and others, v. 
J. Koff, 32-4; Bloch, " Acten," I., 152. Cf. about Paolo 
Medici, also A. Fiirst, "Christen und Juden," Stras- 
burg, 1892, 94-6. 

Friedrich Albrecht Christiani, baptized 1674 at 
Strasburg, " Docent" at the University of Leipsic, 
a thorough-going eoopert in Rabbinical literature, 
says in his work which is by no means friendly to the 
Jews, " Der Jiiden Glaube und Aberglaube," L., 1705, 
Supplement IV., 181-4, amongst other things: 

244 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

" Although there is indeed a general slander against 
the Jews, that they follow after Christian child?'en, 
and when they have got hold of them, stab them hor- 
ribly, extract the blood from them, using it with 
certain ceremonies as a remedy, fartly in the case of 
their wives during the severe fangs of labour, and 
partly for dying persons in their last agonies, I am 
able, as a boi'n Jew (who without boasting, know well 
all their customs, having 7nyself practised, or at any 
rate seen with my eyes, most of them) to asseverate 
by God, that the whole time I was connected with 
Judaism, I never heard among them of such dealings 
with Christian children, much less that they had ever 
had Christian blood or had ever used it in the afore- 
said manner'' — So far as concerns the cases reported 
to have occurred at Trent, Frankfort a. M. and else- 
where in the latter centuries Christian! believes 
"assuredly and veritably, that some wicked Christ- 
ians, who were spiteful against the Jews in these 
places, committed the deeds out of pectdiai'ly bitter 
hatred to bring disaster upon them." 
Aloysius von Sonnenfels, "Judischer Blut-Eckel, 
Oder Das von Gebrauch des unschuldigen Christen- 
Bluts angeklagte, untersuchte und unschuldig-befun- 
dene Judenthum, Aus Trieb der Wahrheit An Tag 
gegeben." Vienna, 1753 (161; Latin title: "Judaica 
sanguinis nausea.") Cf. especially 20 sq. : " Now if all 
this as it is narrated were to correspond with truth, 
Christian authorities would not have to be blamed 
for persecuting this so villainous inhuman people 
with fire and sword, and tearing them to pieces with 
raving dogs, or they might order them to be dismem- 
bered by the hangman. I, however, who under 
guidance of my father as Chief Rabbi at Berlin and 
of the whole electorate of Brandenburg, got to know, 
even in my tenderest youth, the most precise and 
hidden secrets of the whole of Judaism, even to th& 

Contradictions 245 

smallest detail, because at one time he desired to 
make of me a man of his profession. I can bear wit- 
ness before God, on my soul and conscience, that this 
is one of the greatest untruths which has ever been 
heard in the world." 

Joh. Heinr. Raph. Biesfnthal (missionary, died 25th 
June, 1886, in Berlin), "Ueber den Ursprung der wider 
die Juden erhobenen Beschuldigung, bei der Feier 
ihrer Ostern sich des Blutes zu bedienen, nebst kurzer 
Darstellung des jiidischen Rituals in Beziehung auf 
den Genuss des Blutes. Historisch-kritischer Versuch 
von Dr. Karl Ignaz Corve " [pseudonjmi]. Be., 184:0 

Johann Emanuel Veith, Cathedral preacher at St. 

Stephen in Vienna, baptised 1816, died 1876. F. J. 

Molitor writes in his professional account (mentioned 

p. 192): "This pious priest, who was at one time a 

Jew, uttered [1840] in the pulpit, crucifix in hand, a 

high and holy oath, that there was no single word of 

truth in the charge against the Jews." 

Since then both Jews and Christians have very often 

appealed to this testimony y e.g. the Roman Catholic 

clergyman and Bavarian Landtag Deputy, 

F. Frank, " Die Kirche und die Juden,'' Regenshurg, 

1892, 53. But on IJfth March, 1892, the Viennese 

Deutsche Volksblatt (and following it, other 

'papers) 'published an article called " Eine millionen- 

mal gedruckte Judenliige " (''a million-tijiies-printed 

Jewish lie,") in which it is observed: ''The 

Wiener Kirchen-Zeitung, in 1854 and 1856, at the 

time ivhen Dr. Veith was a collaborator and 

articles signed by him appeared in that journal, 
published at Veith 's instigation a declaration that 
the whole story of the oath-taking in the pidp)it was 
a 'contemptible slander,' and that Dr. Veith had 
never said a word in the pulpit on the subject." On 
which I remark: (1) The years mentioned in connec- 

246 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

nection with the Wiener Kirchen-Zeitung show no 
articles with Veith's signature. (2) The declaration 
(1854, No. 19; repeated in 1856, No. 80) was not 
published at Veith's instigation. (3) The state- 
ments, which, as can he easily recognised by the crude 
manner of expression f " lying in the most contempt- 
ible way,^' ^' lies thick as your fist," "unparalleled 
impudence," ) were drawn up by Sebastian Brunner, 
the publisher of the Wiener Kirchen-Zeitung, are 
untrue in substance, and Molitor's statement is far 
more correct. 
1. The Israelite religious com^munity in Vienna possesses 
the following holograph of Dr. med. Joh. Veith, 
University Professor, a piece of testimony notarially 
authenticated on 17th June, 1882, which has lain 
before me in the original : ''At the request of Herr L. 
A.FrankeL I declare that the article contained in the 
Illustriertes Extrablatt of [5] June,^ about a 
statement made at the end of a sermon by my late 
brother. Canon John Emanuel Veith, regarding the 

* [lUnsfn'erfes Wiener ExtrahhiU, Vienna, Monday, 5th June, 1882, 
no. 153. This is the chief passage in the article, " A timely remin- 
iscence " : "It was on Ascension Day of that year [1840 ; accordingly 
on 28th May] when the famous pulpit-preacher spoke the following 
remarkable words at the end of his sermon, in the presence of thou- 
sands of pious Christians : ' You all know, my pious hearers, and 
those, who perhaps do not know it, may learn, that I was born a 
Jew, and, enlightened by the Grace of God, have become a Christian, 
further, I have given faithful expression to this conviction attained 
to by me in Christian mission, and on every occasion have given 

testimony for the truth ' And then the excellent 

man raised the crucifix, and went on in impassioned tones : ' And so 
I swear here, in the name of the triune God, whom we all acknow- 
ledge, before you and all the world, that the falsehood which ha'a 
been disseminated by cruel cunning, to the effect that the Jews use 
the blood of a Christian in the celebration of their Easter festival 
(Pesach) is a malicious, blasphemous slander, and is contained 
neither in the books of the Old Testament, nor in the writings ot" 
the Talmud, which I know thoroughly and have zealously examined. 
So may God help me and be a merciful Saviour to me in my last 
hour!' What a deep impression, what a thrilling effect this solemn 
testimony produced within and without the cathedral arc 

Contradictions 247 

absolute untruth of the rumour oj the Jewish custom 
at the Passover feast of using the blood of a Chi'istian 
child was truly delivered by my late brother, accord- 
ing to my recollection. Vienna, on 12th June, '82. 
Prof. Veith, m.'p.'' (The uneven structure of the 
sentences, which is not strange in a man of advanced 
years, proves that Prof. Veith immediately and 
readily complied with the request for him to write 
down what he remembered, that therefore no attempt 
was perchance made to induce him to sign a declara- 
tion he had not himself written). 

The Israelite religious community in Vienna possesses the 
following writing, which Dr. Eduard Kafka, the 
celebrated barrister, addressed to Dr. Alois Milller, 
the University Librarian at Graz, on 30 August, 
1883. (The original has lain before me) : 

"It is a notorious fact, and therefore needs no i^oof, that 
Dr. Veith said in the [Viennese'] City Church am 
Peter, before a congregation as crowded as usual 
[and one] of a most highly educated public, as was 
always the case, at the period when for the first time 
for centuries the absurdity that the Jews used 
Christian blood at Easter again cropped up, and was 
being used as a pretext by the populace for plunder- 
ing the Jews : Dear Christians! I was myself born a 
Jew, and have a most thorough knoivledge of their 
laws, and esteem myself happy to have become a 
Christian, but on my word of honour, and with the 
clearest conscience, I declare and confirm it to you 
that Judaism possesses no such law and no such in- 
terpretation of law, nor has ever followed such.' — / 
myself, who never omitted a sermon of Veith, was one 
of those who heard him say this. He always pub- 
lished his sermons systematically in book form; 
whether he included this episode in his next book I do 
not know. . . . So far as I am concerned, I do not go 
into the question of the Talmud and its interpreters^ 

248 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

because I do not possess the necessary knowledge for it, 
but I judge merely according to the course of history, 
and say : If the need of Christian blood were a com- 
mand or a custom of Judaism, all orthodox Jews 
would he bound to know, and to practise it. How- 
ever, we hear of nothing of the kind either from 
Jerusalem nor from Poland, where the greatest 
Jewish fanatics live; only the poor, small ignorant 
community of Tisza-Eszlar is alleged to have been an 
exception. Why, Christian blood might be got from 
America, China, etc., and it would be a very costly 
article of traffic, of ivhich nobody has ever heard." 
So far Dr. Kafka. As the declaration of Veith ivas only 
an ''episode," it is quite natural that it was 7iot re- 
produced in the collections of sermons, at least, as 
far as I have been able to ascertain. According to 
the three independent testimonies of Prof. Molitor, 
Prof. Veith, and Dr. Kafka is it nevertheless to be 
considered certain, that J. E. Veith publicly and 
solemnly spoke out against the blood-accusation. 
Dan. Chwolson (Prof, of Oriental Languages in St. 
Petersburg), " Die Blutanklage und sonstige mittel- 
alterliche Beschuldigungen der Juden." Frankfort 
a. M. 1901 (362). 

Christ. H. Kalkar, Dr. theol., Pastor (in Copen- 
hagen, ob. 1886), son of a distinguished Rabbi, in a 
declaration on 22nd October, 1882 (v. " Christliche 
Zeugnisse gegen die Blutbeschuldigung der Juden," 
Be., 1882, 23 sq.). 

Alex. Mc.Caul, "Reasons," 45 sq., 57 sq., pub- 
lished the following statement signed by 58 j^f'oselytes : 
"We, the undersigned, by nation Jews, and having 
lived to the years of maturity in the faith and prac- 
tice of modern Judaism, but now by the peace of God 
members of ihe Church of Christ, do solemnly protest 
that we have never directly nor indirectly heard of, 
much less known amongst the Jews, of the practice of 

Contradictions 249 

killing Christians or using Christian blood, and that 
we believe this charge, so often brought against them 
formerly, and now lately revived, to be a foul and 
Satanic falsehood."— The first of the signatories, M. 
S. Alexander, at that time Professor of Hebrew and of 
Rabbinical Literature, was once llabbi at Norwich 
and Plymouth, and became later Anglican Bishop of 
Jerusalem (d. 23 November, 1845). And also every 
one acquainted with the history of the mission to the 
Jews knows about most of the others, that they 
proved themselves upright Christians in their lives 
and teaching. 

A similar declaration (in the German language) 
was made on 16th November, 1899, by more than 
thirty Jewish Christians living in Jerusalem. It lies 
before me in two despatches attested by the English 
missionary, A. Hastings Kelk. The chief sentences 
run: "As born Jew^s, who are intimate with all the 
ritual prescriptions, uses, and traditions of the Jews, 
and all Jewish sects, and as Christians who believe in 
Him who is the truth and the light, we hereby testify 
solemnly before the All-knowing Triune God, by the 
salvation of our souls and by our honour and con- 
science, that the accusation against the Jews in 
general or any Jewish sect whatever, that they are 
either compelled to use or have used at any time 
Christian blood or human blood for ritual purposes, is 
an absolutely mistaken, false calumny, lacking in all 
foundation, and is nothing but a calumny." 
The signatures (I put them in alphabetical order) are: 
Lazar Ah-amovich, Samuel Alkalay, J. Th. Alta- 
resky, Samuel Amada (f), Hermann Axler, Vitali 
Behor, Salomon Beinisch, Simon Bortnikoff, A dolph 
Datzi, Joseph Datzi, Samuel Feldmann, John Morris 
Goldmann, Nathan Grossmann, J. Haddas, Bern- 
hard Heilpern, Lucas Huff, Peppi John Karp, 
Johannes Kroiter, Paul Levertoff, J. Lyons, Isidor 

250 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

Metzger, M. Perahas, Jaca Pei^ahia, P. Reinstein, 
Joseph J. Silbermann, Josef Stern, S. Wisemann, 
Franz Zimmermann, Hermann Zimmermann, jr. 


The peculiarly high position of the Popes justifies 
me in devoting a special section to them. The utter- 
ances of the Popes are the more significant, in that 
they shared the mistaken notions of their age in 
regard to magic, witchcraft, etc. (Cf. Graf von 
Hoensbroech, "Das Papsttum in seiner sozial-kul- 
turellen Wirksamkeit," vol. i., L. 1900). The anony- 
mously published work, "Die Papstlichen Bullen 
liber die Blutbeschuldigung," Be., 1893, and 
Munich (Aug. Schupp), 1900 (151), contains on pp. 
1-36 the Bulls of Innocent IV. of 28th May (2) and 5th 
July, 1247, and of 25th September, 1253; Gregory X.'s 
of 7th October, 1272, Martin V.'s of 20th February, 
1422; and Paul III.'s of 12th May, 1540; and further 
on pp. 37-133, the expert report of Lor. Ganganelli in 
1759 (infr. p. 259.).— Cf. also Moritz Stern, " Urkund- 
liche Beifcrage iiber die Stellung der Papste zu den 
Juden," 2 vols., Kiel, 1893, 95 (192 and 72 pp., unfor- 
tunately not completed). 

Besides the Bulls that expressly rebut the blood 
accusation, there is also importance in the numerous 
"Bulls of protection," especially those in which the 
ritual of the Jews is also taken under protection. The 
oldest of the " Sicut Judaeis " Bulls that have been 
preserved is that of Alexander III. (1159-81) who ex- 
plicitly announces his intention of walking, in this 
respect, in the footsteps of his predecessors, Calixtus 
II. (1119-24, and Eugene III. (1145-53) (Mansi, " Con- 
ciliorum nova et amplissima collectio," XXII., 355 

Contradictions 251 

sq. ; Stern, "Beitrage," No. 171). Under threat of 
excommunication, he forbids forcing Jews to be 
baptized, killing or wounding them without judicial 
trial, robbing them of their money, disturbing* them 
in the celebration of their festivals with cudgels or 
stone-throwing, or damaging their churchyards. 
Clement III., 1187-91 (Stern, No. 172), Coelestinus 
III., 1191-8 (No. 173), Innocent III., 1198-1216 (No. 
174), Honorius III. 1216-27 (No. 178), Gregory IX., 
1227-41 (No. 195), Innocent IV., 1243-54 (Nos. 204, 208, 
212), Urban IV., 1261-4, Gregory X. (10th September 
1274; Cf. Potthast, " Regesta Romanorum Pontifi- 
cum," 20915), Nicholas III., 1277-80; Honorius IV., 
1285-7; Nicholas IV., 1288-92; Clement VI., 1342-52 
(4th Julv, 1348); Urban V., 1362-70 (7th July, 1365); 
Boniface IX., 1389-1404 (2nd July, 1389); Martin V., 
1417-31 (Stern, No. 11); Eugene IV., 1431-47 (No. 34), 
renewed this Bull. 

Among other Bulls of protection that belong here 
let the following be mentioned. On 6th April, 1233, 
Gregory IX. commanded the Archbishops and 
Bishops of France to take care that the Jews should 
not be maltreated, despoiled, or banished without 
proper reason or proved guilt, but they should be let 
live according to their Law in the customary way 
(" secundum legem suam vivere in solito statu permit- 
tant.") He closes with words worth taking to heart: 
" The same kindness, however, should be shown Jews 
by Christians as we wish should be shown to 
Christians living amongst the heathens" (Stern, No. 
192).t In two Bulls of 5th September, 1236, the same 
Pope demands that compensation be given the perse- 
cuted and plundered Jews of France (Nos. 196, 197). — 

* " Praesertim in festivitatum suarum celebratione quisquam fustibiw 
vel lapidibus nullatenus perturbet." 

+ " Est autem Judeis a Christianis exhibenda benignitas, quam 
Christianis in paganismo existentibus cupimus exhiberi." 

252 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

Martin V., 1417-31, confirmed on 12th February, 1418, 
the privileges and marks of favour (No. 9) granted by 
previous Popes to all Jews in Germany, Savoy, and 
Bresse, and explains this on 22nd February amongst 
other things by the sentence, that they should be 
troubled by nobody in their synagogues, festivals, 
houses, books, churchyards, property, on account of 
their observance of the law (" propter eorum obser- 
vantiam legis a nemine valeant aggravari," No. 10). 
Confirmation of the privileges on 1st January, 1421, 
occasioned by the complaints of some Austrian and 
Venetian Jews (No. 16). On 13th February, 1429, the 
Dominican friars are forbidden to incite the populace 
in Italy against the Jews; the Jews are, in particular, 
not to be compelled to work on Sabbaths and other 
days on which they are accustomed to practise their 
ceremonies and laws, and they must not be prevented 
by a far-fetched pretext from observing their cere- 
monies, rites, laws, and ordinances, and rejoicing in 
them ("quominus eorum ceremonias, ritus, leges, et 
statuta observare illisque uti et gaudere valeant," No. 
31). This prohibition was repeated, in great part 
verbatim (v. infr. p. 257 sq.), by Nicholas V., on 2nd 
November, 1447.— Julius III., 1550-5, expressly men- 
tions in his confirmation of the privileges of the Jews 
at Ancona the liberty to live according to their ritual 
("ritu Vivendi," No.' 106). 

Pius II., 1458-64, wrote, shortly before his elevation to 
the Papacy, whilst he was Enea Silvio de' Piccolo- 
mini, the history of Bohemia. In that hook he 
expresses himself about the persecution of the Jev)s, 
which took place in Prague in 1389, as follows 
" Ilisfoi'ta Bohemica,'' Ch. 34; Works, Helmstddt, 
1699, 48: ''Inter haec Pragenses populari tiimuUu 
incitati atque in furorem acti Judaeorum domus in- 
oadunt, bona eorum diripiunt, domos incendunt atque 
inter duas horas non sexui non aetati parcentes 

Contradictions 253 

infelicem gentem gladio caedunt. Periisse aliquot 
milia feruntur, servati comj^lurimi infantes miseri- 
cordia honorum civium haptismi gratiam acceperunt. 
Calamitosum genus hominum Judaei inter Christia- 
nas agentes, qui ubi paululum abundare creduntur 
mox, tamquam Jesu Christi Dei nostri majestatem 
contempserunt aut religioni illuserunt, non fortunas 
tantum sed vitam quoque amittunt. Impune apud 
Pragenses flagitium fuit, turn quia populi haud 
facile cor?nguntur scelera, turn quia Venceslaus 
desidia corruptus praesenti rerum statu contentus 
neque praeterita corrigere neque futura curavit. 
Fuit enim Venceslaus longe patri absimilis, volup- 
tatum sequax ac laboribus refugiens, vini prorsus 
quam regni curiosior.''^* 

Bulls printed directly against the ''blood-charge'* 
Innocent IV. The two Bulls of 28th May, 1247, 
resulting from the " Valreas case" (v. supr. pp. 179 
sq.) are printed : Bulls 2-9 ; Stern, Nos. 206, 207. The 
Bull of 5th July is represented by : Bulls 10-13 ; Stern, 
No. 210; the single despatch of 18th August for 
Vienne, Stern, No. 211. The beginning of this 
original document of 5 July, 1247, repeats in detail 
the complaint of the Jews, " that certain spiritual and 
temporal princes, in order unjustly to appropriate 
their belongings, are meditating godless attacks on 

them, and inventing manifold occasions 

Although the Holy Scriptures say, 'Thou shalt not 
kill,' and forbids them to touch anything dead at their 
Passover festival, they are falsely accused of dividing 
among themselves, precisely at the Passover festival, 
the heart of a murdered boy And they are 

* About this persecution, Cf. F. Palacky, " Geschichte von Bohmen," 
III., 54: Pelzel, " Lebensgeschichte Wenzel's I." 214 sq. ; Gratz, 
"Gesch. der Juden2," VIII., 50, and the "Passio Judeorum Pragen- 
sium secundum Johannem Rusticum Quadratum," published by 
Tomek, in "Sitzungsberichte der Kgl. Bohm. Gesellschaft der Wia- 
senschaften," 1877 [Prague, 1878]. 

254 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

malevolently charged with murder, when a d6ad boy- 
is found anywhere." The judgment then runs : " We 
do not wish the aforesaid Jews to be unjustly tor- 
mented ('injuste vexari,') and therefore command 
you, that showing yourselves kindly and affable to 
them, you restore legal conditions whenever any 
thoughtless action has been taken against the Jews by 
the aforesaid prelates, nobles, and magnates, and do 
not tolerate that the Jews should be further unduly 
molested (' indebite molestari ') on account of these or 
similar points." — Several persons have inferred from 
the words " injuste " and " indebite " that this Pope 
did not discountenance the blood-accusation in itself, 
but only when it was unjustified, and made without 
proof. This conclusion, however, is shown to be 
false, firstly, by the context of the three Bulls sent to 
France in 1247, secondly, by the despatch at least 
three times of a " Sicut Judaeis " Bull, thirdly 
by the Bull of the same Pope of 25th September, 1253, 
V. Rossler, " Deutsche Rechtsdenkmaler aus Bohmen 
undMahren," I. (Prague, 1845), 178 sq. ; Bulls 14-17; 
Stern, No. 212. The chief sentence of the Bull of Sep- 
tember, 1253, runs: 

*' Ad haec malorum hominum pravitati [etl* avaritiae 
obviantes decrevimus ut nemo cimiterium Judaeorum 
inutilitare vel minuere audeat seu ohtentu pecuniae 
corpora humata effodere, nec etiam aliquis eis 


sanguine, cum tamen in veteri testamento praecep- 
tum sit eis, ut de humane sanguine taceamus, quod 
quolihet sanguine non utantur, cum apud Fuldam \y. 
supr. p. 1 78 sq^ et in plurihus aliis locis propter 
hujusmodi suspicionem multi Judaei sint occisi, 
quod auctoritate praesentium, ne deinde fiat, distric- 
tius inhibemus.'' 

'* " Et" is wanting in the MS. 

Contradictions 255 

The attitude of Innocent IV. deserves the more 
consideration, because that Pope was by no meana 
well-disposed towards the Jews, CF. his ordinances of 
23rd October, 1245, on the imposition of the Jewish 
mark, and 7th July, 1248, about the burning of the 
Talmud, dated 8th May, 1244, and the Bull of 5th 
January, 1245, directed against the Jews. 

Gregory Z., 1271-6. Dr. Moritz Stern was, so far 
as I know, the first to call attention to his Bull of 7th 
October, 1272. I owe my knowledge of its wording to 
the courtesy of Prof. M. Flunk, S.J., of Innsbruck 
(now also in Stern, "Beitrage," No. 1; Bulls 18-23). 
The original document, preserved in a 15th century 
copy, is at the present moment in the Government 
archives at Innsbruck ; in the margin are three notes 
by the hand of Bishop Hinderbach, well-known 
through the proceedings in respect to Simon of Trent 
(v. supr. p. 193). The substance of the older Bulls of 
protection is renewed at the beginning and end ; be- 
tween them occurs the following pronouncement: 
" Statuimus eciam, lit testimonium Christianorum contra 
Judeos non valeat, nisi sit Judeus aliquis inter eos 
Christianos ad testimonium* perhibendum, cum 
Judei non possint contra Christianos f testimonium 
perhiiere, quia con'tingit interdum, quod aliqui 
Christiani perdunt eorum pueros christianos et im- 
pingitur in Judeos ipsos per inimicos eorum, ut 
pueros ipsos christianos furtim subtrahant et occi- 
dant, et quod de corde et sanguine sacrificent 
eorundem, ac patres eorundem puerorum vel 


OFFENDERS et pro corum vexacionibus redimendis 

* Hinderbach says indignantly in the margin : " Istud videtur esse 
iniquum et non servatum." 

The manuscript has "Judeos"; Hinderbach correctly: "Christianos 
vult dicere, ut credimus." 

256 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

possint a Judeis ipsis extorquere aliquam pecunie 
quantitatem asserantque falsissime, quod Judei 
ipsi' PUEROS ipsos claim et furtim subtraxerunt et 

GUINE eorum sacrificent puerorum, cum lex eorum 
hoc pi^ecise inhiheat et expresse, quod Judei ipsi 
tangant* non sacrificent, non comedant sanguinem 
neque hihant nee eciam comedant de carnibus ani- 
malium hadentium ungues scissas, et hoc per Judeos 
ad christianam fidem conversos in nostra curia 
pluries probatum, hac occasions huiusmodi Judex 


DETENTi. Statuimus, quod Chinstiani in casu {et'jf 
huiusmodi occasione contra Judeos audiri non 
del)eant et mandamus, quod Judei capti huiusmodi 


nisi forte, quod non credimus^\ in flagranti crimine 

co/perentur " 

The Bull issued hy Martin V., 1417-31, on 20th 
February, 1422, repeats much out of the old protective 
Bulls, to which reference is expressly made at the 
beginning. Here the following may find room, 
according to the "Analecta juris pontificii," XII. 
(1873), column 387 sq. (now also in Bulls 24-9, Stern, 
No. 21) : 

" Sane quei'elam quorundam Judaeorum nuper accepimus 
continentevi quod nonnulli praedicatores verbi Dei 
tarn mendicantium ordinum quam aliorum ad popu- 
lum 2)raedicantes inter alia Chrisiianis exhibent per 
expressurn (praeceptum) ut fugiant et evitent con- 
sortia Judaeorum nee cum eis quoquo modo partici- 
pent nee coquere aut ignem 'Gel aliquid ad laborandum 
ministrare seu ab illis recipere seu Judaeorum pueros 

* Dele "tangaut," or read "non tangant." 

+ The word "et" is wanting in the manuscript. 

X Hinderbach : " Prout est compertum hie in civitate Tridentina." 

Contradictions 257 

lactare et alere audeant vel praesumant quodque faci- 
entes contra sint jure ipso gravihus excommunica- 
tionis sententiis et censuris ecclesiasticis innodati. 
Propter quae nonnunquam inter eos et Christianos 
dissensiones et scandala oriuntur daturque materia 
ipsis Judaeis, qui forte ad christianam fidem conwr- 
terentur, si pie et humane tractarentur , in eorundem 
perfidia perdurandi. Nonnumquam etiam plurimi 
Chrisiiani, ut dictos Judaeos redimi facer e et eos 
bonis et substantiis spoliare et lapidihus caedere 


mortalitatum et aliaruin calamitatum temporihus 
Judaeos ipsos venenum in fontibus injecisse et 
eorum azymis humanum sanguinem immiscuisse; oh 
quae scelera eis sic injuste objecta talia asserunt ad 
perniciem hominum pervenire. Eoc quibus occasioni- 
bus popidi commoventur contra Judaeos ipsosque 
caedunt et variis persecutionibus et maleficiis affi- 
ciunt et affligunt.'' 

Nicholas V., 1447-55, in consequence of a com- 
plaint of the Jews in Spain, repeated on 2nd 
November, 1447, the substance of the old Bull " Sicut 
Judaeis," and added: "In order to make the Jews 
more readily hateful to the Christians, some persons 
have presumed, and daily presume to assert falsely, 
and persuade Christians, that the Jews are unable to 
celebrate and do not celebrate certain festivals with- 
out the liver and heart of a Christian. . . . We forbid 
in the strictest way by this permanent and immutable 
ordinance. ... all believers in Christ, in the future, 
either themselves or through others, publicly or 
privately, directly or indirectly, to take such action 
against the Jews or against any one of them."* The 

* " Nonnulli ut facilius Judeos ipsos ad Christian- 

orum odium deducere possint, eisdem Christianis quod dicti Judei 
aliquas festivitates absque iecore seu corde alicujus Christiani cel»> 
brare nequeunt neque celebrant falso asscrere illisque persuadere 
presumpserunt et dietim presumunt." 

258 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

prohibitions issued by Martin V. on 13th February, 
1429, are then repeated (v. supr. p. 252 sq.). The 
wording of this Bull was first made public in the 
Israelitische Monatschrift, 1893, No. 6 sq. (supplement 
to the Md. Presse, 1893, Nos. 22, 77), "Regest," Stern, 
No. 39. 

Paul III., 1534-49, says in the protective Bull of 
12th May, 1540, in which he alludes to Martin V., and 
many other predecessors, and confirms and declares 
permanent all the privileges granted to the Jews (v. 
Bulls 30-36. In the Evangel. Kirchen-Zeitung , 1900, 
No. 50, the wording is copied from the draft preserved 
in the Vatican archives) : 

" Sane universorum Judeorum in jmrtihus istis com- 
mo7'antium conquestionem displicenter accepimus, 
quod a nonnullis annis citra certi oppidorum domini 
ac nonnulle universitates et alii potentiores quidam in 
eisdem partibus degentes lemuli capitalesque ut 
ajunt eorundem Judeorum inimici odio et invidia 
aut quod verisimilius videtur avaricia obcecati ut 


DivERSA ENORMIA CRiMiNA praesevtim contra dictam 
fidem nostram tendentia eis falso impingunt sicque 
conantur simplicium Christianorum animos contra 
eos irritare, quo fit ut saepe non solum bonis sed 
propria vita injuste priventur." 
Clement XIII., 1758-69, the "unchangeable friend 
of the Jesuits," spoke out twice, 9th February, 1760, 
and 21st March, 1763, against the blood-accusation 
(Bulls 144-151). On the former date he made 
Cardinal Corsini write to the Nuncio of the Apostolic 
See in Warsaw : " The Jews have often been accused 
of murder because of the ill-founded popular convic- 
tion (' sulla mal fondata persuazione del volgo,') that 

Contradictions 259 

they mix human blood, especially that of Christians, 
in the dough of the unleavened loaves." 

Lorenzo Ganganelli (as Pope Clement XIV., 
1769-74), when he was adviser to the Holy Office in 
Rome, had, as the result of a petition by a Jew, Jacob 
Selek, to express himself professionally about the 
^' blood-accusations." It is true he holds two cases of 
murder from hatred of the Christian faith to be his- 
torical (Simon of Trent, 1475, and Andreas, of Rinn, 
1462, V. supr. pp. 193 sq., 191 sq.), but states that no 
general conclusion can be drawn from these 
particular cases, and very decisively opposes the 
-assertion of the use of Christian blood for Jewish 
ritual purposes. He makes the excellent point that 
no single Pope has regarded the "blood-accusation" 
as justified. This fact seems to me significant because 
not a few Popes, in the matter of belief in witches, were 
not superior to the delusions of their contemporaries, 
e.g. the five Popes between 1484 and 1523: Innocent 
VIII., Alexander VI., Julius II., Leo X., Adrian VI. 
The original Italian text of the report, which ivas com- 
pleted in 1759, was first published by Is. Loeb in the 
" Revue des Etudes juives," XVI H. (Paris, 1889), 
185-211. A German translation was first given by 
A. Berliner, " Gutachten Ganganelli' s — Clemens 
XIV. — in Angelegenheit der Blutbeschuldigung der 
Juden," Berlin, 1888 (48). M. Stern discovered a 
better copy at Mantua, and at Verona the supple- 
ments as well, which till then were not known, and in 
1893 he published it all, with valuable notes and a new 
translation, in " Die Pdpstlichen Bullen iiber die 
Blutbeschuldigung,'' Be., 1893, and Munich (Aug. 
Schupp), 1900, 37-143. 

260 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 


German Emperors, too, have declared themselves 
against the " blood-accusation," as well as Bohemian^ 
Polish, Silesian, French, English, Italian, Hun- 
garian, Russian, Turkish, and other rulers. I 
consider these declarations extremely significant ; for 
nothing was easier then, by stating this accusation, 
to inaugurate persecutions of the Jews and lucrative 
confiscations of Jewish property. So I give here at 
any rate a selection, referring the reader for yet 
further material to H. Hildesheimer's essay in the Jiid. 
Presse, 1892, Nos. 16-19, 21. 

1. Ger?nan Rulers. Emperor Frederick II., v. 
supr. p. 239 sq. 

Rudolph I. of Habsburg, 1273-91, confirmed on 4th 
July, 1275, the Bull of Innocent IV. of 5th July, 1247, 
and its renewal by Gregory X. on 7th July, 1274, v. 
Ennen and Eckertz, " Quellen zur Geschichte der Stadt 
Koln," III. (Cologne, 1867), No. 107. He added that 
Jews must and should altogether only be punished for 
a charge of the kind, if they are convicted by the legal 
evidence of Jews and Christians.* Rudolph's decrees 
in connection with the "good Werner" are in har- 
mony with this, V. supr. p. 184. 

Frederick III., 1440-93, owing to the Endingen 
trial, forbade in 1470 the accusation that Jews must 
have Christian blood, v. /. Ch. Wagenseil, "Widerle- 
gung," L., 1705, 169-72; /. Kracauer, "L'affaire des 
Juifs d'Endingen de 1470," in "Revue des Etudes 
juives," xvi (Paris, 1888), 236-45. 

Charles V., 1519-56. In the edict issued at Spe3^er 
on 3rd April, 1544, it is stated (Limnaeus, "Juris 

* "Adicimus ut nulla omnino causa dampnari possint vel debeant, nisi 
legitimo Judeorum et Christianorum testimonio convincantur." Cf. 
the Jewish ordinance of Ottokar II. of Bohemia, infr. p. 262. 

Contradictions 261 

public! Imperii Romano-Germanici, Vol. I., addi- 
tiones al libr. III., cap. 2;" Jiid. Presse, 1892, No. 17): 
" After the Jewish community inform us how that they are 
frequently accused by their adversaries that they must 
have Christian blood for their needs, and are there- 
fore said for their purposes to pt'^'ocure it from 
Christian beings, not (being accused) because of 
public or known deeds, or because of sufficient proof 
and information, but because of imaginary causes 
and suspicions, on the mere charge of their haters 
(not considering that our Holy Fathers, the Popes, 
have made declarations about this, and have forbid- 
den it to be believed, and likewise our dear lord and 
ancestor, the Empreror Frederick, of most famous 
memory, in consequence of such Papal declaration, 
despatched grave letters of instruction to all ranks 
of the Holy Empire, addressing some of them in par- 
ticular command that they should abstain from such 
actions, also prevent others from doing them, and not 
alloiv such things, but gravely commanded that, where 
such things happened the same should be communicated 
to His Majesty as supreme lord and judge, to whom 
the Jeivish community are directly attached. Also, 
again, that the liberties and ancient traditions of the 
Jews are in the highest degree oppressed; they are 
imprisoned, tortured, brought from life to death, and 
their goods and property are ravished from them by 
force, and yet we learn from such Papal declarations, 
and the decrees pronounced by our ancestor, the late 
Emperor Frederick, so much information that such 
treatment must not be accorded to the Jews ; therefore, 
and also because of other causes and motives, we resolve 
and will that in future no one, ivhatsoever his stand- 
ing be, shall commit such actions against any Jew or 
Jewess, and without previous sufficient information 
or proof of credible witnesses, or discovery of the 
deed, punish and torture them, or sentence them from 

262 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

life to death; hut when such complaint or conduct 
occu7's the same must be C07nmunicated first of all to 
us or our posterity, Roman Emperors and Kings, as 
the supreme authority over the Jewish community in 
the Empire, and must there await decision.^' 
This document was renewed by Maximilian II. 

(8th March, 1566), Rudolph II. (15th June, 1577), 

Matthias (13th November, 1612), Ferdinand II. (2nd 

March, 1621), Ferdinand III. (12th January, 1645), 

Leopold I. (22nd September, 1665). 

2. Bohemia. Ottokar II., the rival of Rudolph 

of Habsburg, issued on 29th March, 1254, a decree 

about the Jews, whose 31st article runs : 

" In accordance with the ordinances of the Pop>e [Innocent 
IV., Bull of S5th September, 1253, v. supr. j^- 253 sq.^ 
in the name of our Holy Father, we most strictly pro- 
hibit that Jews divelling in our dominions should fur- 
ther be accused of using human blood, since, according 
to the 27resc7nption of their law, all Jews must abso- 
lutely 7'efrain /rom any blood whatever. When, how- 
ever, a Jew is accused by a Christia7i of the mu7'der of 
a Christian child, he must be convicted by th7'ee Chris- 
tians and an equal number of Jews ; a7id after he has 
bee7i convicted, the Jew i7i questio7i unist himself he 
punished, and then only with the 2)U7iish7nent estab- 
lished for the crime committed. But if the aforesaid 
witnesses do not convict hi7n, and his innocence comes 
to light, the pimishment shall deservedly be meted out 
to the Christian which the Jew would have had to 

* " Item iuxta constitutiones Pape in nomine sancti Patris nostri 
districtius prohibemus, ne de cetero Judaei singuli in nostro dominio 
constituti culpari debeant, quod humano utantur sanguine, cum 
iuxta preceptum legis ab omni prorsus sanguine se Judaei contin- 
eant universi. kSed si aliquis Judaeus de occisione alicuius pueri 
christiani per Christianuin fuerit inculpatus, tribus Christianis et 
totidem Judaeis convinci debet ; et postquam convictus fuerit, tuno 
ipse Judaeus tantumraodo poena, quae sequitur, puniatur criroine 
pro commisso. Si vero ipsura testes supradicti [non convincant] efc 

Contradictions 263 

The main sentence of this decree (up to "any 
blood whatever,") was renewed on 23rd August, 1268. 
Wencelaus II. confirmed this briefer version about 
1300; John of Luxemburg, Charles I., on 30th Sep- 
tember, 1356 (as German Emperor Charles IV.), and 
Wladislaw IV., on 14th May, 1454, renewed the ver- 
sion of 1254. 

3. Poland. Boleslaus V. Pius, Duke of Kalisch, 
repeated verbatim the 31st article of Ottokar's Jewish 
decree in the " Privilegium libertatis," issued in 1264 
for the Jews of Great Poland. Renewal by Casimir 
III. the Great on 9th October, 1334. Casimir IV. on 
14th August, 1453, added to it, that, if a Christian in 
his audacity accused a Jew of the use of Christian 
blood, he must prove the charge by three trustworthy 
Jewish witnesses living in the kingdom [and four 
Christians of the same kind (thus the Codex Bandtki- 
anus)]. If nobles or burghers do violence to Jews in 
such matter, their property shall be sequestrated, the 
omission of the death penalty depend on especial 
royal mercy. Confirmation of this severer version by 
eleven later kings, e.g. by Stephen Bathory on 5th 
July, 1576, and the last King of Poland, Stanislaus 
Augustus, on 24th April, 1765. Cf. Bandtkie, "Jus 
Poionicum," Warsaw, 1831; Tugendhold, "Wahn," 
57-9 ; H. Sternberg, " Geschichte der Juden in Polen 
unter den Piasten und Jagiellonen," L., 1878 (191). 

4. Silesia. Of the ancient Jewish "Privilegia," that of Duke 
Henry III. of Glogau, in 1299, and thatof Duke BolkoII.of 
Schweidnitz, on 6th December, 1328, are preserved (reproduced 
in Sommersberg, "Silesiorum rei historicae et genealogicae 
accessiones," L., 1732, 105 sq. and 91 sq.) ; they are derived 
from the protective letters of llenry IV. and Henry V. of Bres- 

sua innocentia expurgabit, poenam Christianus, quam Judaeus pati 
debuerat, non immerito sustinebit." Cf. Riissler, "Deutsche 
Rechtsdenkmaler aus Bohmen und Mahren " I. (Prague 1845), 180 
sq. ; H. Jirecek, "Codex juris Bohemiae " I. (Prague 1867), 134; 
/. Emler, " Regesta diplomatica nee non epistolaria j^ohemiae et 
Moraviae," Part II., 9 (Prague 1882), no. 17. 

264 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

lau, the latter from the Jew ordinance of Ottokar IV. 
of Bohemia, using at the same time the penal ordinances in 
Boleslaus V.'s "Privilegium " (v, M. Brann, "Geschichte der 
Juden in Schlesien I." Supplement I, in the Jahresbericht 


5. France. Philip IV., the Fair, 1285-1314, was 
certainly very hostile to the Jews, but did not con- 
sider the blood-charge had any foundation. For, 
three weeks after thirteen Jews had been burnt, on 
24th April, 1288, by the Inquisition at Troyes, 
in Champagne, owing to the alleged murder 
of a Christian, he prohibited the persons of the Order 
in the strictest way from arresting Jews without previ- 
ous information to the judicial authorities. Cf. A. Dar- 
mesteter, "Deux elegies du Vatican," in "Romania," 
III. (1874), 443-86, and " L'autodafe de Troyes," in 
"Revue des Etudes juives," II. (1881), 199-247; 
S. Salfeld, 162 sq. Moreover, in the edict of 21st 
January, 1306, by which he ordered the expulsion of 
all Jews from France, neither the murder of 
Christians nor the use of blood is given as a reason. 

Louis XIV. decreed, in consequence of the pro- 
ceedings against Raphael Levi (Glatigny, between 
Metz and Boulay), who had been burnt January, 
1670, that such charges against Jews should always 
be submitted to the King's High Council, v. Grdtz, 
"Geschichte, "2 X., 271. 

6. England. Henry III., 1216-72, said in answer 
to the request of the German Emperor Frederick 11. , 
to send him some proselytes for the purpose of testing 
thoroughly the blood-accusation (Cf. supr. p. 260) : he 
would gladly send two of his most trustworthy con- 
verts (" duo de discretioribus neophytis qui reperiri 
potuerunt in regno nostro,") but a case like that of 
Fulda was unheard of in England ("casum a nobis 
inauditum.") Cf. Huillard-Breholles, "Historia dip- 
lomatica Friderici II." (Paris, 1852), IV., 809. 

7. Italy. The documentary record of Count 

Contradictions 265 

Edward of Savoy of 20th Juh', 1329 (Cf. supr. p. 190 
sq.) was first called attention to in Germany by //. 
Hildesheimer (Jud. Presse, 1892, No. 18, p. 211); the 
complete w^ording is to be seen in M. Stern, " Bei- 
trage," I., No. 2. The Jews are not only declared not 
guilty of the employment of human blood for ritual 
objects in the particular case, but also in general; for 
the corroboration of this judgment reference is made 
also to the Bulls of Innocent IV., of 5th July, 1247, 
and Gregory X., of 7th October, 1272. 

Decree of the Doge of Venice, Petrus Mocenigo, 22nd April, 1475; 
decree of the Dukes of Milan, Bona and Johannes Galleazzo 
Sforza, 19th May, 1479; judgment of the Podesta of Verona, 
Justinian Contareno, 28th February, 1603; prohibition of the 
Duke of Mantua and Montferrat, 26th July, 1603; decree of 
the Senate of Venice, 8th April, 1705; v. Guidetti, "Pro 
Judaeis"; Jud. Presse, 1892, No. 18, p. 211 sq., and No. 19, 
pp. 224-6; Ganganelli (ed. Stern), 96-100. 

8. Hungary. The Royal Constitution of 1791 
says in article 38 : " Th"e Royal Government has. . . . 
to enjoin it upon all the counties, that a point should 
be made of extirpating from the minds of the people 
the prejudice that human blood is sacrificed at the 
religious service of the Jews, in the way best suited to 
local circumstances. . . . and of teaching the people 
that this revolting offence .... is contrary to the 
Mosaic law; consequently, in the case of a murder, 
which has been committed by some Jew or other, 
even if it was shown that it w^as committed from 
superstitious intention, it could with as little justice 
be imputed to the whole Jewish religion, as the whole 
of Christendom could not be accused on account of 
such cases, when they happen among Christians. 
(Jud. Presse, 1892, No. 19, p. 226, following Wert- 
heimer's Jahrbuch fiir Israeliten, Vienna, 1862, 37 sq.) 

9. Russia. At the behest of the Emperor Alex- 
ander I., Prince Alexander Galizyn, Head of the 
Department of the Religious Affairs of Foreign Con- 

266 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

fessions in Russia, sent an edict to the Governor of 
Grodno, in which it is stated : " On the ground of the 
suspicion that they use Christian blood for their 
Pesach (Passover) cakes, the Jews, at the time of the 
Polish Dominion, were repeatedly accused of the 
murder of Christian children. Investigations have 
not corroborated the charge. ... In consequence of 
accusations, which are now being raised against the 
Jews in some formerly Polish, now Russian, Govern- 
ments, that murders of Christian children have 
happened for this object, and considering that such 
accusations have already been refuted before by 
unbiassed investigations and Royal decrees. His 
Imperial Majesty is pleased to command me to make 
known to all Governors as his will: that the Jews 
must no longer be accused without proofs, and merely 
owing to prejudice, of wanting Christian blood; 
should, however, a murder occur, and suspicion fall 
on Jews, apart from the prejudice that they employ 
Christian blood for ritual purposes, the inquiry must 
take place on a legal basis according to the same 
ordinances as hold good for persons belonging to 
other beliefs when they are charged with murder." 
6th March, 1817. {Tugendhold, 89 sq. ; /. B. Levinstein, 
"Blutliige," 101 sq.) " 

10. Turkey. Sultan Soliman II. (1520-66), in 
consequence of an accusation, admitted to be false, 
gave orders that henceforth any accusation that the 
Jews use blood for their mazzoth should not be tried 
before any Judge, but before the Divan (i.e. the Sultan 

Abdul Medjid issued on 6th November, 1840, the 
following firman : " An ancient prejudice has pre- 
vailed against the Jews. Ignorant people believed 
the Jews were accustomed to sacrifice a human being 
in order to employ the blood in the celebration of their 
Passover. Owing to this prejudice, the Jews of 

Contradictions 267 

Damascus [v. supr. p. 207] and Rhodes. . . . have 
been persecuted. . . . The charges levelled against 
them and their religion are sheer calumnies. . . . We 
forbid that the Jewish nation, whose innocence has 
been acknowledged, should be disturbed or tortured 
on account of a baseless accusation of the kind ; rather 
should . . . indivduals of that religion enjoy equal 
rights with all the members of other nations subject 
to our power." {Jiid. Presse, 1892, No. 19, p. 227). 


A ndreas slander [a clergyman in Nuremberg] " Ob 
es war und glaublich sey, dass die Juden der Christen 
Kinder heymlich erwiirgen und ir blut gebrauchen 
[appeared anonymously 1540, caused by the Posing 
case in 1529, v. supr. p. 204 sq.] "Andreas Osianders 
Schrift liber die Blutbeschuldigung, wieder aufgefun- 
den, im Neudruck herausgegeben und erlautert von 
Moritz Stern," Kiel, 1900 (66). 

The General of Dominicans, John Baptist de 
Marinis writes from Rome on 9th February, 1664, to 
the Provincial of the Order at Cracow, in order to 
protect the Jews against the charge of employing 
Christian blood for their unleavened bread : 

Moved by just sympathy, we enjoin on your Reverence that you and 
yours should come to the help of so unhappy a people against 
all slanders. . . . Especially may Your Reverence com- 
mand all preachers of the Divine Word to admonish the people 
not to persecute this unfortunate people by unallowable hatred, 
false accusations, fictitious rumours, and thereby to insult God, 
who is our and their (the Jews') Legislator, by foolishly thinking 
thereby to show the Supreme Being welcome obedience, 
although the Christian law and natural ethics teach otherwise. 
. We trust to your insight . . . that the Jews shall 
learn by your action that we do not desire their destruction, but 
their salvation." 

Johann Christoph Wagenseil, 1633-1705, Professor 
of Jurisprudence and Oriental languages at Altdorf, 
near Nuremberg, a thorough scholar in Jewish 

Contradictions 269 

writings and customs, who published several works 
written by Jews against Christianity under the title 
"Tela ignea satanae " (Altdorf, 1681), and therefore 
cannot be reproached with partisanship in favour of 
the Jews, wrote a book whose title runs : " Der Denen 
Juden falschlich beygemessene Gebrauch des Chris- 
ten-Bluts. Das ist Unwidersprechliche Widerlegung 
der entsetzlichen Unwarheit, Dass die Juden zu ihrer 
Bediirffnis Christen-Blut haben miissen, Welche so 
viel tausend dieser unschuldigen Leute um Haab, 
Gut, Leib und Leben gebracht " (in W.'s "Benach- 
richtigungen Wegen einiger die Judenschafft 
angehenden wichtigen Sachen," 1st Part, L., 1705, 
126-206; also in " Hofnung der Erlosung Israelis, 
editio altera," Nuremberg and Altdorf , 1707. Supple- 
ment, 45-140). 

Johann J. Schudt, who was far from friendly dis- 
posed to the Jews, co-Rector of the Gymnasium at 
Frankfort a. M., in several passages of his thick 
volumes, " Jiidische Merckwiirdigkeiten," Frankfort 
and L., 1714 sq., e.g. Bk. VI. Ch. 36, § 4, decisively 
declared the assertion false that Christian blood is 
required for an}^ object of the Jewish ritual. 

The professional opinion of the Theological Faculty 
at Leipsic, of 8th May, 1714 (author G. Olearius), is 
printed in Ch. F. Borner's " Auserlesene Bedenken 
der theologischen Facultat zu Leipzig," L., 1751, 
613-22, also in Lowenstein's "Damascia,"^ 352-62. 

F. Haselbauer, 1736 (v. supr. p. 152): "Since I. the undersigned, 
have been entreated by Jonathan Eybeschiitz, the Jewish 
preacher of Prague, in the name of the whole Jewish com- 
munity, to give an answer in the form of testimony to the 
question: Whether the Jews have need of Christian blood 
according to their Talmud and Rabbinical customs? I here- 
with declare that I have found neither in any of the Jewish 
or Rabbinical writings, nor in other Hebrew books that have 
been printed, that such a thing is enjoined on the Jews therein; 
rather is all use of blood absolutely forbidden them as an 
abomination ; likewise in the writing of Christians learned in 

270 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

Judaism, such as BuxdorflFer,* Eisenmenger,t and others, who 
have examined closely the errors and superstitions of the Jews 
and brought them to light, there is no reason to be found for 
this accusation, and, lastly, the whole body of Jews who 
entered the Christian faith before, as well as since the twenty- 
six years of my professorship, and have frankl)' revealed the 
weakness of their nation, have unanimously affirmed that this 
accusation of Christian blood being needed is a purely invented 
charge, which I herewith attest as a contribution to truth, and 
corroborate by signing my name and the printed seal of Tessers 
Collegium. Prague, the 20th October, 1736. Franciscus 
Haselbauer e Societate Jesu Librorum Hebr. Censor mpa." — 
The copy in the possession of the Israelite Religious Community 
in Vienna is authenticated by the Imperial-Royal book- 
controller and censor, Karl Fischer. The document was read 
by the Deputy Dr. Jos. Bloch in the Austrian Reichsrat at 
Vienna on 11th February, 1890, v. Oesterreich. Wochens- 
CHRIFT, 180, No. 18. 

Christian Benedikt Michaelis (1680-1764) and 
Johann Salomo Semler (1725-91) on 21st February, 1760, 
V. supr. p. 152. — Semler's report is first printed in 
S/s " Historisch-theologische Abhandlungen," 2nd 
series, ^nd part, Halle, 1762. 

Joh. Friedr. von Meyer, " Erklarung liber den 
angeblichen Blutgebrauch der Juden " (1841), in 
Lowenstein's " Damascia,"^ appendix pp. 5-10; also 
in "Neuer Pitaval," II. (1842), pp. xxv. sq. 

Franz Joseph Molitor (a learned Catholic, author 
of the "Philosophic der Geschichte "), "Erklarung 
iiber die Blutfrage im Judentum " (1841), in Lowen- 
stein's "Damascia,"2 Appendix pp. 11-16; also in 
"Neuer Pitaval," II. (1842), pp. xxx. sq. 
BiNTERiM [a Catholic priest], " Uber den Gehrauch des 

Christenhlutes hei den Juden,'' Diisseldorf, 1834 (29) 

and 1891 (SO). 
WiEDENFELD [an Evangelical pastor], " TV as von der 

Behauptung, ' dass die Juden ChristenUut. genie- 

ssen ' zu halten sei? Bin Wort der Belehrung und 

* There is probably especial reference to Joh. Buxtorff, senior's (1564 
i v to 1629) " Synagoga Judaica," Bale 1603 and frequently. 

+ [Cf. however supr. p. 169 note.] 

Contradictions 271 

Warnung," Elber'feld, 1834 (S9). Cf. supr. p. 
206 sq. 

Alexander McCaul, who is proved by his work 
"The Old Paths" [NHhiboth'olam," or "The True 
Israelite "] to be not only thoroughly acquainted with 
Pharisaic Judaism, but also to be a penetrating, even 
too incisive a critic of it, published in 1840 : " Reasons 
for believing that the charge lately revived against the 
Jewish people is a baseless falsehood," London (58). 

Franz Delitzsch (ob. 4th March, 1890). Cf. supr. 
p. 157, and "Christliche Zeugnisse," etc., 12-18. 

H. Oort, " Der Ursprung der Blutbeschuldigung 
gegen die Juden," Leyden and L., 1883 (31). 

Alois Mailer (Catholic), "Brauchen die Juden 
Christenblut? " Vienna, 1884 (16). 

Gustaf H. Dalman, "Die Totung Unglaubiger nach 
talmudisch-rabbinischem Recht.," L., 1885 (48). 
J. J. J. V. DoLLiNGER in his speech delivered at the Munich 
Academy on 25th July, 1881, v. '' Akademische Vor- 
trage,"^ I. (Munich, 1890), 208 sq.: "Accustomed to 
the idea that every Jew was the born enemy and debtor 
of the Christian, the nations, at a time which, more- 
over, credulously grasped at the horrible and 
unnatural by preference, nay, even with greediness, 
held the Jews capable of any crime, even the most 
improbable or impossible. . . . If there was a 
corpse anywhere, on which there appeared traces of 
violence, or a dead child was found, a Jew was bound 
to be the murderer ; as a rule it was assumed the crime 
was committed by several people together, and torture 
was continued until they made confession. Then 
followed horrible executions, and in many cases a 
killing of the whole Jewish population in town and 
country en masse. An orderly, unprejudiced trial 
was not to be imagined. The judge or magistrate 
themselves trembled at the rage of the populace, who 
were convinced beforehand, for it was now an estab- 

272 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

lished presumption that the worst villainous deeds 
were to he expected from each member of the murder- 
ous nation.'' 

DiONYSius Latas, Greek Archbishop of Zante, at the 
International Congress of Religions at Chicago, 
made the following statement on 22rd September, 
1893, V. OesTerr. Wochenschr., 1893, No. 44, p. 
864 •' " The belief is widespread in the Orient among 
the ignorant masses of the population that Jews use 
the blood of Christian children for the objects of their 
religious ritual, and, in order to procure such, do 
not shrink from committing murders. Persecutions 
of the Jews freq^iently break out because of this belief, 
and the innocent victims are exposed to many deeds 
of violence and dangers. Considering the fact that 
such erroneous ideas are also widespread among the 
ignorant masses of other countries and that in the last 
decade Germany and Austria were the scene of mal- 
treatment of innocent Jews, who were charged with 
having perpetrated such ritual murders, I, as a 
Christian priest, demand of this Co7igress that we 
record our coiiviction that Judaism forbids murder 
of any kind, and that none of its sacred authorities or 
books commands or pei^mits murder or the use of 
human blood for ritual purposes or religious cere- 
monies. The spread of such a calumny against the 
believers in a monotheistic religion is unchristian. 
It is irreconcilable with a Christian' s duty to leave 
so terrible an accusation uncontradicted, and the 
good name of Christendom requires that I should beg 
this parliament to declare that Judaism and the Jews 
are as guiltless of the crime imputed to them as were 
the Christians of the first centuries." 

Nathanael, Greek Archbishop of Brussa, Pastoral 
Letter of 15th Apinl, 1893. ''A few days before 
Easter a young man of Ghemlek, by name Chara- 
lambos Spanon, was found dead near the village of 

Contradictions 273 

Cazikli, near Brussa. . . . The doctor examined 
the body, and after finding neither wounds nor other 
marks of violence, came to the conclusion that the 
young man, who was not normal mentally, had spent 
the night at the spot, and finally been frozen to death. 
. . We do not understand how his death can be 
attributed to the Jews. This absurd assertion, which 
was disseminated by malicious persons, provoked 
the inhabitants of Ghemlek against the Jews, several 
of whom were maltreated. These deed.s of violence 
have been repeated in other places in our diocese. 
. . . These barbaric actions have filled us with 
great pain and sorrow. . . . Nothing is less in 
consonance with the spirit of our holy religion than 
the racial hatred and the blind fanaticism which 
provoke the lower passions of the populace. There- 
fore, and because we consider absurd and mad the 
belief that the Jews slaughter Christian children in 
order to tise them for secret rituals, we advise you 
herewith paternally to refrain from any deed of 
violence against the Jews. Those who act contrarily 
will incur censure from us and punishment from the 
Imperial [Turkish'] Government. . . . We beg 
you to live in freedom and accord with all your fellow- 
burghers, as the Holy Scriptures prescribe in the 
words : ' Blessed are the peace-makers : for they shall 
be called the children of God." We also entreat for 
you the mercy of our Saviour, and give you our 
Archiepiscopal blessing." Cf. Oesterr. Wochen- 
SCHRIFT, 1893, No. 30, p. 563 sq. 
Fr. Frank [a Catholic priest], "Der Ritualmord vor 
den Gorichtshofen der Wahrheit und der Gerechtig- 
keit," Regensb-rg, 1901 (327), "Nachtrage," 1903 

" Christliche Zeugnisse gegen die Blutbeschuldi- 
gung der Juden," Be., 1882 (58) [22 declarations and 
professional reports by Faculties (Amsterdam, 

274 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

Utrecht, Copenhagen, Upsala, Christiania), bishops, 
and scholars, among others by Franz Delitzsch, Paul 
de Lagarde, Ad. Merx, Th. Noldeke, C. Siegfried of 
Jena, H. L. Strack and A. Wiinsche of Dresden, drawn 
up apropos of the Tisza-Eszlar proceedings]. 

A similar compilation, which, however, also goes 
back to former times, is, " Die Blutbeschuldigung 
gegen die Juden. Von christlicher Seite beurtheilt," 
Vienna (Steyrermiihl), 1883. 

The International Orientalist Congresses at Lei- 
den, 1883, and Rome, 1899, also declared themselves 
against the blood accusation. 


The blood-accusation in its narrower sense, i.e., 
the assertion that the Jews need Christian blood, is 
not yet seven centuries old. The monk Rudolph of 
Mainz, who incited against the Jews in 1146, certainly- 
described them as enemies of the Christian religion, 
but without mentioning the blood-accusation. And 
it is as little mentioned by Bernhard of Clairvaux 
(1091-1153), who, contrary to this Rudolph, warned 
against murder of the Jews. Agobard, Archbishop of 
Lyons (ob. 840), made the most violent attacks on the 
Jews in his works " De Insolentia Judaeorum " and 
"De Judaicis superstitionibus," in order to keep the 
Christians as far as possible away from the Jews. 
He, however, makes not the slightest allusion to the 
employment of Christian blood by Jews ; he does not 
even say that Jews had committed murders of Chris- 
tians. His silence is therefore a strong proof that he 
knew nothing whatever about the " blood-accusa- 
tion." Aug. Rohling accordingly uttered a gross 
untruth when he wrote in " Meine Antworten an die 
Rabbiner," p. 56, that Agobard had, in the two above- 
named works, " published the more ancient facts of 
the case." 

1. The most ancient accusation against the Jews 
connected with our work is that out of hatred against 
Christianity and the Christians they crucify Christian 
children at the time of the Christian Easter (Inmestar 
416, William of Norwich 1144, v. supr. p. 176 sq.). 

276 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

2. On a line with this and connected with it w& 
find the blood-superstition operative, i.e., the convic- 
tion that an especial magical and cure-working power 
is a quality peculiar to the human blood. It is 
easy to assume that one's fellow-man also shares a 
superstition in which one is oneself entangled; one 
is particularly disposed thereto in the case of those 
with whom one lives in the same country, but whose 
language, religion and custom one does not know. 
Now, there can scarcely be any doubt that the Jews, 
on the average, knew more about the people in whose 
midst they lived than the latter about the Jews.* It 
is therefore, on the whole, easier to assume a trans- 
ference of folklorist (popular-medical, superstitious, 
etc.) notions from the ruling peoples to the Jews than 
the inverse. We have now seen that the belief in the 
efficacy of the blood, apart from the purely religious 
offering, was widespread almost universally since 
very ancient times, but is relatively very rare precisely 
in the case of the Jews. Accordingly it is probable 
that the view which was first expressed in the thir- 
teenth century, that the Jews make use of Christian 
blood as a means of cure (Fulda 1235, Thomas of 
Cantimpre, v. supr. p. 178 sq.), springs from the belief 
which was widespread among the Jews in the Middle 
Ages in the great effectiveness of blood. So far as a 
judgment is possible after a critical testing of the 
tradition, this belief has only been imputed to the 
Jews of the Middle Ages and of later times, but they 
did not themselves possess it. 

* Thence, it is also explained, that the Jews became in many ways the 
object of superstitious ideas, Cf. supr. p. 23, 25 sq, ; p. 33 sq. ; p. 
75, 76 : p. 94, 8 sq. and 18 ; p. 101, 22 sq. and 102, 22. Likewise, 
Wuttke"^ (v. index); Ur-Quell 1892, 51, 53, 54, 126-8, 150, 151, and 
1897, 52. According to Grimm, " Mythologie," Supplement p. 
Ixx., Ixxxii., Ixxxv., no. 473, there is a ghost dangerous to children 
called "Judel." In essentially evangelical country places, the 
Catholic priest is not seldom regarded as a wonderworker, or vice 

Origin of the Accusation 277 

3. Blood-ritual. The Alexandrine grammarian 
Apion (first half of the first century a.d.) accused the 
Jews according to Josephus (" Contra Apionem," II., 
8), that every year they fattened up a Greek in the 
temple, and then made of him a victim for sacrifice, 
and consumed part of his entrails, whilst they swore 
to be enemies of the Greeks (" occidere hominem et 
ejus corpus sacrificare secundum suas sollemnitates 
etgustare ex ejus visceribus et jusjurandum facere in 
immolatione Graeci, ut inimicitias contra Graecos 
haberent "). According to Suidias ("Lexicon," s.v. 
^a/xd/cptro?) a certain Damocritos asserted that the Jews 

" Kara eTTTaeriav ^ivov aypevovre^ 7rpocr€(f>epov Kal /card 
XeTTTo, raq crdpKa<; ^le^aivov kol ovtgj? duyjpovv. ' 

We read nothing about a Jewish blood-ritual for 
much longer than a thousand years, till right into the 
thirteenth century. It is mentioned for the first time 
in 1236 on the occasion of the Fulda case (v. pp. 
178, 239, 276), but then already as being generally 
believed in Germany. The Emperor Frederick II. 
asks "utrum, sicut fama communis habet, Judei 
christianum sanguinem in parasceve necessarium 
haberent." King Henry III. of England w^rites in 
regard to the question put him by the Emperor: 
*' Casum a nobis inauditum." Whence came this 
'' fama communis ? " I think it very probable that it 
was due to such notions as Thomas Cantimpre put 
forward (v. supr. pp. 178, 239), partly on the authority 
of a proselyte who was hostile to the Jew^s. — The 
Christian Easter festival is almost simultaneously 

In 1247 the Jews tortured at Valreas (v. p. 179), 
"confessed " on 4th April, after sufficiently long tor- 
turing, especially the following (a) Bendig: Out of 
fear of the populace, the blood had been poured into 

278 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

the privy.* With part of the blood they wanted to 
hold communion on the Saturday in Passion Week, 
because they believed they would thereby be relieved 
of sin. That was a custom among the Jews, and 
where there many of them it took place yearly, espe- 
cially in Spain, and if no Christian could be procured, 
they bought a Saracen. f (b) Burcellas, in answer to 
the question what they wanted to do with the blood, 
said: That in olden times the high priest had 
sprinkled the altar with the blood, (c) Lucius : That 
if a child could be got, they wanted to make out of the 
blood a sacrifice as it were, J and that they were under 
obligation to send some of the blood to other Jews^ 
and that the child ought really to have been crucified 
on Good Friday (v. supr. p. 178), but they had not been 
able to conceal it so long, and therefore already killed 
it on the Wednesday night. All had touched the girl^ 
in order to obtain atonement. § — In the same year, 

♦ He who wants blood and is accustomed ("consuetude ") to murder 
for the sake of blood, is sure (there can be no doubt about it) to 
think before every murder about a safe place for keeping the costly 
stuff, and will not be ready to throw away the blood from fear of 

t " Quod de dicto sanguine debebant communicare die sabbati sancto 
[30th March] nuper preterito et credebant salvari. Item dixit idem 
Bendi^, quod consuetudo est inter Judeos et ubicunque maxima sit 
multitddo Judeorum, facere factum simile annuatim et maxime in 
partibus Yspanie quia ibi est maxima multitude Judeorum, et 
quando nou possunt habere Christianum, emunt Saracenum." Tho 
absurdity of the " confessions " is here, too, a proof, that the 
martyred men finally said everything that was expected to be heard 
from them. Rightly does btern remark, " Beitrage " II., 50, on 
Bendig's statement : " But in Valreas there was precisely a quite 
small Jev/ish community. So, how many Christian children must 
have been killed at Easter every year ! In spite of zealous examina- 
tion of authoritative sources no case of such an accusation has yet 
come to light before 1247. Neither in Spain, nor in the countries 
of Islam, did even a single accusation of a ritual murder of a Saracea 
occur during the whole of the Middle Ages." 

J "Quasi sacrificium." This phrase is explained by L. by the addi- 
tional statement that the Jews could not offer a real sacrifice, be- 
cause they had no temple. 

§ Cf. the laying-on of hands at the sin-offering, Leviticus TV., 15. 
Copy of the protocol in Stern, " Beitrage," no. 205. 

Origin of the Accusation 279 

1247, the Jews of Germany and France complain to 
Pope Innocent IV. that they are accused of communi- 
cating at the Passover Feast with the heart of a 
slaughtered child * 

It is extremely probable also that several factors 
were operative in the swift dissemination of the 
charge, and no doubt in difTerent ways in different 
places and times. At any rate, hatred and envy 
co-operated ever^^where, even as they were the 
principal motives for the accusation that the Jews 
poisoned the wells.f The general imagination excited 
in some way (e.g., by the Crusades, by the Black 
Death) may also have received an impulse from the 
following facts:— (1) The circumstance that the 
Easter loaves (Mac^^coth) were produced with special 
solemnities, unintelligible to the Christians.— (2) The 
superstitious value once set upon the Easter loaves 
by many Jews, and still set upon them.— (3) The Jews 
remembered in their Easter Festival the Israelite 
children destroyed, according to the legend (supr. p. 

• " Quod in ipsa solempnitate se corde pueri communicant interfecti." 
Bull of 5th July, 1247, v. supr. p. 253. 

-j- This accusation occurs in 12th century in Bohemia. 1308 in the 
Waadt, 1321 in France, l548 and 1349 in Germany. It was said 
the poison was prepared out of poisonous plants, human blood, 
urine, and a consecrated wafer [cf. supr. p. 58] and then thrown 
in a bag into the well. Cf. Gratz, "Geschichte" VII., 369 sq.— Kon- 
rad von Megenberg writes in his "Buch der Natur," p. 112 : "Verit- 
ably whether some Jews did it, I know not . . . But I know 
well, that there were more of them in Vienna than any other city 
that I knew in German lands, and that they died there in such 
large numbers that they had greatly to enlarge their churchyard 
there, and had to buy two houses. Now if they had poisoned them- 
selves, it would have been a foolishness." — Clement VI., 1342-52 
declared in his Bull of 20th September, 1348, that the Jews were 
unjustly reproached with well-poisoning, since they wei'e carried off 
by the" plague just like Christians; he therefore forbade, under 
penalty of excommunication, the persecution of the Jews under this 
pretext, v. Raynaldus, " Annalen " 1348, no. 33. Martin V. v. 
supr. p. 256 sq.— It is curious that this accusation was also levelled 
against foreigners during the disturbances in China, v. "Globus" 
1890, p. 384. 

280 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

62 sq.), by the leprous Pharaoh, and likewise the other 
murdered Jews, and they therefore liked to choose 
red wine for the " four cups," " arbaa' kosoth," which 
were commanded to be drunk on the two commencing 
evenings. That ignorance has actually made out of 
this the consumption of blood is testified by the Polish 
Rabbi David ha-Levi ben Samuel (born c. 1600) in his 
highly-prized commentary, " Ture Zahab," on the 
" Shulhan Arukh, Orah Hajjim," 472, 8, and he asks 
that this usage should be given up on account of the 
lies connected with it. — (4) The want of knowledge of 
the "Drachenblut,"* which is used for the healing of 
the wound of circumcision, has also given rise to the 
"blood-accusation." — (5) It is possible that in single 
cases the Hebrew word " Damim " (plural only), 
"money," has been confounded with "Dam," also 
often in the plural, "Damim," "blood," and thereby 
the gaining of money has been converted into thirst 
for blood (Cf. Schudt, " Jiid. Merckwiirdigkeiten," I., 
468.) — Cf. also supr. p. 178, and H. Oort, "Ursprung 
der Blutbeschuldigung gegen die Juden," Leiden, 

A serious warning as to the bringing forward of 
the imputation that Christian blood is employed for a 
rite of the Jewish religion is also afforded by history. 
History shows that imputations of the kind have 
repeatedly been a terrible weapon against innocent 
persons (innocent, at least, in that connection). The 
Christians of the second and third centuries suffered 

"Drachenblut" ("dragon's blood") is the dark, blood-red resin, 
e.g., of the Calamus Draco (Willd.), a palm native of Central India, 
also of the Pterocarpus Draco (L.), native of the West Indies, the 
Dracaena Draco (L.), etc. Cf. H. Lojander, "Beitrage zur 
Kenntniss des Drachenblutes," Strassburg i. E. 1887 (73). 

Origin of the Accusation 281 

severel}^ under them. The celebration of Holy Com- 
munion, the mention of partakinfjj of the body and 
the blood of the Lord afforded a point of connection * 
Already the younger Pliny, 111 sq., Pro-consul of the 
province of Bithynia in Avsia Minor, appears to have 
cherished suspicion and to have started an inquiry.! 
At any rate, he writes (" Epist," X. 97 to the Emperor 
Trajan) that the persons accused of belonging to 
the Christian belief, and therefore summoned by him 
for inquiry, had assured him that they had bound 
themselves by an oath, not indeed for any vicious 
purpose, but not to commit theft or adultery, to keep 
their promises, and not to disown what was entrusted 
to them. At their meetings they had enjoyed 

*The 13th Frasinent of Irenaeus in Stieren's edition (I., 832) relates 
that the heathens had forced heathen slaves, serving in Christian 
houses, to give evidence about the Christians. In their fear, these 
slaves, who had heard of the receiving of the body and blood in the 
holy communiou, had given information about this, " aurot vo/xi'craj'Te? 
T<3 ovTL al/Ma Koi (TiipKa eTvat, tovto i$eiirov toIs iK^rjrovatv.' Cf. Justin, 
"Apol." ii. 12(v. p. 282). 

f Who or what aroused this suspicion in him is not known to us. 
But we know well that the Jews were not guiltless of the spreading- 
abroad of this untrue "blood-accusation." On't/en., "Contra Cel- 
sum, VI., 27, writes : " i(3ov\rj0r} yap [6 KcXtros] Toiis ciTrcipous rlLv 
iffieriptav cvTv;(ovTa5 auroC rg ypacf>rj TroXe/iwo-at tt/dos i]fia<; ws utov Karrjpa- 
fievov Xeyovra^ tov rovhe tou Koafiov koKov Br]fJnovpy6v. Kai ooKel fiot 
■TrapaTrXr'ja-tov 'louSaibts TrenonjKevai, Tots Kara rrjv ap)(iiv ttjs tov ■^piaTiavuTfiov 
SiSao-KaXtas Karao-KeSao-ao-t Bv(T<f)r]^uav tou Aoyov, <I)S apa KaraOva-avTi^ 
TraiSiov /LttToAa/xySavoucriv avTOu rwv crapKwv, Kal 7ra\iv on oi airo tov Xoyov 
Tci TOV aKOTOV irpaTTeiv fiovXafxevoL af^evvvovcri. fiiv to <^ws, ckucttos oe ttj 
iraparvxoicrrj fxiyvvraC t/tis Svcr(f>r]fxia TrapaX6yio<; TrdXai /jlIv TrXeia-rajv oawv 
i<paT€L TTCiOovcra tovs aXXoTpcov; tov Xoyov otl tolovtol elcn Xpia-riavoi, 
Kol vvv 8e €Tt aTraTtt Tivas dTroTpe—o/icVou; Sia tu TOtavTa kuv «/s KoLVOJViav 
oTrXovoTTCpav Xoywi' tjkhv Trpbs Xpiortavovs. 

About the attitude of the Jews towards Jewish Christians and 
Christians in the first two centuries, Cf. Acts of Apostles IV. sq. ; 
Justin, " Dialogue with Trypho," 17 and 108 (the Christians were a 
" a'peo-is a^eo? Kal avoixo^ ") ; " First Apologia," 31, 36 : " The 
Martyrdom of Polycarp " XIII., 1, and XVII., 2 ; Tertullian, "Ad 
nationes," 1, 17. But the Christians had no right to disregard the 
warning of the Apostle, I. Thessal., V. 15. 

282 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

ordinary and innocent meals together ; even this they 
had omitted after my edict in which I had forbidden 
all public gatherings.— /w5^m Martyr (150-60) was 
obliged thus to depend his fellow-believers in the so- 
called "Second Apologia," Ch. 12: "What man, greedy 
of pleasure or intemperate, and finding satisfaction in 
the eating of human flesh, would call indeed death 
welcome and would not sacrifice everything in order 
to continue his usual mode of life unobserved and as 
long as possible ? If you have extorted by means of 
tortures some single confessions from our slaves, 
wives and children, they are no proofs of our guilt. 
It is not we w^ho do that which is laid to our charge ; 
but you who did it, and yet worse do ye. We there- 
fore needed not at all to deny it, if we did such things. 
We might term our meetings mysteries of Cronos; 
we might, if we filled ourselves with blood, as the talk 
goes, declare it to be a worship after the manner of 
your Juppiter Latiaris, and would be justified in your 
eyes." Cf. also "First Apologia," Ch. 26; "Dialogue 
with Trypho," Ch. 10. Athenagoras (177) writes in his 
"Apology" for the Christians addressed to Marcus 
Aurelius, Ch. 3: "Three main reproaches are levelled 
at us: atheism, Thyestean meals, and Oedipodean 
intercourse. . . . And yet even animals do not 
touch animals of the same family," and he then pro- 
ceeds to confute these reproaches in detail (the second 
in Ch. 35 sq.). Theophilus of Antioch (180 sq.), "To 
Autolycus," Book III., 4 sq. In the letter of the 
Christians at Lyons and Vienne, preserved by 
Eusebius, "History of the Church," V., 1, the same 
accusations are mentioned. The following phrase is 
attributed to the woman martyr Byblias : " How could 
children ])e eaten by such people, who are not allowed 
to eat even the blood of senseless animals!" The 
theme is handled in especial detail in the " Octavius " 
(written perhaps in 180 a.d.) of Minucius Felix ("The 

Origin of the Accusation 


heathen Caecilius," Chs., 9, 30, 31). Tertulhan, too 
is obliged to defend the Christians as compared with 
the heathens, who in reality do worse than they 
falsely assert about the Christians. I quote these 
words worth takina to heart, from the beginning of 
the 7th Ch. of the " Apologeticum " (c. 200) ; " We arc 
called the most villainous of mortals because of the 
secret practice of killing and eating children. . . . 
We are called thus; but you do not seek to prove it. 
Prove it then, if you believe it, or lelieve it not, as you 
have not proved it." Likewise Origen, ^Contra 
Celsum " VI 40. Cf. further: K. Semisch, Justin 
der M^rtyrer," II. (Breslau, 1842), 105-13, and 
Kortholt, " De calumniis paganorum m veteres thri- 
stianos sparsis," Kiel, 1668, 157 sq. 

Unfortunately Christians, after the Christian 
religion had become dominant, directed against 
others the calumny once directed against t^emse ves 
firstiv against the Montanists, m the latter Midale 
\ges frequentlv against heretics, and, as is here 
shown in Ch. 18, since the 13th century against the 
Jews. Sectarians, who separated from the Church 
were altogether thought capable of any shameful 


In regard to the Montanists cf. St. Jerome, 
" Epist " xli 4- " Praetermitto scelerata mysteria quae 
dicuntur de lactente puero et victuro martyre con- 
farrata. Malo inquam non credere ; sit falsum omne 
quod sanguinis est." Augustine, ''De haeres." 26: 
" Sacramenta perhibentur habere funesta. Nam de 
infantis anniculi sanguine quem de toto ejus corpore 
minutis punctionum vulneribus extorquent quasi 
eucharistiam suam conficere perhibentur, miscentes 
eum farinae panemque inde facientes: qui puer si 
mortuus fuerit, habetur apud eos pro martyre, si 
autem vixerit, pro magno sacerdote " (Cf. ibid. Cti. 

284 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

27). In his book on predestination Augustine observes 
that Tertullian, in the lost work against Apollonius 
about ecstasy, defended the Montanists against the 
accusation "de sanguine infantis." — Epiphanius, 
"Haeres." xlviii. 14, also charges the Mon- 
tanists with using the blood of a child for their 
sacrifices, whose body the}^ had stabbed with needles. 
— Respecting the Gnostics and the Manichaeans, v. 
supr. pp. 34-7. 

Concerning the later Middle Ages, as at present 
leisure fails me to compile the facts myself, I refer the 
reader to Chr. U. Hahn, "Geschichte der Ketzer im 
Mittelalter," 3 vols., Stuttgart, 1845-50. He quotes 
III., 382 (following the "Brevis notitia " in " Biblio- 
theca maxima veterum patrum et antiquorum scri- 
ptorum," XXV., 308 (Lugdun. 1677), that the Catha- 
rians were upbraided because " Adorant Luciferum," 
and "pueros eorum ei immolant." — About religious 
concubitus (" omnibus exstinctis luminaribus, quam 
quisque primam poterat mulierem quae ad manum 
sibi veniebat ad abutendum arripiebat," following 
D'Achery " Spicilegium," I. [Paris, 1724], 605), ibid. 
III., 380, Cf. also 384, and I., 89 sq. Just the same 
accusation was brought against the Waldenses in 
Piedmont, v. J. P. Perrin, "Histoire des Vaudois," 
Geneva, 1619, 10 sq., in Hahn II., 148. 

The last proceedings taken in the Middle Ages 
against Christian heretics on the ground of the " blood- 
accusation " is, so far as I know, the "Processus 
contra haereticos de opinione dampnata," against the 
" Fraticelli de opinione " existing in the march of An- 
cona and the neighbouring Romagna in 1466, cf. " Vier 
Documente aus romischen Archiven," L., 1843 (130), 
1-48. Partly owing to the tortures applied, partly 
from fear of them, the majority of those brought up 
for examination confess, apart frorn deviations from 
the Church doctrine (e.g., the authority of the Pope), 

Origin of the Accusation 285 

the following : — " In fine dictarum missarum lumina 
extinxerimt et dixerunt: Alleluja, Alleluja, Cias- 
cuno se pigli la sua [quilibet capiat suam!]; et 
quod his verbis dictis quilibet eorum unam accipiebat 
mulierem. . . Quod ... in unum coadunati 
. . . magnum ignem aliquando accenderunt . . 
et unum puerum inter eos natum in adulteriis prae- 
dictis genitum ceperunt et circum dictum ignem de 
uno ad alium duxerunt, usque quo mortuus et 
desecatus [read " desiccatus"] extitit. Et deinde ex 
illo pulveres fecerunt et in uno flascone vini posuerunt 
et . . . de hujusmodi vino, loco sacratissimi 
Christi corporis et verae communionis, ad bibendum 
semet praebuerunt et dederunt praebereque et dare 
consueverunt." Cf. too, the "Octavius" of Minu- 
cius Felix, Ch. 9, and Origen " Contra Celsum," VI., 
27 (supr. p. 281 note). 

Lastly, it may he mentioned that such accusations have 
often been directed not only against hated religious 
'parties, but also against political foes. — Eliot 
Warburton, in the " Memoirs of Pr'ince Rupert and 
the Cavaliers " (London, 1849), I., 17, II., 89, relates 
that the Puritans had spread the rumour that 
Charles I.'s cavaliers butchered and ate little chil- 
dren, and in consequence mothers used to overawe 
their children with the terror of the name of Rupert 
of the Palatinate. — Thackeray, in " The Four 
Georges " C Works,'' London, 1876, Vol. X., 329): 
" / came from India as a child, and our ship touched 
at an island on the way home, where my black servant 
took me a long walk, over rocks and hills, until we 
reached a garden, where ive saw a man walking. 
* That is he," said the black man, ' that is Bonaparte! 
He eats three sheep every day, and all the little chil- 
dren he can lay hands on!''" — Leo Taxil's (the 
notorious inventor of 'the devil Bitru) pamphlet, " Der 
Meuchelmord in der Freimaurerei " (Paris), is 

286 The Jew and Human Sacrifice 

known to me only through a review; according to it, 
he makes the stalling of the traitor Ritus take 'place 
upon his elevation to the grade of a Kadosch-Knight. 
— For China and Madagascar, v. swpr. f. 83 sq. 



<An asterisk attached to the page-nnmber signifies that a bibliography is to be 
found on that page. The important dates are added in the parentheses.) 

Albertus Magnusi. 21.* 
Alexander I. of Russia, 265. 
Amicus and Amelius, 64. 
Andreas (of Riun, 1462), 191 sq. 
Anthropophagy, 57.* 
Areolae, 88. 
Athenagoras, 282. 

Bacau (1892), 222. 

"Bahrrecht" (ordeal of the bier), 49,* 138. 

Bathori, Elis., 89 sq. 

Benedict XII. (against the fabrication of 

miracles), 60. 
Berent (1894), 226. 
Bernard de Clairvaux, 275. 
Berne (1294), 186 sq. 
Bernstein, Max, 144 sq. 
Bier, Ordeal of the, 49,* 138. 
Biesenthal, J. H. R., 245.* 
Bloch, Jos., 158 sq.* 
Blois (1171), 177. 
Blood-brotherhood, 43 sq.* 
Blood-letting, 132, note. 
Blood of asses, 86, 133, 134. 
Blood of bats, 86, 87, 133. 
Blood of circumcision, 129, 136, 140. 
Blood of executed criminals, 70 sq. 
Blood, partaking of. Jewish Law. 123 sq.* 
Blood, transfusion of, 50.* 
Bohemian rulers, 262. 
Boleslaus V. of Poland, 263. 
Boleslaw (1829), 209. 
Brenz (S. F.), 148. 
Brimann, A., 156 sq. 
"Buoh der Frommen," 137 sq. 
Buck, M. R., 20*. 
Building-sacrifice, 31 sq.,* 138. 
Bulls of protection, 250 sq. 
Bulls, The Papal, 250.* 

Cainites, 35. 

Carpocratians, 35. 

Casimir IV. of Poland, 263 sq. 

Cassel, P., 18 note.* 

Catholics, objects of superstition, 101 sq., 

276, note. 
Charles V., Emperor, 260. 
Chajjim Vital, 161. 
China, 74, 83, 279, note. 
Chinon (1317), 189. 
Christian!, F. A., 243. 
Chwolson, D., 248.* 
Clement XIII. (1760, 1763), 258. 
Clement XIV., 259. 
Clemens Victor = Rohling, 159. 
Con^tantine the Great, 63 sq. 
Corfu (1891), 213 sq. 

Corpses as "pain-reraovers, " 77 sq., 143., dissection of (among Jews), 130, 

Crucifixions (in odium Christi), 177. 

Dam, damim, 280. 

Damascus (1840), 207 sq.* 

Dau, Claus, 114. 

Daumer, G. F., 33.* 

Dead person's hand, 80, 135, 141, 143. 

Dead persons, utilisation of, forbidden 

the Jews, 130 sq.* 
Deckert, Josef, 193,* 224 sq. 
Delitzsch, Franz, 157.* 
Desportes, H., 170.* 
V. Dollinger, J., 271 sq. 
Donin, Nikolaus, 175. 
Dragon's-blood, 280. 
Dreck-Apotheke, 25.* 

Easter-loaves (Mazzoth), 279. 

Ebers, Papyrus. 24.* 

Edward of Savoy, 190. 

Ehrenberg, Chr. G., 59. 

Eibesehiitz, Jon., 151. 

Eisenmenger, J. A., 156, 169, note. 

Eisleben (1892), 218 sq. 

Elder-tree, 67. 

Elephantiasis, 62. 

Emden, Jakob, 130 note, 237. 

Endingcn (1470), 260. 

Epilepsy, 50, 66, 70 sq., 87, 92. 

Esther Solymosi (1882), 212 sq. 



Fern, Athanasius, 170.* 

Flugel, 20.* 

Fossel, v., 20.* 

Fox's tooth, 135. 

Frank, executioner, 112, note. 

Frankfort a. M. (1504), 203 sq. 

Frankists, 149 sq. 

Fratieelli de opinione, 284 sq. 

Frederick III., Emperor, 260. 

Frischbier, H., 20.* 

Fulda (1235), 178 sq., 239 sq., 276. 

Galen, 24. 

Gan na"^ul, 230, note. 

Ganganelli, L., 259 sq. 

German rulers, 260 sq. 

Glatigny (1669), 264. 

Gnostics, immoral, 35. 

Good Friday, 86. 

Graves, desecration of, 92 sq. 

Gregory IX. (1233, 1236), 251. 

Gregory X. (1272), 255 sq. 

Grimm (''Armer Heinrich"), 62.* 

Guardia (1490), 201.* 

Guy de Chauliae, 56.* 

Hahn, Chr. U., 284. 

Haselbauer, F., 269. 

Hauss-Apothee, 19. 

Hearts, eaten, 92; of unborn cbildren, 

106, 110-115. 
Henri de Monde ville, 55 sq.* 
Henry III. of England. 264. 
Hildegard, Abbess, 52.* 
Hildesheimer, H., 178.* 
Hindcrbach, J., 193, 199, 255. 
Hirlanda, 64. 
Hofer, Andreas, 74. 
Hoffmann, Friedr., the elder, 27.* 
Hofler, M., 20.* 
Holleschau (1893), 223 sq. 
Human flesh, 57 sq.* 
Human sacrifice, 30 sq.* 
Hundssattler, 111. 
Hungary, constitution of, 265. 
Hydrophobia (remedy for), 56, 134. 

Ingrandes (1892), 220. 

Innocent IV. (May, 1247), 180 eq. (July, 

1247. September, 1253), 253 sq. 
Innocent VIII., his death, 138 eq. 
Isaak Luria, 161. 
Italy, rulers of, 246 sq. 

Jahn, U., 20.* 

Jakob Emden, 130, note, 237. 

Jews and Christians in the first centuries, 

280 sq. 
Jews, superstitions of, 123 sq.* ; food-law, 

124 sq.*; utilisation of a dead body, 

129 sq.* 
Jews, the object of superstition, 276, note. 
Johannes de Santo Amando, 88.* 
Jubilee Year, 194. 

" Judenspiegel," 161, note. 

"Juden u. das Christenbiut," 170. 

Julius III., 252. 

Justin Martyr, 282 sq. 

Justus, Dr. —A. Brimanu, 161, note. 

Karpoeratians, 35. 
Kirchner. P. Chr., 148.* 

Kolin (1893), 222 sq. 
Kosehwitz, G. D., 27.* 
Krauss. F. S., 21.* 
Krems ;1293), 185. 

Lammert, G., 20.* 
Lemke, E., 20.* 
Liver, 74, 95. 
Lombroso, C, 58.* 
Louis XI. of France, 65. 
Louis XIV. of France, 264 sq. 
Love-potion, 28, 54 sq. 
Lowenstein, L. H., 238.* 
Lowenstimm, A., 23.* 
Luria, Isaak, 161. 

Maohleid, J. C, 28. 

Madagascar, 84, 46.* 

Mahrisch-Triibau (1896), 226 sq. 

Mainz (1283), 184. 

Manasse ben Israel, 236 sq. 

Maiiichaeans, 37. 

Mannhardt, W., 21.* 

Margaritha, Ant., 243. 

Martin V. (1418, 1421, 1429), 250 eq. {U'£ 

256 sq. 
Mazzoth, 279. 
Medicine, popular (among modern Jtws' 

139 sq.,* 141 sq.* 
Melusine, 22.* 

Mendel, "Rabbi," 230, note. 
Menstrual blood, 19, 25, 28, 51 sq.,* 142. 
Mesusa, 75. 

Meyer, Faulus, 148, 224 sq. 
Micrococcus prodigiosus, 59 sq.* 
Minueius, Felix. 282. 
Mnich, Franziska (1881), 212. 
Molitor, F. J., 270, 245. 
Montanists, 283 sq. 
Morosini, Jul., 243. 
"Miillerin. verkaufte" (song), 108.* 
Munich (1285), 184, (1345), 191. 
V. Muralt, J., 65. 

Nagy-Bzokol (1891), 215. 
Nails (coffin, gallows), 73, 76, 80, 135. 
Napoleon I., 285. 
Neuenhoven (1834), 206 sq. 
Niezdow (1839), 210. 
Nicholas V. (1447), 257 sq. 
Norwich (1144), 177. (1240), 173. 
Nose-bleeding, 68 sq., 140. 

Oberwesel (1286), 184 eq. 
V. Onody, G., 169.* 
Orcuta (1764), 205 sq. 



Drigen, 281, note. 
3siauder, A., '2G8.* 
'Osservatore Cattolico," 170 sq. 
3ttok!Vi- II. of Bohemia, 262. 

Padlock, magic us« of 68, 143. 

Paolo Medici, 243. 

Paracelsus, 65. 

i*aschrtsius Eadbertus, 34, 59. 

:>aullini. K. F., 26.* 

'aul HI. (1540), 258. 

'auliis of Burgos, 241. 

le Tawlikowski. Ch., 169.* 

:*enance- books, 51 sq.* 

'eter, Marg., 119 sq. 

'fefferkorn, J., 242 sq. 

Pforzheim (1261), 182. 

'hiiip IV. of France, 264. 

'ieritz, G. W., 208. 

>ius II., 252. 

>liiiy the Elder, 24, 50, 62, 70. 

*liny the Younger, 281. 

'oisoniug of wells, 279. 

*olish rulers. 263. 

»olna (1899). 228 sq. 

>ontoise (1179), 177. 

>6sing (1529), 204 sq., 268. 

'rague (1305). 189. (1389) 252. (1893) 224. 

'ravers (incantations), 80 sq., 87. 

*uri3urmonade, 59 sq.* 

6 Rais, Gilles, 122. 

t«gensburg (1468-1476), 200 sq. 

lichard I. of England, 64. 

linn (1462), 191 sq. 

titter, Moses (1881), 212. 

loehholz, E. L., 19.* 

lohling. A., 155 sq.,* 230, note. 

lope of a hanged person, 74 sq., 141. 

ludolph I. of Hapsburg. 185, 260. 

ludolph (of Berne, 1294), 186 sq. 

lupert of the Palatinate, 285. 

lussian sects, 37 sq.* 

lacramental wine, 58. 
acred wafers, 58 sq.,* 279, note, 
laints, their blood, 58. 
lalamander, 134. 
lalfeld, S., 179.* 
lavoy (1329), 190. 
Schachtschnitt," 153. 
Ichafer Thomas, 21.* 

chneider, in the Austrian Reichsrat, 168. 
chrodcr, Joh. Chr., 26.* 
ichudt, J. J., 269.* 
emler, J. R., 151, 270. 
lepher ha-liqqutin, 161.* 
Shahat," 165 sq. 
icut Judaeis, 250 sq. 
ignatures with blood, 49. 

Silesian rulers, 263. 

Simon of Trent, 193 sq. 

S. James's Day, 85. 

Skaisgirreu (1898), 227. 

Skull, 79 sq.* 

Sohar, 161. 

Spleen, diseases of, 135. 

Steiermark, 82 sq., 99 sq. 

Stern, •Beitriige, " 250.* 

Strackerjan, L., 20.* 

Suggestion, 154. 

Superstition in Judaism, 123 sq.* 

Tarnow (1844), 209. 

Tasnad (1791), 206. 

Taxil, Leo, 285. 

Tertullian, 283 sq. 

V. Tettau and Temme, 20.* 

Thieves' Candle, 105 sq., 108.* 

Thomas Cantipratensis, 277. 

Tisza-Eszlar (1882), 212. 

Toothache. 67 sq., 81 sq. 

Toppen, M., 20.* 

Treasures, hidden. 100 eq., 103.* 

Trent (1475), 193 sq. 

Triller, D. W., 28.* 

Troyes (1288), 264. 

Tugendhold, J., 237.* 

Turf, tread under the, 47.* 

Turkish rulers, 266 sq. 

Tyrnan (1494), 201.* 

tjberlingen (1332). 191. 
Unger, Th., 114. 
Urine, 19, 25, 27. 
'^Ur-Quell,-' 21.* 

Valreas (1247), 179 sq., 277 eq. 
Vampires, 96. 
Vechta, A Jew at, 109. 
Veith, J. E., 245 sq. 
Virgins, outrages on, 95 sq. 
Vital, Chajjim, 161. 

Wagenseil, J. Ch., 268 sq.* 
Warts. 53, 77. 82, 87. 
Weissenburg (1270), 183. 
Weissensee (1303), 188. 
Werewolf, 58, 96, note,* 203, note. 
Werner, "the good," 184 sq. 
Wildisbuch, 119 .sq. 
Witches, 97 sq.. 259 (Popes). 
V. Wlislocki, H., 23.* 
"Wunderblut von Wilsnack," 59. 
Wuttke, A., 19.* 

Xanten (1891), 215 sq. 
Xenocrates of Aphrodisias, 24. 

Ypres, 86. 

Date Due 



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